HITD 201 Design Thinking - Lecture 5 - Ideation Revisited


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Lecture given by Mark Billinghurst on Ideation Technique for the HITD 201 Design Thinking course. The lecture was given on December 16th 2013. The key things covered are Ideation Techniques from the book Idea Stormers, and how to use the formal method of TRIX for inventive problem solving.

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HITD 201 Design Thinking - Lecture 5 - Ideation Revisited

  1. 1. HITD 201 Ideation Revisited Mark Billinghurst HIT Lab NZ December 16th 2013
  2. 2. Design Thinking Process 5 modes iterated through
  3. 3. Ideation Methods
  4. 4. Brainstorming   Best with interdisciplinary team
  5. 5. Facilitating a Brainstorm   Energy   Keep ideas flowing, seed questions   Constraints   Add constraints that might spark new ideas   Process constraints – eg lack of time   Space   Create space for brainstorming
  6. 6. Idea Constraints   What are the most obvious solutions for this problem?   What can you add, remove or modify from those initial solutions?   How would a 5-year-old child solve the problem?   How would you solve the problem if you had an unlimited budget?   How would you solve the problem without spending any money?   How would you solve this problem if you had control over the laws of nature?
  7. 7. Selection   Narrow down brainstorm list   Hang onto ideas people excited about   Don’t worry about feasibility   Carry forward multiple ideas into Prototyping   Techniques   Post-it voting   Four categories method -  Rational, delightful, darling, long shot   Bingo method - Idea that inspires
  8. 8. Idea Storming   Idea Stormers book   Bryan Mattimore techniques   Case studies   Practical advice
  9. 9. Book Content
  10. 10. Seven Creative Mindsets   Curiosity – always asking Why?   Openness – non judgmental   Embracing Ambiguity – two ideas at same time   Finding and Transferring Principles – look to other fields   Search for Integrity – connecting elements   Knowingness – knowing there is a solution   World Creating – imaging new possibilities
  11. 11. The 7 Greatest Ideation Techniques   Questioning assumptions   Opportunity redefinition   Wishing   Triggered brainwalking   Semantic intuition   Picture prompts   Worst idea
  12. 12. Questioning assumptions   Challenge engrained beliefs/practices   Process   Decide how you want to frame your creative challenge   Generate 20 or 30 assumptions you might be making about challenge   Pick several assumptions and use them as thought starters and creative triggers
  13. 13. Example: Mentadent (Gary Fraser)   Launched in 1993 – first baking soda and peroxide toothpaste   Against Colgate and Crest   Assumptions questioned   Consumers won’t pay more   Consumers won’t buy refills   Need to dispense toothpaste in tube   Needed endorsement of dentists
  14. 14. Opportunity redefinition   Start with opportunity statement   Identify key words   Generate creative alternatives for words   Mix alternatives together to create combination sentences   Use combination sentences as brainstorming triggers
  15. 15. Example Catholic Insurance   How can we sell more insurance to Catholics?   Keywords: We, Sell, Catholics   We alternatives   Sales force, clergy, friends of Catholics, etc   Sell alternatives   License, give away, test-run, promote, etc   Catholics alternatives   Catholic doctors, Catholic schools, etc
  16. 16. Alternative Table We Sales force The clergy Friend of Catholics Churchgoers Family members Sell License Give away Promote Advertise Telemarket Catholics Catholic Doctors Catholic Athletes Catholic Students Catholic Schools Catholic Donators Example: How can we get Family Members to Give Away life insurance to Catholic Schools?
  17. 17. Wishing   Begin assuming anything is possible   Money, energy, time, etc are unlimited   Generate 20 – 30 wishes   Use wishes as creative stimuli to generate novel but realistic ideas   Consider wishing from different perspectives   Role-playing wishing, target market wishing
  18. 18. Triggered Brainwalking   Paste a piece of paper on the wall for each person in the group – use trigger terms   Each person goes to a piece of paper and writes down an initial idea   Then rotate to the next paper, builds on the existing idea or uses it to stimulate new idea   Keep on going for several rounds until back to beginning and person can select best ideas
  19. 19. Example: Lipstick Product   Triggered with four prompts   Target market wishes   Category reframes (lip reshaping, lip firming, etc)   Benefit-oriented: lip massaging, freshening, etc   The worst idea technique
  20. 20. Benefits   Physical engagement   Ideas are public, shared ideation   People inspired by other ideas
  21. 21. Semantic Intuition   Combine several categories of key words to create a name for a new idea   Process   Create 3 categories of words related to challenge   Generate variations in each category   Randomly combine one word from each category   Brainstorm around result
  22. 22. Example: Detergent Promotion Places in Store Promotions Benefits/Interests Aisle Gift with purchase Clean clothes Parking Lot Buy one get one free Getting stains out Bakery Floor stands Fresh smelling Frozen Foods Redeemable Coupon Family dinners Pharmacy Register Coupon Baseball games Flower Shop Shelf talkers Disney world Trigger: Bakery, Gift with Purchase, and Clean Clothes Idea: Cookies + Detergent promotion. Buy detergent and get free cookie dough mixture. Eat a cookie while doing washing and enjoy the smell of clean clothes and fresh baking
  23. 23. Picture Prompts   Select pictures related to problem   Pass out picture prompts   Ask for ideas inspired by the visuals   Share thoughts with partner and brainstorm together “Imagine the answer is contained in one of these pictures. See if you can find it?”
  24. 24. Improved Delegation
  25. 25. Worst Idea   Create list of worst ideas   Keep going to generate worse and worse ideas   Use list of bad ideas to inspire a good idea   Eg: Banking services   We could round down everyone’s deposits   Bank of America “Keep the Change”
  26. 26. TRIZ – Formalized Problem Solving   ‘Teoriya Resheniya Izobreatatelskikh Zadatch’   Theory of Inventive Problem Solving   Developed by Genrich Altshuller (1940’s)   Working in Soviet Navy patent dept.   Analyzed over 200,000 patents   Developed innovation theory
  27. 27. Most Problems Already Solved Levels of Inventiveness, Level 4 and 5 truly innovative   Altshuller screened over 200,000 patents   Over 90% problems has been solved before
  28. 28. Levels of Solution   Level #1 are simple improvement of a technical system using knowledge available within a relevant industry.   Level #2 inventions include the resolution of a technical contradiction using knowledge from different areas   Level #3 is an invention containing a resolution of a physical contradiction using knowledge from other industries.   Level #4 is development a new technology. It is developed by using breakthrough solutions that requires knowledge from different fields of science.   Level #5 involves the discovery of new phenomena that pushes the existing technology to a higher level.
  29. 29. Key Findings   Problems and solutions are repeated across industries and sciences.   By classifying the "contradictions” in each problem, you can predict good creative solutions to that problem.   Patterns of technical evolution tend to be repeated across industries and sciences.   Creative innovations often use scientific effects outside the field where they were developed.
  30. 30. Example: Drink Can Stacking   Want to stack drink cans for storage   We have no control over how high cans will be stacked   Contradiction   Can walls should be thinner to reduce costs   Can walls should be thicker to support weight
  31. 31. Types of Contradictions   Eliminate contradictions to solve problems   Two types of contradictions   Technical – classic engineering trade-offs. -  The product gets stronger (good), but the weight increases (bad). -  Training is comprehensive (good), but keeps employees away from their assignments (bad).   Physical – inherent contradictions (laws of physics) -  Coffee should be hot for enjoyable drinking, but cold to prevent burning the customer. -  Training should take a long time (to be thorough), but not take any time.
  32. 32. General Problem Solving Model
  33. 33. Applying TRIZ process 1. Identify my problem 2. Formulate the problem Identify contradictions 3. Search for previously solved problem Using TRIZ tools 4. Look for analogous solution and adapt to my solution
  34. 34. Key TRIZ Tools   Engineering Parameters (Formulate problem)   39 standard technical characteristics that cause conflict   Inventive Principles (Previous Solutions)   40 solution hints that will guide towards an innovative solution
  35. 35. Engineering Parameters 1.  Weight of moving object 2.  Weight of nonmoving object 3.  Length of moving object 4.  Length of nonmoving object 5.  Area of moving object 6.  Area of nonmoving object 7.  Volume of moving object 8.  Volume of nonmoving object 9.  Speed 10.  Force 11.  Tension, pressure 11.  Shape 12.  Stability of object 13.  Strength 14.  Durability of moving object 15.  Durability of nonmoving object 16.  Temperature 17.  Brightness 18.  Energy spent by moving object 19.  Energy spent by nonmoving object 20.  Power
  36. 36. Inventive Principles 1. Segmentation Divide an object into independent parts Make an object sectional 14. Spheroidality Use rollers, balls spirals Replace linear parts or flat surfaces with curved ones 35. Transformation of physical and chemical states Change an object's aggregate state
  37. 37. Table of Contradictions
  38. 38. Table of Contradictions
  39. 39. Example: Can Stacking   Principle 1: Increase Segmentation   Change wall from smooth to wavy   Principle 14: Spheroidality   Use curved can tops   Principle 35: Transformation   Use stronger alloy composition
  40. 40. Example - Segmentation Divide an object into independent parts or make sectional   Problem: Long antennas are necessary for radio transmission but can be broken when the car goes into a low-clearance garage   Solution: Construct antenna from cylindrical metal beads strung on a wire. When the beads are loosened they can be compactly stored. When the wire is tightened, the beads form a long, flexible antenna.
  41. 41. Example - Inversion Doing something opposite to what is currently being done.   Problem: Cattle are usually branded using hot irons - - a painful procedure that causes wounds prone to infection.   Solution: Irons cooled to liquid-nitrogen temperature can be used. These irons do not wound the animals, but instead permanently discolor the hair at the branding spot.
  42. 42. Example – Prior Action Performing a required action beforehand or prior placement of an object so that it can be used without delay.   Problem: Cattle feed consists of various cut grasses which are mixed using special equipment. Producing the grass mixture by sowing the various grasses together yields a crop difficult to till.   Solution: If the grasses are sown in narrow parallel strips and harvested across the strips, they will be mixed in the receiving bin of the harvester.
  43. 43. Assignment Five ASSIGNMENT 1. Try applying one or more of the three innovation principles of Segmentation, Inversion and Prior Action to the following: Problem 1. Removing layers of insulation Certain metallic surfaces must be coated with a thick layer of insulating material. Removing this coating later is difficult, however. How might this be accomplished? Problem 2. Unloading frozen material Unloading loose, frozen material by first defrosting it can be an expensive procedure. What other method would you recommend? Problem 3. Bullet-proof windows Initially, bullet-proof glass windows used on fighter aircraft had a serious defect: When a bullet hit the window, a "network" of cracks would form in the glass and obstruct the pilot’s vision. How might this damage be reduced?
  44. 44. More resources   Technical Innovations Centre – TRIZ training   http://www.triz.org   TRIZ Journal   http://www.triz-journal.com   Ideation International Inc   http://www.ideationtriz.com/