Teleuse@BOP4

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  • “Teleuser” – anyone who had made or received a call (from any phone) in the previous three monthsSEC [socio-economic classification] determined by education and occupation of chief wage earner of the household, but also takes into account other factors (varies between countries), such as housing type, availability of household durables, etc. Roughly coincides with group living on less than USD2/day. World Bank’s poverty expenditure of USD1.25/day used for Java Urban India : SEC D + E Rural India: R2 + R3 + R4
  • Source: World Resources Institute 2008, http://pdf.wri.org/world_resources_2008_roots_of_resilience_tables.pdf
  • Pakistan SEC D & E,Urban on based on occupation and education level of the head of the householdRural on based on education level of the head of the household & type of HouseIndia SEC D & E,Urban on based on occupation and education level of the chief wage earnerRural on based on education level of the chief wage earner & type of House (wall &roof)SEC D & E in urban areas and R2, R3 and R4 in rural areasSri Lanka: SEC D & E, based on occupation and education level of the chief wage earnerBangladesh: SEC D & E, based on occupation and education level of the chief wage earnerThailand: Household income & location viz. Urban / rural / Greater Bangkok
  • Check java figures
  • Problem with java data set, have asked them to clarify
  • “My own phone” is all mobiles, except in LK where 2% own their own fixed phone
  • To be done
  • Questions asked from all respondenetsNot used a computer before
  • Use the interent % changes if we just ask the no, yes, cant remember, what is interent question. The other question which we are merging here the yes is divided to everyday, once a week bla bla. The percentages slightly change. In the direct question interent usage is india is 1.4 and thailand 20.2, when adding the frequency of yeses- india becomes 2% thailand 21%
  • India data been checked at the moment.
  • As a whole SL has multiple SIM ownership of 17%, SL without North + East its 25%Multiple SIM ownership higher among males than females
  • Reductions is red,increases in pink
  • IS THIS RIGHT? Is thailand normally low like this?
  • I cant seem to get these numbers on my own… so I don’t know how to do indoHIDE for now, till we figure it out
  • I cant seem to get these numbers on my own…
  • Java not included due to missing data. Checking that now
  • Teleuse@BOP4

    1. 1. Teleuse@BOP4: Preliminary findings Rohan Samarajiva, CEO 9 December 2011, BangkokThe work was carried out with the aid of a grant from the International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada (www.idrc.ca) and UKaid from the Department for International Development, UK (www.dfid.uk).
    2. 2. Understanding emerging Asian BOPs use of ICTs (mostly phones) via Teleuse@BOP studies • Multi-country studies conducted in 2005, 2006, 2008, 2011 – Bangladesh, Pakistan , India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia (Java), Philippines, Thailand – Quantitative (representative survey) and qualitative research conducted • Target group: BOP teleusers aged 15-60 – BOP defined as Socio-Economic Classification (SEC) groups D and E – Teleusers defined as having used any phone in previous three months • Different methodology and target group (USD1.25/day group) in Java2
    3. 3. 2011 focus on productive use of ICTs• Representative sample of BOP teleusers (6 countries) – Questions on how ICTs used for productive uses; perceptions of economic benefits, etc.• Non-representative sample of agricultural micro- entrepreneurs: Growers (farmers) & non-growers (4 countries) – Questions on knowledge and information needs, sources, uses, etc, as well as ICT use. – Separate presentation follows
    4. 4. Sample sizes [1] Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Java[2] Thailand TotalBOP 2,050 1,835 3,181 1,200 1,088 800 10,154teleusersMargin of error @95% CL (%) + 2.% + 2% + 2% + 3% + 2% + 4% 5[1] Sri Lanka: Includes North and East[2] Java region only; separate sampling procedures and BOP definition used
    5. 5. Multi-staged stratified sampling by probability proportionate tosize to ensure representation of target group• Primary sampling units (Regions/states/provinces/districts) randomly selected in 2006; kept the same for comparison in 2008 and 2011.• Within selected PSUs, urban and rural centers randomly selected• Within selected urban and rural centers, starting points randomly selected – Number of starting points within each center determined in proportion to its population – 10 HH per starting point selected using right-hand rule • Kish grid used to select from eligible respondents within HH
    6. 6. AGENDA • SAMPLE PROFILE • ACCESS • MOBILE OWNERSHIP AND USE • MORE-THAN-VOICE • PERCEIVED BENEFITS • QUALITY OF SERVICE • SUMMARY8
    7. 7. FindingsSAMPLE PROFILE 9
    8. 8. Sample profile Gender Age Location Male (%) Female (%) Mean SD Urban (%) Rural (%)Bangladesh 49 51 33 12 26 74Pakistan 42 58 31 10 38 62India 45 56 32 12 19 81Sri Lanka 40 60 35 12 15 85Java 52 48 34 13 25 75Thailand 49 51 36 13 43 57 10
    9. 9. Majority either have no, or irregular personal incomes Personal income status (% of BOP teleusers) 27% 28% 54% 50% 56% 65% No personal income 41% 40% Irregular personal income Regular and irregular personal income 24% 1% 9% 41% Regular personal income 38% 1% 9% 0% 31% 25% 21% 23% 0% 5% 6% 5%Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Java Thailand11
    10. 10. Educational attainment (% of BOP teleusers) Most of BOP only have primary education Highest educational achievement (% BOP teleusers) 1% 0% 2% 3% 1% 2% 2% 6% 2% 2% 15% 7% 17% 20% 20% 10% 13% University 51% Diploma, technical/vocational 50% 39% education Secondary schooling 69% 71% 67% primary schooling 38% 40% No formal schooling 33% 10% 6% 5% Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Java Thailand 13 Among BOP teleusers
    11. 11. FindingsACCESS 14
    12. 12. 90% of BOP have used a phone in previous 3 monthsUsed a phone in the last 3 months (% of BOP) Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Java Thailand 2008 95% 96% 86% 88% - 77 % 2011 99% 96% 89% 90% 90% 91% 15 Among BOP (OUTER SAMPLE)
    13. 13. More 70-80% of BOP has made a call during the last week, except in IN Last time respondent used a phone (% of BOP teleusers)100%90%80%70% 2-3 months ago60% 1-2 months ago 3-4 weeks ago50% 2-3 weeks ago 85% 85%40% 1-2 weeks ago 70% 69% 70%30% In the last week 50%20% Today / Yesterday10% 0% Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Java Thailand 16 Among BOP teleusers
    14. 14. 2008 vs 2011: Increase in % of BOP who made a call on the "day" of the survey Last time respondent used a phone (% of BOP teleusers)100% 90% 80% 70% About 2-3 months ago 60% About 1-2 month ago 50% 85% 85% About a month ago 40% 81% 70% 69% 66% About 2-3 weeks ago 30% 62% 45% 48% 50% 20% About 1-2 weeks ago 10% During the last one week 0% Yesterday / Today 2008 2011 2008 2011 2008 2011 2008 2011 2008 2011 Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Thailand 17 Among BOP teleusers
    15. 15. Urban vs rural: Urban BOP make calls more frequently, except LK and Java Last time respondent used a phone (% of BOP teleusers)100% 90% Between 2-3 months ago 80% Between 1-2 months ago 70% 60% Between three to four 50% weeks ago 86% 91% Between 2-3 weeks ago 40% 85% 83% 80% 74% 71% 68% 67% 30% 60% Between 1-2 weeks ago 52% 50% 20% 10% During the last one week 0% Today / Yesterday Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Java Thailand 18 Among BOP teleusers
    16. 16. > 75 % of BOP have access within the household Most frequently used phone (% of BOP teleusers)100%90%80% Public access phones70% A friends or relatives phone **60% A neighbours phone *50%40% Other household members personal phone30% I use the household (common) phone20% I use my own phone10% 0% Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Java Thailand 19 Among BOP teleusers
    17. 17. 2008 vs 2011: Fall in public phone and increase in household access Most frequently used phone (% of BOP teleusers)100% 6% 8% 1% 8% 3% 3% 0% 7% 6% 5% 90% 7% 3% 32% 13% 9% 33% 80% 16% 24% 16% 10% 70% 24% 60% 32% 20% 13% 50% 13% 39% 0% 17% 88% 40% 3% 7% 81% 65% 71% 30% 43% 48% 20% 37% 36% 37% 31% 10% 0% 2008 2011 2008 2011 2008 2011 2008 2011 2008 2011 Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Thailand I use my own phone I use the household (common) phone Other household members personal phone A neighbours phone A friends or relatives phone Public access phones My work place / Office phone/employers phone 20 Among BOP teleusers
    18. 18. Male vs female: More females using household phones and others phones within household Most frequently used phone (% of BOP teleusers)100%90% 4% 4% 3% 19% 15%80% 11% 17% 11%70% 8% 36%60% 25% 11% 34%50% 86% 86% 91%40% 17% 76% 66% 21% 68%30% 57% 50%20% 31%10% 21% 0% Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Thailand I use my own phone I use the household (common) phone Other household members personal phone A neighbours phone A friends or relatives phone Public access phones 21 Among BOP teleusers
    19. 19. Urban vs rural: More reliance on other peoples phones in rural areas Most frequently used phone (% of BOP teleusers) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Thailand I use my own phone I use the household (common) phone Other household members personal phone A neighbours phone A friends or relatives phone Public access phones My work place / Office phone/employers phone22 Among BOP teleusers
    20. 20. Fixed phones popular only in Sri Lanka Household phone ownership (%of BOP teleusers households) 12% 11% 1% 4% 34% 30% 15% 51% 62% 2% 2% 1% 24% 0% 85% 1% 64% 65% 49% 49% 36% Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Java Thailand Own mobile Own mobile and fixed Own fixed Own nothing23 Among BOP teleusers’ households
    21. 21. 24 0% 100% 10% 20% 30% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 40% Electricity Phone Television fixed phone Radio Mobile or Bangladesh Computer Electricity Phone Television Radio Pakistan Computer Electricity Phone Television India Radio Computer Electricity Phone Television Radio Sri Lanka Computer Household access (% of BOP teleusers) Electricity Phone Television Java Radio Computer Electricity Phone Phones overtaken radio everywhere except LK Television Radio Thailand ComputerAmong BOP teleusers
    22. 22. Access to household phones greater than to personal transport in PK, BD, LK and Java Household access to phones vs transport (% of BOP teleusers)100% Motorized transport90% Incl. motor Phone Phone80% bike, three-wheeler,70% scooter, tractor, etc Bicycle Phone60% Motorized transport Bicycle50% Bicycle Motorized transport Motorized transport Motorized transport Motorized transport Bicycle Phone40% Phone30% Phone Bicycle Bicycle20%10% 0% Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Java Thailand 25 Among BOP teleusers
    23. 23. Computer usage low overall Usage of computers (% of BOP teleusers)100% 12% 16%90%80%70%60% 74% 76% Dont know what a computer is 83%50% 96% 83% No used a computer in last 12 Not 81% months40% Cant remember when, but I have used30% one before20% Yes a computer in last 12 months Used10% 17% 21% 22% 0% 5% 4% 2% Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Java Thailand Among BOP teleusers
    24. 24. Internet use similarly low; awareness problems in BD and IN Internet use (% of BOP teleusers)100%90% 17% 24%80% I havent heard of the internet70% No Cant remember when, but i have used it before60% 78% 89% Less than once a month50% 98% 82% At least once a month40% 74% At least two to three times a month30% At least once a week20% At least two times a week10% At least once a day 0% Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Thailand Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka ThailandUse the Internet (% of 2% 2% 1% 9% 21% BOP teleusers) Among BOP teleusers
    25. 25. Non-phone owners find phones too expensive or have no need for a phone Main reason for not owning a phone (% BOP who do not own phone)100%90%80% 32% 40% Dont know to operator 47% 24%70% 57% Cant get a connection where I live60% 89% (service not available)50% I am restricted from purchasing a40% phone by a particular pers 57% I dont see a need to have my own30% 60% 57% 51% phone20% 40% It is too expensive for me to afford10% 11% 0% Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Java Thailand 28 Among BOP who don’t own a phone
    26. 26. FindingsMOBILE OWNERSHIP AND USE 29
    27. 27. Significant increases in BOP mobile ownership in Sri Lanka and Pakistan Mobile phone ownership 2006-2011 - individual (% of BOP teleusers) 2006 2008 2011 90% 89% 71% 76% 65% 68% 49% 43% 38% 40% 37% 36% 23% 22% 9% Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Java Thailand30 Among BOP teleusers
    28. 28. Male vs female: Gender gap in BOP mobile ownership in Sub-continent Mobile ownership - individual (% of BOP teleusers)100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Java Thailand Male Female 31 Among BOP teleusers
    29. 29. Urban vs rural: Urban mobile ownership higher than rural Mobile ownership - individual (% BOP teleusers)100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Java Thailand Urban Rural 32 Among BOP teleusers
    30. 30. Majority of BOP phones have radio; 24% have a browser (perceived) Features present on mobile handset (% of BOP mobile owners; all countries except Java) Alarm clock 92% Calendar 90% SMS 86% Games 86% Calculator 83% Color Screen 72% FM Radio 52% Torch 48% Music player 38% Camera 35%Video recorder and player 27% MMS 22% Bluetooth /USB 22% Converter 16% Download feature 15% Browser 14% Touch Screen 5% Infa-red 3% Among BOP mobile owners
    31. 31. 2006-2011: Dramatic drop in Pakistan multiple SIM ownership; increase in BD Multiple SIM ownership (% of BOP mobile owners) 2006 2008 201125%20%15%10%5%0% Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Java Thailand • Multiple SIM ownership higher among males than females 34 Among BOP mobile owners
    32. 32. Cheaper on-net calls the main reason for multiple SIM ownership Reason for multiple SIM ownership (% BOP MSOs)100%80%60%40%20% 0% To get low local call To get free services One for business, the In case one runs out of To get coverage charges within each (e.g., calls, SMS, etc) other for personal credit everywhere network Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Java Thailand 35 Among BOP multiple SIM owners
    33. 33. Most BOP owners have one handset currently, but are on their second Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Java ThailandNo. of handsets owned 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.0currently (mean)No. owned until now 2.5 1.9 1.7 2.1 3.9 2.5(mean) 36
    34. 34. What they do with mobile phones Among BOP mobile owners % of BOP mobile owners B’desh Pakistan India S’Lanka Java ThailandMake phone calls 100 99 100 99 96 100Receive phone calls 100 95 99 100 94 99Send/receive missed calls 86 71 78 65 54 24Send/receive SMS 19 38 23 55 89 37Send/receive MMS 1 2 3 5 14 8Send/receive e-mail 1 3 2Browse the Internet 3 1 1 10 5Take photos/video 19 7 8 14 26 19Play games 27 21 18 11 31 16Listen to radio 13 15 12 17 26 18Listen to music 25 5 15 8 26 30Share that you have content created 1 1 3 2 8 3Send/receive or download/upload other content 1 1 2 2 6 3Use as an organizer 7 5 8 2 15 8Check my bill/credit 13 20 11 18 16 3 Send/receive talk time/load 10 5 2 2 35 0Access facebook 1 1 7 2Access other social networking or blog applications 2 1
    35. 35. What they did in 2008 % of BOP mobile owners Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka ThailandTaking phone calls 100 100 99 100 100Receiving phone calls 100 100 98 100 100Sending/receiving missed calls / beeps/ flashes / ring-cuts 94 84 84 73 39Sending/receiving SMS 32 47 33 52 53Sending/receiving MMS 1 4 4 6 4Sending/receiving emails 0 0 1 0 1Browsing the Internet 0 1 1 2 2Taking photos /video clips 4 2 1 8 18To play games by myself 13 18 7 21 17To listen to the radio 0 7 3 12 22To listen to music 4 5 3 7 22To share content that you have created 1 2 2 6 3To send or receive or download or upload other content 0 2 3 8 9As an organizer 1 7 8 4 14To check my bill / credit balance 11 40 25 50 39Sending/receiving talk-time/load 8 35 7 3 6 38
    36. 36. Male vs female: No big difference in SMS frequency amongst those who SMS SMS frequency (% mobile owners who use SMS)100%90%80%70%60% Less frequently than once a week50% Once or twice a week40% Several times a week30% Once or twice a day20% Several times a day10% 0% Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Thailand 39 Among mobile owners who use SMS
    37. 37. Top reasons for not using SMS: Dont know what it is; its too confusing; too difficult to type Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Thailand I dont know what it is 54 11 61 14 3 Using SMS is too confusing to me 41 50 42 50 20 It is too difficult for me to go through menu and 6 20 25 17 8 open it It is too difficult for me to type 10 31 34 33 33 It is too expensive for me 3 5 8 4 13 It takes too much time to do it 12 27 19 21 27 I cannot read or write (my language) 8 33 12 5 0 SMS is not available in my own language 3 2 4 9 0 I dont see any benefits of using it 11 6 9 13 16 SMS does not fit into my lifestyle 5 5 4 28 17 I dont trust SMS in delivering what I want to say 4 2 2 10 2 Im afraid if it fails to deliver my message 1 4 1 1 4 No one has sent me an SMS before 1 1 3 9 10 I dont know anyone I can send SMS to 4 1 1 25 50 People in my community dont like SMS 0 2 3 5 1040 Among BOP mobile owners who don’t use SMS
    38. 38. Postpaid at BOP only in Sri Lanka and Thailand Primary mobile connection (% BOP mobile owners) Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Java ThailandPre paid 100 100 100 95 100 96Post paid - - - 5 - 4 41 Among BOP mobile owners
    39. 39. Top-up cards still most popular in Sri Lanka and India Method of top-up (%BOP mobile owners with prepaid connections)100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Top-up cards/scratch cards SMS top-up or reload from a SMS top-up or reload from I dont know how shop/agent/dealer others (family members/friends) Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Thailand 42 Among BOP mobile owners with prepaid connection
    40. 40. Majority dont use mobiles for financial, business or work related communication, except Java Use of phone for financial, business or work related communications (% of phone owners)100%90% 27%80% 46%70% I do not use for these purposes 64% 62% 68%60% 74% Less than once a month Once a month50% Two to three times a month40% Once a week30% Two times a week20% Everyday10% 0% Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Java Thailand 43 Among BOP who own personal or household phones
    41. 41. FindingsMORE-THAN-VOICE 45
    42. 42. Awareness of entertainment and competition polls highest in Sri Lanka Awareness of MTV services that can be accessed through phone or computers (% of BOP teleusers)100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Banking and Making or Governmental Health Services Competition polls Entertainment Livelihood related Other general financial services receiving services or participation related information information payments information services Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Java Thailand Among BOP teleusers
    43. 43. 2008 vs 2011: Awareness of MTV services has declined in some countries on some services 2008 vs 2011 Awareness of MTV services available on phones and computers (% of BOP teleusers)80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10% 0% 2008 2011 2008 2011 2008 2011 2008 2011 2008 2011 2008 2011 2008 2011 2008 2011 2008 2011Banking and financial services services Payment Government services Voting, competitions, reality shows, etc Health services Entertainment information services Livelihood information services Other general information services At least one MTV servic Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Thailand Among BOP teleusers
    44. 44. BOP not taking up MTV services MTV service usage through phone or computer (% BOP aware of services)100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10% 0% Banking and financial services Payment services overnment services HealthVoting, competitions, reality shows,information services Other general information ser G services Entertainment etc Livelihood information services Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Java Thailand Among BOP who are aware of MTV services
    45. 45. 2008 vs 2011: MTV usage at BOP has fallen More-than-voice usage, 2008 vs 2011 (% of BOP teleusers who are aware of those services)40%35%30%25%20%15%10%5%0% 2008 2011 2008 2011 2008 2011 2008 2011 2008 2011 2008 2011 2008 2011 2008 2011 Banking and financial services Payment services Government services Health services competitions, reality shows, etc Voting, Entertainment information services Livelihood information services information serv Other general Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Thailand Among BOP teleusers who are aware of MTV services
    46. 46. FindingsPERCEIVED BENEFITS 50
    47. 47. Main economic benefit of phone is reducing travel Benefits of phones (%BOP teleuser) 1=No change 5=Improved greatly Access to finance Thailand Sri Lanka India Ability to contact people related to your work or Pakistan job Bangladesh Efficiency of your day to day work Ability to reduce travel 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 551 Among BOP teleusers
    48. 48. The phone mainly benefits personal life Benefits of phones (%BOP teleuser) 1=No change 5=Improved greatly Social status/ recognition in the community Thailand Sri Lanka India Pakistan relationships with family and friends Bangladesh Ability to act or contact others in an emergency 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 552 Among BOP teleusers
    49. 49. FindingsQUALITY OF SERVICE 53
    50. 50. Sri Lanka performs best on perceptions of how frequent quality problems are faced by BOP Frequency of the problem faced (among mobile owners that face the problem) 0 = Never, 4=Always4.003.503.002.502.001.501.000.500.00 Often cant get signal, or Often cant get a call Connection not clear Calls get dropped (cut off) signal strength is weak through (network is busy) Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Thailand55 Among BOP mobile owners
    51. 51. Over 50% of BOP handsets were brand new when obtained How handsets were obtained (%BOP mobile owners) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Thailand Brand new Second hand Gifted or handed over56 Among BOP mobile owners
    52. 52. Male vs female: Males more often obtained brand new handsets in sub-continent How main handset was obtained (%BOP mobile owners) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Bangladesh Pakistan India Sri Lanka Thailand Dont know Gifted or handed over Second hand57 Among BOP mobile owners
    53. 53. Thailand handset costs well ahead of other countriesApproximate price paid for handset (USD) Mean SDBangladesh 37 24.5Pakistan 43 129.3India 45 63.7Sri Lanka 51 32.2Thailand 93 82.2 58 Among BOP mobile owners
    54. 54. FindingsSUMMARY 59
    55. 55. Summary • Access is improving at both personal and household levels – Phones overtaken TV and radio – Mostly mobile: majority of BOP own a mobile; many on second handset – QOS problems perceived by BOP are moderate • Usage is still limited to voice (with some SMS, radio, games etc) – Little use of mobile for productive purposes; benefits mostly perceived in emergency communication and maintaining relationships – Awareness and use of MTV services among BOP not progressed much since 200860
    56. 56. samarajiva@lirneasia.netwww.lirneasia.net 61

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