Sustainability in Design

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  • 1. Planned obsolescence What is planned obsolescence?
  • 2. Planned obsolescence Planned obsolescence or built-in obsolescence in industrial design is a policy of planning or designing a product with a limited useful life, so it will become obsolete, that is, unfashionable or no longer functional after a certain period of time. Why?
  • 3. For an industry, planned obsolescence stimulates demand by encouraging purchasers to buy sooner if they still want a functioning product. Planned obsolescence is common in many different products.
  • 4. Origins of planned obsolescence go back at least as far as 1932 with Bernard London's pamphlet Ending the Depression Through Planned Obsolescence. The essence of London's plan would have the government impose a legal obsolescence on consumer articles, to stimulate and perpetuate consumption.
  • 5. Phoebus cartel The Phoebus cartel was a cartel of, among others, Osram, Philips and General Electric from December 23, 1924 until 1939 that existed to control the manufacture and sale of light bulbs. The cartel was a convenient way to lower costs and worked to standardise the life expectancy of light bulbs at 1000 hours (less than half of the norm at the time), while at the same time raising prices without fear of competition. Members' bulbs were regularly tested and fines were levied for bulbs that lasted more than 1000 hours.
  • 6. Types of obsolescence • Technical of functional obsolescence Inferior materials are used so products fail or created to make servicing difficult • Systemic obsolescence Altering the system in which they are used to make it’s continued use difficult • Style obsolescence • Obsolescence by depletion Inbuilt inefficiencies in design
  • 7. Sustainable Design Sustainable design (also called environmental design, environmentally sustainable design, environmentally conscious design, etc.) is the philosophy of designing physical objects, the built environment, and services to comply with the principles of social, economic, and ecological sustainability.
  • 8. Sustainable design principles • Low-impact materials: choose non-toxic, sustainably produced or recycled materials which require little energy to process
  • 9. Sustainable design principles • Energy efficiency: use manufacturing processes and produce products which require less energy
  • 10. Sustainable design principles • Extending the product’s life – Increased durability – Easy repair and maintenance
  • 11. Sustainable design principles • Emotionally Durable Design: reducing consumption and waste of resources by increasing the durability of relationships between people and products, through design
  • 12. Sustainable design principles • Design for reuse and recycling: "Products, processes, and systems should be designed for performance in a commercial 'afterlife'.
  • 13. Sustainable design principles • Reduce transportation distances