China:
A Civilisation or Nation-State?
“Civilisation”
• network of cities that emerge from pre-urban
cultures, and are defined by the economic,
political, milita...
Nation-State
• A concept developed since 1648 in
Europe
• Constitution that justifies/legalises the
existence and rights o...
Xia Dynasty 2100 BC -1700 BC
Shang Dynasty 1700 BC -1027 BC
Western Zhou Dynasty 1027 BC - 771 BC
Eastern Zhou Dynasty 770 BC - 221 BC
Spring and Autumn Period 770 BC - 476 BC
Warring States Period 475 BC - 221 BC
Qin Dynasty 221 BC - 207 BC
Han Dynasty 206 BC - 220 AD
The Three Kingdoms 220 AD - 280 AD
Western Jin Dynasty 265 AD - 316 AD
Southern & Northern Dynasties 420 AD - 588 AD
Sui Dynasty 581 AD - 617 AD
Tang Dynasty 618 AD - 907 AD
Northern Song Dynasty 960 AD - 1127 AD
Southern Song Dynasty
1127 AD - 1279 AD
Yuan Dynasty 1279 AD - 1368 AD
Ming Dynasty 1368 AD - 1644 AD
Qing Dynasty 1644 AD - 1911 AD
Europe

China

•

•

1500s – Ming China
(Superpower of the World)

•

1600s – Collapse of Ming and
Rise of Qing

•

1700s ...
Decline of Qing China
(100 Years of Humiliation)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

1839 – First Opium War
1860 – Second Opium War
1894 – 1s...
Concessions to
Foreign Powers
Republic of China 1911

Sun Yat Sen
KMT Government: The
Nanking Decade 192737

Chiang Kai Shek
Period of Warlords
1913-1927
The Communist Party
of China
Mao Zedong
2nd Sino-Japanese War
(WWII)
The Chinese Civil War
Birth of People’s Republic of
China 1st Oct 1949
Now PRC was establised..
• But how should the country develop?
1.Gradual (reformists) or rapid (Maoists)
move towards coll...
Korean War 1951-53
Mao’s Great Leap Forward
(1958-1961)
• Economic and social campaign
• Use China's vast population to rapidly transform
the...
Mao’s Cultural Revolution
(1966-1976)
• to enforce communism in the country by
removing capitalist , traditional and cultu...
Mao’s China
(Cultural Revolution)
Nixon Visit to China 1972
Post-Mao China1976
Post-Mao China 1978
Post-Deng China
2013 - China: A civilisation or nation-state
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2013 - China: A civilisation or nation-state

  1. 1. China: A Civilisation or Nation-State?
  2. 2. “Civilisation” • network of cities that emerge from pre-urban cultures, and are defined by the economic, political, military, diplomatic, social, and cultural interactions among them • There is a tendency to use the term in a less strict way, to mean approximately the same thing as “culture” • A culture that is complex in terms of technology, science, and division of labor. Such culture is generally hierarchical and urbanized
  3. 3. Nation-State • A concept developed since 1648 in Europe • Constitution that justifies/legalises the existence and rights of a particular group/s of people within a geographical area • “sovereign territorial unit” • A nation-state can be homogenous or multinational
  4. 4. Xia Dynasty 2100 BC -1700 BC
  5. 5. Shang Dynasty 1700 BC -1027 BC
  6. 6. Western Zhou Dynasty 1027 BC - 771 BC
  7. 7. Eastern Zhou Dynasty 770 BC - 221 BC Spring and Autumn Period 770 BC - 476 BC Warring States Period 475 BC - 221 BC
  8. 8. Qin Dynasty 221 BC - 207 BC
  9. 9. Han Dynasty 206 BC - 220 AD
  10. 10. The Three Kingdoms 220 AD - 280 AD
  11. 11. Western Jin Dynasty 265 AD - 316 AD
  12. 12. Southern & Northern Dynasties 420 AD - 588 AD
  13. 13. Sui Dynasty 581 AD - 617 AD
  14. 14. Tang Dynasty 618 AD - 907 AD
  15. 15. Northern Song Dynasty 960 AD - 1127 AD
  16. 16. Southern Song Dynasty 1127 AD - 1279 AD
  17. 17. Yuan Dynasty 1279 AD - 1368 AD
  18. 18. Ming Dynasty 1368 AD - 1644 AD
  19. 19. Qing Dynasty 1644 AD - 1911 AD
  20. 20. Europe China • • 1500s – Ming China (Superpower of the World) • 1600s – Collapse of Ming and Rise of Qing • 1700s – Qing China (Superpower of the World) • 1800s – Internal disorder, bad governance and weakening of Qing • By 1900 – rapid and advance decay of Qing China • • • • 1500s – Religious and political tensions across Europe (Dark Age) 1600s – Birth of nation-states and decline of Church’s power in Europe 1700s – Age of Enlightenment/Reason; Overseas exploration and expansion began 1800s – Industrialisaion; overseas exploration and expansion gathered speed; competition among western powers By 1900 – heighten period of imperialism
  21. 21. Decline of Qing China (100 Years of Humiliation) • • • • • • • • 1839 – First Opium War 1860 – Second Opium War 1894 – 1st Sino-Japanese War 1898 – Boxers’ Rebellion 1911 – Collapse of Qing Dynasty 1927 – KMT Govt in Nanjing 1930 – Manchuria Incident 1937 – 2nd Sino-Japanese War
  22. 22. Concessions to Foreign Powers
  23. 23. Republic of China 1911 Sun Yat Sen
  24. 24. KMT Government: The Nanking Decade 192737 Chiang Kai Shek
  25. 25. Period of Warlords 1913-1927
  26. 26. The Communist Party of China Mao Zedong
  27. 27. 2nd Sino-Japanese War (WWII)
  28. 28. The Chinese Civil War
  29. 29. Birth of People’s Republic of China 1st Oct 1949
  30. 30. Now PRC was establised.. • But how should the country develop? 1.Gradual (reformists) or rapid (Maoists) move towards collectivisation and industrialisation? 2.Focus on economic reconstruction (reformists) or continued revolution (Maoists)?
  31. 31. Korean War 1951-53
  32. 32. Mao’s Great Leap Forward (1958-1961) • Economic and social campaign • Use China's vast population to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a modern communist society through the process of rapid industialisation and collectivisation • ended in catastrophe, resulting in 18m to 32.5 m deaths • Mao’s power decline & rise of reformists
  33. 33. Mao’s Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) • to enforce communism in the country by removing capitalist , traditional and cultural elements from Chinese society • to impose Maoist orthodoxy within the Party • marked the return of Mao Zedong to a position of power after the failed Great Leap Forward • The movement paralyzed China politically and significantly affected the country economically and socially.
  34. 34. Mao’s China (Cultural Revolution)
  35. 35. Nixon Visit to China 1972
  36. 36. Post-Mao China1976
  37. 37. Post-Mao China 1978
  38. 38. Post-Deng China
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