Issues in Aging - Older Americans 2010 - Key Indicators of Well-Being
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Issues in Aging - Older Americans 2010 - Key Indicators of Well-Being

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  • Image of cover page of “Older Americans 2010: Key Indicators of Well Being.”
  • Population Section divider page
  • This chart for Indicator 1 - Number of Older Americans shows the large growth of the population 65 and older from 1900 to 2008 and the even greater projected growth from 2008 to 2050. It also shows the growing numbers of persons 85 and older and their large projected growth to 2050.
  • This map chart for indicator 1 - Number of Older Americans – shows the percentage of persons 65 and older by county. The highest percentages are in rural areas of the central and western part of the country, some areas of the eastern states, and Florida.
  • This chart of Indicator 2 - Racial and Ethnic Composition – shows the strong projected growth of the minority older population which will reach 41 percent of the 65 and over population in 2050. Black elderly are project to grow to 12 percent in 2050 and Hispanic elderly are projected to grow to 20 percent.
  • This chart of Indicator 3 - Marital Status – shows that most older men are married but a lower percent of older women are married. These percentages of married elderly decline with aging, especially among women. Over half of older women aged 75 to 85 are widows and 76 percent of those over 85.
  • This chart for Indicator 4 - Educational Attainment – shows the growing increase in the number of persons over 65 who are high school graduates – about 78 percent in 2008. The percent of college graduates is also increasing although it is much lower.
  • This chart for Indicator 4 - Educational Attainment – shows the substantial gaps between the percent of high school graduates among different racial and ethnic categories.
  • This chart for Indicator 5 - Living Arrangements – shows that most men over 65 live with spouses (72 percent), although there are racial and ethnic variations. Only 19 percent of older men live alone. However, only 42 percent of women 65 and over live with spouses and 40 percent live alone. There are also racial and ethnic differences among older women.
  • This chart for Indicator 6 - Older Veterans – shows that most older men are veterans. This percentage is highest among younger elderly but older elderly categories will show increase percentages of veterans in 2010.
  • Economics Section divider page
  • This chart for Indicator 7 – Poverty – shows that the percentages of persons 65 and over who are below poverty has decreased from about 35 percent in 1959 to about 9.7 percent in 2007.
  • This chart for Indicator 8 – Income – shows the decline from 1974 to 2007 in the percentage of persons 65 and over who are in poverty or are low income and the increase in the high and middle income groups.
  • This chart for Indicator 9 - Sources of Income - shows trend in sources of sources of income from 1976 to 2008. It shows some decline in proportion of income come from assets while the proportion of income from social security and other pensions has increased.
  • This chart for Indicator 9 - Sources of Income –shows that the lower income groups derive most of the income from social security while the higher income groups have more of their incomes from earnings, pensions, and assets.
  • This chart for Indicator 10a – Net Worth – shows the median household net worth of households with White and Black householders from 1984 to 2007.
  • This chart for Indicator 10a – Net Worth – shows the median household net worth of households by educational attainment from 1984 to 2007.
  • This chart for Indicator 11 - Participation in the Labor Force – shows rates of labor force participation for men in older age categories.
  • This chart for Indicator 11 - Participation in the Labor Force – shows rates of labor force participation for women in older age categories.
  • This chart for Indicator 12 - Total Household Annual Expenditures – shows the percent of household expenditures by age for different age groups. Differences are modest but the oldest group spends a higher percent on health care and housing.
  • This chart for Indicator 13 - Housing Problems – shows the percentage of older persons with physical or cost burden housing problems from 1986 to 2007. Only 5 percent had physical problems with their housing in 2007. However, from 1985 to 2007, the percent reporting cost burden issues increased from 26 percent to 35 percent.
  • Health Status Section divider page
  • This chart for Indicator 14 - Life Expectancy – shows the steady increase in life expectancy at ages 65 and 85 for men and women from 1900 to 2006.
  • This chart for Indicator 14 - Life Expectancy – shows the steady increase in life expectancy at ages 65 from 1980 to 2005 for women in the United States, Canada, England and Wales, Japan and France. All show gains but the United States has lower life expectancy than all these countries except for England and Wales.
  • This chart for Indicator 14 - Life Expectancy – shows the steady increase in life expectancy at ages 65 from 1980 to 2005 for men in the United States, Canada, England and Wales, Japan and France. All show gains but the United States has lower life expectancy than all these countries except for England and Wales.
  • This chart for Indicator 15 – Mortality – shows a steep in deaths from heart disease from 1981 to 2004 but much less or no decreases for other major causes of death.
  • This chart for Indicator 16 - Chronic Health Conditions – shows the percent of men and women reporting selected chronic conditions. Over half of men and women reported hypertension with arthritis and heart disease as the next most common conditions.
  • This chart for Indicator 17 - Sensory Impairments and Oral Health – shows that in 2008 42 percent of men and 30 percent of women reported any trouble hearing; 15 and 19 percent respectively reported any trouble seeing, and 24 and 27 percent respectively report that they had no natural teeth.
  • This chart for Indicator 18 - Respondent-Assessed Health Status – shows that the percent of persons over 65 who report good to excellent health declines with age and that non-Hispanic whites report higher levels than non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics.
  • This chart for Indicator 19 - Depressive Symptoms – shows that from 1998 to 2006 10 to 12 percent of men over 65 had clinically relevant depressive symptoms as did 17 to 19 percent of women.
  • This chart for Indicator 19 - Depressive Symptoms – shows a modest increase in clinically relevant depressive symptoms for older age categories. Also shows lower levels for men except at the 85 and over group where the levels are similar.
  • This chart for Indicator 20 – Functional Limitations – shows the percent of Medicare enrollees age 65 and over who have limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) from 1992 to 2007. The chart shows a decrease in the level of ADL and IADL limitations during these years.
  • This chart for Indicator 20 – Functional Limitations - shows the percent of men and women who are Medicare enrollees age 65 and over and who are unable to perform certain physical functions in 1991 and 2007. The chart shows that women report more such physical problems than men.
  • Health Risks and Behavior Section divider page
  • This chart for Indicator 21 – Vaccinations – the percentage of people over 65 from 1989 to 2008 who reported having been vaccinated against influenza and pneumoccoccal disease by race and Hispanic origin. The percentage vaccinated has risen – although with some fluctuation – while Blacks and Hispanics report lower rates of vaccinations.
  • This chart for Indicator 22 – Mammography – shows that the percent of women over 65 who have had a mammography from 1987 to 2008.
  • This chart for Indicator 23 - Dietary Quality – shows average dietary component scores for adults 65 and older as a percent of federal diet quality standards.
  • This chart for Indicator 24 - Physical Activity – shows that in 2007–2008, 22 percent of people age 65 and over reported engaging in regular leisure time physical activity. The percentage of older people engaging in regular physical activity was lower at older ages, ranging from 25 percent among people age 65–74 to 11 percent among people age 85 and over. There was no significant change in the percentage reporting physical activity between 1997 and 2008.
  • This chart for Indicator 25 – Obesity – shows that the percentage of people age 65 and over who are obese has increased since 1988–1994. In 2007–2008, 32 percent of people age 65 and over were obese, compared with 22 percent in 1988–1994.
  • This chart for Indicator 26 - Cigarette Smoking – shows that the percentage of older Americans who are current cigarette smokers declined dramatically in the four decades between 1965 and 2008. Most of the decrease during this period is the result of the declining prevalence of cigarette smoking among men (from 29 percent in 1965 to 10 percent in 2008).
  • This first chart for Indicator 27 - Air Quality – shows that in 2008, 36 percent of people age 65 and over lived in counties with poor air quality for ozone compared with 52 percent in 2000.
  • This second chart for Indicator 27 - Air Quality – shows that the counties with poor air quality in 2008.
  • This first chart for Indicator 28 - Use of Time – shows that in 2008, older Americans spent on average more than one-quarter of their time in leisure. This proportion increased with age: Americans age 75 and over spent 32 percent of their time in leisure compared with 24 percent for those age 55–64.
  • This second chart for Indicator 28 - Use of Time – shows that in 2008 watching TV was the activity that occupied the most leisure time—about one-half the total—for Americans age 55 and over. Americans age 75 and over spent a higher percentage of their leisure time reading (14 percent versus 9 percent) and relaxing and thinking (10 percent versus 5 percent) than did Americans age 55–64. The proportion of leisure time that older Americans spent socializing and communicating—such as visiting friends or attending or hosting social events—declined with age. For Americans age 55–64, 13 percent of leisure time was spent socializing and communicating compared to 9 percent for those age 75 and over.
  • Health Care Section divider page
  • This first chart for Indicator 29 - Use of Health Care Services – shows that between 1992 and 2007, the hospitalization rate increased from 306 hospital stays per 1,000 Medicare enrollees to 336 per 1,000. Skilled nursing facility stays increased significantly from 28 per 1,000 Medicare enrollees in 1992 to 81 per 1,000 in 2007. Much of the increase occurred from 1992 to 1997.
  • This second chart for Indicator 29 - Use of Health Care Services – shows that Between 1992 and 2005, the number of physician visits and consultations increased. The number of home health care visits per 1,000 Medicare enrollees increased rapidly from 3,822 in 1992 to 8,227 in 1997. Home health care use increased during this period in part because of an expansion in the coverage criteria for the Medicare home health care benefit. Home health care visits declined after 1997 to 2,295 per 1,000 enrollees in 2001. The decline coincided with changes in Medicare payment policies for home health care resulting from implementation of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. The visit rate increased thereafter to 3,409 per 1,000 enrollees in 2007.
  • This first chart for Indicator 30 - Health Care Expenditures - shows that after adjusting for inflation, health care costs increased significantly among older Americans from 1992 to 2006. Average costs were substantially higher at older ages.
  • This second chart for Indicator 30 - Health Care Expenditures - shows that hospital and physician services are the largest components of health care costs of the elderly. Long-term care facilities accounted for 13 percent of total costs in 2006. Prescription drugs accounted for 16 percent of health care costs. The mix of health care services changed between 1992 and 2006. Inpatient hospital care accounted for a lower share of costs in 2006 (25 percent compared to 32 percent in 1992). Prescription drugs increased in importance from 8 percent of costs in 1992 to 16 percent in 2006. “Other” costs (short term institutions, hospice and dental care) also increased as a percentage of all costs (4 percent to 9 percent).
  • This first chart for Indicator 31 - Prescriptions Drugs - shows that average prescription drug costs for older Americans have increased rapidly in recent years. Average costs per person were $2,107 in 2004. Average out-of-pocket costs also increased, though not as rapidly as total costs because private and public insurance covered more of the cost over time. Older Americans paid 60 percent of prescription drug costs out of pocket in 1992, compared with 36 percent in 2004. Private insurance covered 38 percent of prescription drug costs in 2004; public programs covered 25 percent.
  • This second chart for Indicator 31 - Prescriptions Drugs - shows that the number of Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in Part D prescription drug plans increased from 18.2 million in June 2006 to 22.6 million in December 2009. In December 2009, two thirds of enrollees were in stand-alone plans and one-third were in Medicare Advantage plans.
  • This chart for Indicator 32 - Sources of Health Insurance – shows that Most Medicare enrollees have a private insurance supplement, approximately equally split between employer sponsored and Medigap policies. The percentage with Medicaid coverage has increased slightly over the last several years to about 12 percent in 2007. Enrollment in Medicare HMOs and similar health plans, which are usually equivalent to Medicare supplements because they offer extra benefits, varied between 6 percent and 21 percent. About 13 percent of Medicare enrollees report having no health insurance supplement.
  • This chart for Indicator 33 - Out-of-Pocket Health Care Expenditures – shows that from 1977 to 2006, the percentage of household income that people age 65 and over allocated to out-of-pocket spending for health care services increased among those in the poor/near poor income category (from 12 percent to 28 percent). The percentage of household income that people age 65 and over allocated to out-of-pocket spending among those in the other income category increased from 5 to 6 percent.
  • This chart for Indicator 34 - Sources of Payment for Health Care Services – shows that Medicare paid for slightly more than one half (55 percent) of the health care costs of Medicare enrollees age 65 and over in 2006. Medicare finances most of their hospital and physician costs, as well as a majority of short term institutional, home health, and hospice costs. Medicaid covered 7 percent of health care costs of Medicare enrollees age 65 and over, and other payers (primarily private insurers) covered another 19 percent.
  • This chart for Indicator 35 - Veterans' Health Care – shows that in 2008, approximately 2.2 million veterans age 65 and over received health care from VHA.
  • This first chart for Indicator 36 - Residential Services – shows that in 2007, 2 percent of the Medicare population aged 65 and over resided in community housing with at least one service available. Approximately 4 percent resided in long term care facilities. The percentage of people residing in community housing with services and in long-term care facilities was higher for the older age groups; among individuals age 85 and over, 7 percent resided in community housing with services, and 15 percent resided in long-term care facilities. Among individuals age 65–74, 98 percent resided in traditional community settings.
  • This second chart for Indicator 36 - Residential Services – shows that People living in community housing with services had more functional limitations than traditional community residents, but not as many as those living in long-term care facilities. Forty-six percent of individuals living in community housing with services had at least one activity of daily living (ADL) limitation compared with 25 percent of traditional community residents. Among long-term care facility residents, 83 percent had at least one ADL limitation. Thirty-six percent of individuals living in community housing with services had no ADL or instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) limitations.
  • This first chart for Indicator 37 – Personal Assistance and Equipment – shows that between 1992 and 2007, the age-adjusted proportion of people age 65 and over who had difficulty with one or more ADLs and who did not receive personal assistance or use special equipment with these activities decreased from 42 percent to 34 percent. More people are using equipment only—the percentage increased from 28 percent to 38 percent. The percentage of people who used personal assistance only decreased from 9 percent to 6 percent.
  • This second chart for Indicator 37 – Personal Assistance and Equipment – shows that in 2007, two-thirds of people age 65 and over who had difficulty with one or more IADLs received personal assistance. The percentage of people receiving personal assistance was higher for people age 85 and over (70 percent) than it was for people age 75–84 (66 percent) or people age 65–74 (65 percent).
  • Divider page noting that cohort timeline is located on the following slide.
  • This chart is titled The Historical Experience of Three Cohorts of Older Americans: A Timeline of Selected Events 1923-2010. The timeline lists the 1923, 1933, and 1943 cohorts. Selected events include the year, historical events, and legislative events.

Issues in Aging - Older Americans 2010 - Key Indicators of Well-Being Issues in Aging - Older Americans 2010 - Key Indicators of Well-Being Presentation Transcript

  • [2010
  •  
  • Indicator 1 – Number of Older Americans
  • Indicator 1 – Number of Older Americans
  • Indicator 2 – Racial and Ethnic Composition
  • Indicator 3 – Marital Status
  • Indicator 4 – Educational Attainment
  • Indicator 4 – Educational Attainment
  • Indicator 5 – Living Arrangements
  • Indicator 6 – Older Veterans
  •  
  • Indicator 7 – Poverty
  • Indicator 8 – Income
  • Indicator 9 – Sources of Income
  • Indicator 9 – Sources of Income
  • Indicator 10 – Net Worth
  • Indicator 10 – Net Worth
  • Indicator 11 – Participation in the Labor Force
  • Indicator 11 – Participation in the Labor Force
  • Indicator 12 – Total Expenditures
  • Indicator 13 – Housing Problems
  •  
  • Indicator 14 – Life Expectancy
  • Indicator 14 – Life Expectancy
  • Indicator 14 – Life Expectancy
  • Indicator 15 – Mortality
  • Indicator 16 – Chronic Health Conditions
  • Indicator 17 – Sensory Impairments and Oral Health
  • Indicator 18 – Respondent-Assessed Health Status
  • Indicator 19 – Depressive Symptoms
  • Indicator 19 – Depressive Symptoms
  • Indicator 20 – Functional Limitations
  • Indicator 20 – Functional Limitations
  •  
  • Indicator 21 – Vaccinations
  • Indicator 22 – Mammography
  • Indicator 23 – Diet Quality
  • Indicator 24 – Physical Activity
  • Indicator 25 – Obesity
  • Indicator 26 – Cigarette Smoking
  • Indicator 27 – Air Quality
  • Indicator 27 – Air Quality
  • Indicator 28 – Use of Time
  • Indicator 28 – Use of Time
  •  
  • Indicator 29 – Use of Health Care Services
  • Indicator 29 – Use of Health Care Services
  • Indicator 30 – Health Care Expenditures
  • Indicator 30 – Health Care Expenditures
  • Indicator 31 – Prescription Drugs
  • Indicator 31 – Prescription Drugs
  • Indicator 32 – Sources of Health Insurance
  • Indicator 33 – Out-of-Pocket Health Care Expenditures
  • Indicator 34 – Sources of Payment for Health Care Services
  • Indicator 35 – Veterans’ Health Care
  • Indicator 36 – Residential Services
  • Indicator 36 – Residential Services
  • Indicator 37 – Personal Assistance and Equipment
  • Indicator 37 – Personal Assistance and Equipment
  •  
  •