HITD 201
Introduction to Design Thinking
Mark Billinghurst
HIT Lab NZ
December 9th 2013
Mark
  PhD Electrical Engineering
  University of Washington

  Interaction Design
  Museum experiences, Tools

  Aug...
Introduction
What to Do?
  Imagine
  You re bringing a new product to market
  Your #2 competitor has been in the market for
over a ...
 Do you compete on Price ?
 Do you compete on Technology ?
 Do you compete on Features ?

Compete on user experience !
Nintendo Wii
  Cheap - $500
  Unique game play/Design
  Wireless 3 DOF controller
  Position and orientation sensing

...
Sales to Sept 2011
“The product is no longer the
basis of value. The experience is.”
Venkat Ramaswamy
The Future of Competition.
Using the N-gage
SideTalking

  www.sidetalkin.com
Design Thinking
A problem solving methodology that helps
students and innovators to approach
today’s problems from a new
p...
“Design thinking is a human-centered approach to
innovation that draws from the designer's toolkit to
integrate the needs ...
Design Thinking Mindset
  Focus on human values
  Show don’t tell
  Craft clarity
  Embrace experimentation
  Be mind...
History
History of Design Thinking
  1969 Herbert Simon – The Science of the Artificial
  Design as a way of thinking

  1973 R...
IDEO (http://www.ideo.com/)
  International Design Innovation firm
  Founded 1991

  Major advocate of Design Thinking
...
Stanford d.school

  Hasso-Plattner Institute of Design
  http://dschool.stanford.edu/
Design Thinking Process
Design Thinking Process

5 modes iterated through
Empathize
  Empathy: Foundation of Human-Centered
Design Process
  Observe; Users and their behaviour in context
  Enga...
Why Empathize
  Need to understand end users
  You’re solving their problems

  Watching people what people do
  Under...
Understanding the User

A day in the Life of..

Cultural Probes..

Role Playing..
Cultural Probes: Equator Domestic Probes
Interviewing

  Understanding people’s thoughts, emotions, motivations
  Understanding people’s choices and behaviours
...
Interview Process
Consider the Whole User
Define
  Expresses the problem you are addressing
  Defines your unique point of view
  Unique design vision based on E...
Expressing the Problem
[User] needs [verb phrase] in a way that [way]
How might we [verb phrase] ?
Tools for Problem Definition
  Storytelling
  Personas
  Clustering
  Task Flow Analysis
  Frameworks
  Empathy Maps
Personas
•  Personas are a design tool to help visualize who you are
designing for and imagine how person will use the pro...
Empathy Map
Problem Definition Creates Insight
User + Need = Insight
How Might We … ?
  Short questions that launch brainstorming
Good Point of View
  Inspires your team
  Provides focus and frames the problem
  Provides a reference for evaluating i...
Ideate
  Idea generation
  Large quantity of diverse ideas

  Motivation
  Step beyond obvious solutions
  Harness co...
Ideation Tools
  Brainstorming
  Be visual, defer judgment, quantity not quality

  Mindmaps
  Look at existing soluti...
Brainstorming

  Best with interdisciplinary team
MindMapping
Other Products in Market

  Notice all the iPod look-alikes?
Prototype
  Create physical form of ideas
  Allow people to experience and interact with them

  Why Prototype?
  Empa...
Prototyping Tools
  Sketching
  Physical Mockups
  Wireframes
  Interaction Flows
  Storyboards
  Acting
  Preotypi...
Sketching
Wireframes
Storyboarding

www.id-book.com

52
Physical Prototype
Acting/Role Playing
Goals of Prototyping

  Learn
  Solve Disagreements

  Reduce miscommunication

  Start a conversation
  Fail quickly...
Test
  Place prototypes into context of use
  Prototype and if you know you’re right, Test as if
you know you’re wrong

...
Types of Testing
  ‘quick and dirty’
  Focus Group
  Usability testing
  Field studies
  Predictive evaluation
Design Thinking Flow
Three Phase Model
Process Flow
Problem Space

Solution Space
Elaboration and Reduction
  Elaborate - generate solutions. These are the opportunities
  Reduce - decide on the ones wo...
Focus and Flare
Design is a convergent and divergent process
The Design Funnel

  Alternate generation of ideas and convergence until resolution

Modified from Pugh, S. (1990) Total ...
Assignment One
  Write a one page reflection on the following:
  1. What does Design Thinking mean to me?
  2. What you...
HITD 201: Design Thinking Lecture 1 - Introduction
HITD 201: Design Thinking Lecture 1 - Introduction
HITD 201: Design Thinking Lecture 1 - Introduction
HITD 201: Design Thinking Lecture 1 - Introduction
HITD 201: Design Thinking Lecture 1 - Introduction
HITD 201: Design Thinking Lecture 1 - Introduction
HITD 201: Design Thinking Lecture 1 - Introduction
HITD 201: Design Thinking Lecture 1 - Introduction
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HITD 201: Design Thinking Lecture 1 - Introduction

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Introductory lecture on Design Thinking given by Mark Billinghurst as part of the HITD 201 course taught at the University of Canterbury. Taught on December 9th 2013

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HITD 201: Design Thinking Lecture 1 - Introduction

  1. 1. HITD 201 Introduction to Design Thinking Mark Billinghurst HIT Lab NZ December 9th 2013
  2. 2. Mark   PhD Electrical Engineering   University of Washington   Interaction Design   Museum experiences, Tools   Augmented Reality   Mobile AR, Evaluation, Multimodal   Collaboration   Enhanced FtF and remote collaboration
  3. 3. Introduction
  4. 4. What to Do?   Imagine   You re bringing a new product to market   Your #2 competitor has been in the market for over a year, selling millions of units   Your #1 competitor launches the same month   Your technology is slower than your competitors   Your technology is older than your competitors   Your last product failed in the market
  5. 5.  Do you compete on Price ?  Do you compete on Technology ?  Do you compete on Features ? Compete on user experience !
  6. 6. Nintendo Wii   Cheap - $500   Unique game play/Design   Wireless 3 DOF controller   Position and orientation sensing   Aiming to broaden user base   Can play previous games/downloads
  7. 7. Sales to Sept 2011
  8. 8. “The product is no longer the basis of value. The experience is.” Venkat Ramaswamy The Future of Competition.
  9. 9. Using the N-gage
  10. 10. SideTalking   www.sidetalkin.com
  11. 11. Design Thinking A problem solving methodology that helps students and innovators to approach today’s problems from a new perspective.
  12. 12. “Design thinking is a human-centered approach to innovation that draws from the designer's toolkit to integrate the needs of people, the possibilities of technology, and the requirements for business success.” —Tim Brown, president and CEO, IDEO
  13. 13. Design Thinking Mindset   Focus on human values   Show don’t tell   Craft clarity   Embrace experimentation   Be mindful of process   Bias towards action   Radical collaboration
  14. 14. History
  15. 15. History of Design Thinking   1969 Herbert Simon – The Science of the Artificial   Design as a way of thinking   1973 Robert Kim - Experiences In Visual Thinking   Design Engineering   1980’s Rolf Faste -Stanford Univ.   Design Education, HCD   1991 Deflt University   First Academic Research Symposium   1991 Founding of IDEO   2004 Stanford d.school founded
  16. 16. IDEO (http://www.ideo.com/)   International Design Innovation firm   Founded 1991   Major advocate of Design Thinking   Multidisciplinary staff   Human factors, engineering, design, communications   Major Projects   Apple mouse, Palm V, Leap chair, etc
  17. 17. Stanford d.school   Hasso-Plattner Institute of Design   http://dschool.stanford.edu/
  18. 18. Design Thinking Process
  19. 19. Design Thinking Process 5 modes iterated through
  20. 20. Empathize   Empathy: Foundation of Human-Centered Design Process   Observe; Users and their behaviour in context   Engage: Interact with and interview users   Immerse: Experience what users experience
  21. 21. Why Empathize   Need to understand end users   You’re solving their problems   Watching people what people do   Understand what they think and feel   Engage to uncover unexpected insights   Uncover needs – conscious and unconscious   Guide innovation efforts   Identify right users to design for
  22. 22. Understanding the User A day in the Life of.. Cultural Probes.. Role Playing..
  23. 23. Cultural Probes: Equator Domestic Probes
  24. 24. Interviewing   Understanding people’s thoughts, emotions, motivations   Understanding people’s choices and behaviours   Key way to identify needs
  25. 25. Interview Process
  26. 26. Consider the Whole User
  27. 27. Define   Expresses the problem you are addressing   Defines your unique point of view   Unique design vision based on Empathy outcomes   Two Goals   Deep understanding of users and design space   Actionable problem statement (point of view)
  28. 28. Expressing the Problem [User] needs [verb phrase] in a way that [way] How might we [verb phrase] ?
  29. 29. Tools for Problem Definition   Storytelling   Personas   Clustering   Task Flow Analysis   Frameworks   Empathy Maps
  30. 30. Personas •  Personas are a design tool to help visualize who you are designing for and imagine how person will use the product •  A persona is an archetype that represents the behavior and goals of a group of users •  Based on insights and observations from customer research •  Not real people, but synthesised from real user characteristics •  Bring them to life with a name, characteristics, goals, background •  Develop multiple personas
  31. 31. Empathy Map
  32. 32. Problem Definition Creates Insight User + Need = Insight
  33. 33. How Might We … ?   Short questions that launch brainstorming
  34. 34. Good Point of View   Inspires your team   Provides focus and frames the problem   Provides a reference for evaluating ideas   Fuels brainstorming by suggesting ‘how might we’   Captures the hearts and minds of people   Guides your innovation efforts
  35. 35. Ideate   Idea generation   Large quantity of diverse ideas   Motivation   Step beyond obvious solutions   Harness collective perspectives   Uncover unexpected areas of exploration   Create fluency (volume) and flexibility (variety)   Move beyond obvious solutions
  36. 36. Ideation Tools   Brainstorming   Be visual, defer judgment, quantity not quality   Mindmaps   Look at existing solutions   Post-it note clouds
  37. 37. Brainstorming   Best with interdisciplinary team
  38. 38. MindMapping
  39. 39. Other Products in Market   Notice all the iPod look-alikes?
  40. 40. Prototype   Create physical form of ideas   Allow people to experience and interact with them   Why Prototype?   Empathy gaining- deepen understanding of design space   Exploration – build to think   Testing – test solutions with end users   Inspiration – help others catch your vision
  41. 41. Prototyping Tools   Sketching   Physical Mockups   Wireframes   Interaction Flows   Storyboards   Acting   Preotyping
  42. 42. Sketching
  43. 43. Wireframes
  44. 44. Storyboarding www.id-book.com 52
  45. 45. Physical Prototype
  46. 46. Acting/Role Playing
  47. 47. Goals of Prototyping   Learn   Solve Disagreements   Reduce miscommunication   Start a conversation   Fail quickly and cheaply   Test ideas without spending time and money   Manage the solution building process   Break large problem into smaller testable parts
  48. 48. Test   Place prototypes into context of use   Prototype and if you know you’re right, Test as if you know you’re wrong   Why Test   Refine prototype and solutions   Learn more about the user   Refine our POV
  49. 49. Types of Testing   ‘quick and dirty’   Focus Group   Usability testing   Field studies   Predictive evaluation
  50. 50. Design Thinking Flow
  51. 51. Three Phase Model
  52. 52. Process Flow Problem Space Solution Space
  53. 53. Elaboration and Reduction   Elaborate - generate solutions. These are the opportunities   Reduce - decide on the ones worth pursuing   Repeat - elaborate and reduce again on those solutions Source: Laseau,P. (1980) Graphic Thinking for Architects & Designers. John Wiley and Sons
  54. 54. Focus and Flare Design is a convergent and divergent process
  55. 55. The Design Funnel   Alternate generation of ideas and convergence until resolution Modified from Pugh, S. (1990) Total design: Integrated methods for successful products engineering. Addison-Wesley. P. 75
  56. 56. Assignment One   Write a one page reflection on the following:   1. What does Design Thinking mean to me?   2. What you hope to get out of the class   3. How you imagine Design Thinking will help you achieve your goals?
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