Intelligent User Interfaces
AI + HCI: User Interface involving some
elements of Artificial Intelligence
Computer having model of user/domain
First IUI Conference in 1997
Readings in IUI (Wahster 1998)
Microsoft Clippy (1997)
MS Office Intelligent User Interface
Empathy vs. Intelligence
Intelligence: the power of one’s brain, divided
into many categories and used in numerous ways.
Empathy: the power of one’s heart, expressing
one’s true emotions with themselves, those
around them, and their own world.
Empathy Computing Requirements
Making the technology transparent
Seeing with the eyes of another
Hearing with the ears of another
Feeling with the heart of another
Using AR for Empathy
Augmented Reality can:
Remove technology barriers
Enhance interaction in real world
Technology introduces artificial seams in the
communication (eg separate real and virtual space)
Removing Barriers: Shared Space
Face to Face interaction, Tangible AR metaphor
- ~3,000 users (Siggraph 1999)
Easy collaboration with strangers
Users acted same as if handling real objects
Billinghurst, M., Poupyrev, I., Kato, H., & May, R. (2000). Mixing realities in shared space: An augmented
reality interface for collaborative computing. In Multimedia and Expo, 2000. ICME 2000. 2000 IEEE
International Conference on (Vol. 3, pp. 1641-1644).
Enhancing Face to Face Communication
Handheld AR device
AR shows viewpoints
Users collaborate easier
Show communication cues
Virtual Viewpoint Visualization
Mogilev, D., Kiyokawa, K., Billinghurst, M., & Pair, J. (2002, April). AR Pad: An interface for face-to-face AR
collaboration. In CHI'02 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems (pp. 654-655).
Sends task space video
Similar CMU study (1996)
cut performance time in half
Seeing actions of millions of users in the world
Augmentation on city/country level
AR + Smart Sensors + Social Networks
Track population at city scale (mobile networks)
Match population data to external sensor data
medical, environmental, etc
Mine data to improve social services
How to convey emotion?
How to measure empathy?
How to communicate emotion?
Scaling up to city/country scale?
Harvard Grant Study
$20 million, 75 years study
268 Harvard graduates
456 disadvantaged people
Led by George Valliant
What makes us happy?
warmth of relationships throughout
life have the greatest positive impact
on "life satisfaction".
“The seventy-five years and twenty million dollars
expended on the Grant Study points to a
straightforward five-word conclusion: Happiness is
love. Full stop.”
Sharing what you see, hear and feel
AR Enables Empathic Experiences
Many directions for future research
• Mark Billinghurst
– Email: email@example.com
– Twitter: @marknb00