COSC 426 Lecture 1: Introduction to Augmented Reality

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This is the first lecture of the COSC 426 graduate course on Augmented Reality taught at the University of Canterbury. It was taught by Mark Billinghurst on July 17th 2014. It covers a basic introduction to Augmented Reality.

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COSC 426 Lecture 1: Introduction to Augmented Reality

  1. 1. COSC 426: Augmented Reality Mark Billinghurst mark.billinghurst@hitlabnz.org July 17th 2014 Lecture 1: Introduction mark.billinghurst@hitlabnz.org
  2. 2. Mark Billinghurst   PhD Electrical Engineering   University of Washington   Interaction Design   Museum experiences   Tools for designers   Augmented Reality   Mobile AR, Evaluation,   Multimodal Interfaces, Collaborative   Collaboration   Enhanced FtF and remote collaboration   Social networking
  3. 3. Overview   One two hour lecture a week   Thursday 11am – 1pm   You will learn   Introduction to Augmented Reality   Augmented Reality technology   AR Interaction techniques   Interaction Design   AR authoring tools   Research directions in AR   Complete a simple project
  4. 4. Course Outline   Wk 1 (July 17th): Introduction to Augmented Reality (AR)   Wk 2 (July 24th): AR Technology (Assign 1)   Wk 3 (July 31st): AR Tracking   Wk 4 (Aug 7th): Designing AR Interfaces (Assign 2)   Wk 5 (Aug 14th): Project presentation + AR Interaction   Wk 6 (Aug 21st): Mobile AR (Assign 3)   Wk 9 (Sept 11th): Evaluating AR Interfaces (Assign 4)   Wk 10 (Sept 18th): AR research Directions   Wk 11 (Sept 25th): Final Project Presentations
  5. 5. Assessment - Update   Research project – 40%   Group work (2-4 people)   Due Sept 27th   Four Class Assignments – 20 %   Design, programming, individual work   Final Exam – 40%   Exam date TBD
  6. 6. Introduction
  7. 7. A Brief History of Time   Trend   smaller, cheaper, more functions, more intimate   Technology becomes invisible   Intuitive to use   Interface over internals   Form more important than function   Human centered design
  8. 8. A Brief History of Computing   Trend   smaller, cheaper, faster, more intimate, intelligent objects   Computers need to become invisible   hide the computer in the real world -  Ubiquitous / Tangible Computing   put the user inside the computer -  Virtual Reality
  9. 9. Invisible Interfaces Jun Rekimoto, Sony CSL
  10. 10. Graphical User Interfaces   Separation between real and digital worlds   WIMP (Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointer) metaphor
  11. 11. Ubiquitous Computing   Computing and sensing embedded in real world   Particle devices, RFID, motes, arduino, etc
  12. 12. Virtual Reality   1985…
  13. 13. Virtual Reality   Immersive VR   Head mounted display, gloves   Separation from the real world
  14. 14. Occulus Rift   $300 USD   360 degree head tracking   100 degree field of view
  15. 15. 1977 – Star Wars
  16. 16. Augmented Reality Definition   Defining Characteristics [Azuma 97]   Combines Real and Virtual Images -  Both can be seen at the same time   Interactive in real-time -  The virtual content can be interacted with   Registered in 3D -  Virtual objects appear fixed in space Azuma, R. T. (1997). A survey of augmented reality. Presence, 6(4), 355-385.
  17. 17. 2008 - CNN
  18. 18.   Put AR pictures here Augmented Reality Examples
  19. 19. AR vs VR   Virtual Reality: Replaces Reality   Scene Generation: requires realistic images   Display Device: fully immersive, wide FOV   Tracking and Sensing: low accuracy is okay   Augmented Reality: Enhances Reality   Scene Generation: minimal rendering okay   Display Device: non-immersive, small FOV   Tracking and Sensing: high accuracy needed
  20. 20. Milgram’s Reality-Virtuality continuum Mixed Reality Reality - Virtuality (RV) Continuum Real Environment Augmented Reality (AR) Augmented Virtuality (AV) Virtual Environment "...anywhere between the extrema of the virtuality continuum." P. Milgram and A. F. Kishino, Taxonomy of Mixed Reality Visual Displays IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, E77-D(12), pp. 1321-1329, 1994.
  21. 21. Augmented Virtuality   VR with windows into the real world
  22. 22. Metaverse   Neal Stephenson’s “SnowCrash”   The Metaverse is the convergence of:   1) virtually enhanced physical reality   2) physically persistent virtual space   Metaverse Roadmap   http://metaverseroadmap.org/
  23. 23. Metaverse Dimensions • Augmentation technologies that layer information onto our perception of the physical environment. • Simulation refers to technologies that model reality • Intimate technologies are focused inwardly, on the identity and actions of the individual or object; • External technologies are focused outwardly, towards the world at large;
  24. 24. Metaverse Components   Four Key Components   Virtual Worlds   Augmented Reality   Mirror Worlds   Lifelogging
  25. 25. Mirror Worlds   Mirror worlds are informationally-enhanced virtual models of the physical world.   Google Earth, MS Street View, Google Maps
  26. 26. LifeLogging   Technologies record and report the intimate states and life histories of objects and users   Nokia LifeBlog, Nike+, FitBits
  27. 27.   Steve Mann - LifeLogging
  28. 28. Gordon Bell: LifeLogging 1 TB to store 65 years of data
  29. 29. Narrative Clip   Wearable camera   Automatic picture capture - 2 pics/minute   http://getnarrative.com
  30. 30. Summary   Augmented Reality has three key features   Combines Real and Virtual Images   Interactive in real-time   Registered in 3D   AR can be classified alongside other technologies   Invisible Interfaces   Milgram’s Mixed Reality continuum   MetaVerse
  31. 31. AR History
  32. 32. A Brief History of AR (1)   1960’s: Sutherland / Sproull’s first HMD system was see- through
  33. 33. A Brief History of AR (2) F16 – Head Up Display
  34. 34. A Brief History of AR (3) 1960 - 70’s: US Air Force helmet mounted displays (T. Furness)
  35. 35. A Brief History of AR (4) 1970 - 80’s: US Air Force Super Cockpit (T. Furness)
  36. 36. A Brief History of AR (5)   Early 1990’s: Boeing coined the term “AR.” Wire harness assembly application begun (T. Caudell, D. Mizell).
  37. 37. A Brief History of AR (6)   1994: Motion stabilized display [Azuma]   1995: Fiducial tracking in video see-through [Bajura / Neumann]   1996: UNC hybrid magnetic-vision tracker
  38. 38. A Brief History of AR (7)   1996: MIT Wearable Computing efforts   1998: Dedicated conferences begin (ISMAR)   Late 90’s: Collaboration, outdoor, interaction   Late 90’s: Augmented sports broadcasts
  39. 39. History Summary   1960’s – 80’s: Early Experimentation   1980’s – 90’s: Basic Research   Tracking, displays   1995 – 2005: Tools/Applications   Interaction, usability, theory   2005 - : Commercial Applications   Games, Medical, Industry
  40. 40. 2007 - AR Reaches Mainstream   MIT Technology Review   March 2007   list of the 10 most exciting technologies   Economist   Dec 6th 2007   Reality, only better
  41. 41. Gartner Hype Cycle
  42. 42. 2009 - AR in Magazines   Esquire Magazine   Dec 2009 issue   12 pages AR content   Many Others   Wired   Colors   Red Bull   Etc
  43. 43. Google Searches for AR
  44. 44. 2008 - Browser Based AR   Flash + camera + 3D graphics   High impact   High marketing value   Large potential install base   1.6 Billion web users   Ease of development   Lots of developers, mature tools   Low cost of entry   Browser, web camera
  45. 45. Impact of Web-based AR   Boffswana Living Sasquatch   http://www.boffswana.com/news/?p=605   In first month   100K unique visits   500K page views   6 minutes on page
  46. 46. 2005 - Mobile Phone AR   Mobile Phones   camera   processor   display   AR on Mobile Phones   Simple graphics   Optimized computer vision   Collaborative Interaction
  47. 47. AR Advertising (HIT Lab NZ 2007)   Txt message to download AR application (200K)   See virtual content popping out of real paper advert   Tested May 2007 by Saatchi and Saatchi
  48. 48. 2008: Location Aware Phones Nokia NavigatorMotorola Droid
  49. 49. 2009 - Outdoor Information Overlay   Mobile phone based   Tag real world locations   GPS + Compass input   Overlay graphics data on live video   Applications   Travel guide, Advertising, etc   Wikitude, Layar, Junaio, etc..   Android based, Public API released
  50. 50. Layar (www.layar.com)   Location based data   GPS + compass location   Map + camera view   AR Layers on real world   Customized data   Audio, 3D, 2D content   Easy authoring   Android, iPhone
  51. 51. AR Today  Key Technologies Available -  Robust tracking (Computer Vision, GPS/sensors) -  Display (Handheld, HMDs) -  Input Devices (Kinect, etc) -  Developer tools (Qualcomm, Metaio, ARTW)  Commercial Business Growing -  Gaming, GPS/Mobile, Online Advertisement •  >$5 Billion USD by 2016 (Markets andMarkets) •  >$1.5 Billion USD in Mobile AR by 2014 (Juniper Research)
  52. 52. Google Glass (2011 - )
  53. 53. Epson Moverio BT-200 ▪  Stereo see-through display ($700) ▪  960 x 540 pixels, 23 degree FOV, 60Hz, 88g ▪  Android Powered, separate controller ▪  VGA camera, GPS, gyro, accelerometer
  54. 54.   Web based AR   Flash, HTML 5 based AR   Marketing, education   Outdoor Mobile AR   GPS, compass tracking   Viewing Points of Interest in real world   Eg: Junaio, Layar, Wikitude   Handheld AR   Vision based tracking   Marketing, gaming   Location Based Experiences   HMD, fixed screens   Museums, point of sale, advertising Typical AR Experiences
  55. 55. AR Business Today   Marketing   Web-based, mobile   Mobile AR   Geo-located information and service   Driving demand for high end phones   Gaming   Mobile, Physical input (Kinect, PS Move)   Upcoming areas   Manufacturing, Medical, Military
  56. 56. Some Commercial AR Companies   ARToolworks (http://www.artoolworks.com/)   ARToolKit, FLARToolKit, SDKs   Metaio (http://www.metaio.com/)   Marketing, Industry, SDKs   Total Immersion (http://www.t-immersion.com/)   Marketing, Theme Parks, AR Experiences   Qualcomm (http://www.vuforia.com/)   Mobile AR, Vuforia SDK   Many small start-ups
  57. 57. Summary   Augmented Reality has a long history going back to the 1960’s   Interest in AR has exploded over the last few years and is being commercialized quickly   AR is growing in a number of areas   Mobile AR   Web based AR   Marketing experiences
  58. 58. Sample AR Applications
  59. 59. Applications   Medicine   Manufacturing   Information overlay   Architecture   Museum   Marketing   Gaming
  60. 60. Applications: medical   “X-ray vision” for surgeons   Aid visualization, minimally-invasive operations. Training. MRI, CT data.   Ultrasound project, UNC Chapel Hill. Courtesy UNC Chapel Hill
  61. 61. Medical AR Trials   Sauer et al. 2000 at Siemens Corporate Research, NJ   Stereo video see through F. Sauer, Ali Khamene, S. Vogt: An Augmented Reality Navigation System with a Single-Camera Tracker: System Design and Needle Biopsy Phantom Trial, MICCAI 2002
  62. 62. Assembly and maintenance © 1993 S. Feiner, B. MacIntyre, & D. Seligmann, Columbia University © 1996 S. Feiner, B. MacIntyre, & A. Webster, Columbia University
  63. 63. PS3 - Eye of Judgment (2007)   Computer Vision Tracking   Card based battle game   Collaborative AR   October 24th 2007
  64. 64. AR Books – Markerless Tracking
  65. 65. AR Annotations Columbia University HRL © 1993 S. Feiner, B. MacIntyre, M. Haupt, & E. Solomon, Columbia University © 1997 S. Feiner, B. MacIntyre, T. Höllerer, & A. Webster, Columbia University
  66. 66. Broadcast TV
  67. 67. Interactive Museum Experiences   BlackMagic   Virtual America’s Cup   410,000 people in six months   MagicPlanet   TeManawa science museum   Virtual Astronomy   Collaborative AR experience   ARVolcano   Interactive AR kiosk   Scienceworks museum, Melbourne
  68. 68. Digital Binocular Station http://www.DigitalBinocularStation.com/
  69. 69. Museum Archeology   LifePlus (2002-2004)   Natural feature tracking   Virtual characters   Mobile AR system   Archeoguide (2000-2002)   Cultural heritage on-site guide   Hybrid tracking   Virtual overlay
  70. 70. Sales and Marketing   Connect with brands and branded objects   Location Based Experiences   Lynx Angels   Web based   Rayban glasses   Mobile   Ford Ka campaign   Print based   Red Bull Magazine
  71. 71. Summary   AR technology can be used to develop a wide range of applications   Promising application areas include   Games   Education   Engineering   Medicine   Museums   Etc..
  72. 72. Things to Do..   Find your favourite YouTube video showing an AR interface – send to Mark   Try AR for yourself   Install Junaio, or other mobile AR application   Read Articles   Find a friend for the project   Think about project ideas

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