426 lecture1: Introduction to AR

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The first lecture from my 2012 graduate course on Augmented Reality. Taught at the

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426 lecture1: Introduction to AR

  1. 1. COSC 426: Augmented Reality Mark Billinghurst mark.billinghurst@hitlabnz.org July 11th 2012 Lecture 1: Introduction
  2. 2. Mark Billinghurst  PhD Electrical Engineering   University of Washington  Interaction Design   Museum experiences   Tools for designers  Augmented Reality   Mobile AR, Evaluation,   Multimodal Interfaces, Collaborative  Collaboration   Enhanced FtF and remote collaboration   Social networking
  3. 3. Overview  One two hour lecture a week   Wednesday 1pm – 3pm  You will learn   Introduction to Augmented Reality   Augmented Reality technology   AR Interaction techniques   Interaction Design   AR authoring tools   Research directions in AR  Complete a simple project
  4. 4. Course Outline  Wk 1 (July 11th): Introduction to Augmented Reality (AR)  Wk 2 (July 18th): AR Technology  Wk 3 (July 25th): AR Developer Tools  Wk 4 (Aug 1st): AR Interaction Techniques  Wk 5 (Aug 8th): AR Applications  Wk 6 (Aug 15th): Outdoor and Mobile AR  Wk 7,8 (Aug 22nd, Aug 29th): Holidays  Wk 9 (Sept 5th): Collaborative AR  Wk 10 (Sept 12th): Usability Testing  Wk 11 (Sept 19th): AR research Directions  Wk 12 (Sept 26th): Final Project Presentations
  5. 5. Assessment - Update  Research project – 40%   Group work (2-4 people)   Due Sept 28th  Two Class Assignments – 20 %   Programming assignments, individual work  Final Exam – 40%   Exam week Oct 3rd – 14th
  6. 6. Introduction
  7. 7. A Brief History of Time  Trend   smaller, cheaper, more functions, more intimate  Technology becomes invisible   Intuitive to use   Interface over internals   Form more important than function   Human centered design
  8. 8. A Brief History of Computing  Trend   smaller, cheaper, faster, more intimate, intelligent objects  Computers need to become invisible   hide the computer in the real world -  Ubiquitous / Tangible Computing   put the user inside the computer -  Virtual Reality
  9. 9. Invisible Interfaces Jun Rekimoto, Sony CSL
  10. 10. Graphical User Interfaces  Separation between real and digital worlds   WIMP (Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointer) metaphor
  11. 11. Ubiquitous Computing  Computing and sensing embedded in real world   Particle devices, RFID, motes, arduino, etc
  12. 12. Virtual Reality  1985…
  13. 13. Virtual Reality  Immersive VR   Head mounted display, gloves   Separation from the real world
  14. 14. 1977 – Star Wars
  15. 15. Augmented Reality Definition  Defining Characteristics [Azuma 97]   Combines Real and Virtual Images -  Both can be seen at the same time   Interactive in real-time -  The virtual content can be interacted with   Registered in 3D -  Virtual objects appear fixed in space
  16. 16. 2008 - CNN
  17. 17. Augmented Reality Examples  Put AR pictures here
  18. 18. AR vs VR  Virtual Reality: Replaces Reality   Scene Generation: requires realistic images   Display Device: fully immersive, wide FOV   Tracking and Sensing: low accuracy is okay  Augmented Reality: Enhances Reality   Scene Generation: minimal rendering okay   Display Device: non-immersive, small FOV   Tracking and Sensing: high accuracy needed
  19. 19. Milgram’s Reality-Virtuality continuum "...anywhere between the extrema of the virtuality continuum." Mixed Reality Real Augmented Augmented VirtualEnvironment Reality (AR) Virtuality (AV) Environment Reality - Virtuality (RV) ContinuumP. Milgram and A. F. Kishino, Taxonomy of Mixed Reality Visual DisplaysIEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, E77-D(12), pp. 1321-1329, 1994.
  20. 20. Augmented Virtuality  VR with windows into the real world
  21. 21. Metaverse  Neal Stephenson’s “SnowCrash”  The Metaverse is the convergence of:   1) virtually enhanced physical reality   2) physically persistent virtual space  Metaverse Roadmap   http://metaverseroadmap.org/
  22. 22. Metaverse Dimensions• Augmentation technologies that layer information onto our perception of the physical environment.• Simulation refers to technologies that model reality• Intimate technologies are focused inwardly, on the identity and actions of the individual or object;• External technologies are focused outwardly, towards the world at large;
  23. 23. Metaverse Components  Four Key Components   Virtual Worlds   Augmented Reality   Mirror Worlds   Lifelogging
  24. 24. Mirror Worlds  Mirror worlds are informationally-enhanced virtual models of the physical world.   Google Earth, MS Street View, Google Maps
  25. 25. LifeLogging  Technologies record and report the intimate states and life histories of objects and users   Nokia LifeBlog, Nike+, FitBits
  26. 26.   Steve Mann - LifeLogging
  27. 27. Gordon Bell: LifeLogging1 TB to store 65 years of data
  28. 28. Summary  Augmented Reality has three key features   Combines Real and Virtual Images   Interactive in real-time   Registered in 3D  AR can be classified alongside other technologies   Invisible Interfaces   Milgram’s Mixed Reality continuum   MetaVerse
  29. 29. AR History
  30. 30. A Brief History of AR (1)  1960’s: Sutherland / Sproull’s first HMD system was see- through
  31. 31. A Brief History of AR (2) F16 – Head Up Display
  32. 32. A Brief History of AR (3)1960 - 70’s: US Air Force helmet mounted displays (T. Furness)
  33. 33. A Brief History of AR (4)1970 - 80’s: US Air Force Super Cockpit (T. Furness)
  34. 34. A Brief History of AR (5)  Early 1990’s: Boeing coined the term “AR.” Wire harness assembly application begun (T. Caudell, D. Mizell).
  35. 35. A Brief History of AR (6)  1994: Motion stabilized display [Azuma]  1995: Fiducial tracking in video see-through [Bajura / Neumann]  1996: UNC hybrid magnetic-vision tracker
  36. 36. A Brief History of AR (7)  1996: MIT Wearable Computing efforts  1998: Dedicated conferences begin (ISMAR)  Late 90’s: Collaboration, outdoor, interaction  Late 90’s: Augmented sports broadcasts
  37. 37. History Summary  1960’s – 80’s: Early Experimentation  1980’s – 90’s: Basic Research   Tracking, displays  1995 – 2005: Tools/Applications   Interaction, usability, theory  2005 - : Commercial Applications   Games, Medical, Industry
  38. 38. 2007 - AR Reaches Mainstream  MIT Technology Review   March 2007   list of the 10 most exciting technologies  Economist   Dec 6th 2007   Reality, only better
  39. 39. Gartner Hype Cycle
  40. 40. 2009 - AR in Magazines  Esquire Magazine   Dec 2009 issue   12 pages AR content  Many Others   Wired   Colors   Red Bull   Etc
  41. 41. Google Searches for AR
  42. 42. 2008 - Browser Based AR  Flash + camera + 3D graphics  High impact   High marketing value  Large potential install base   1.6 Billion web users  Ease of development   Lots of developers, mature tools  Low cost of entry   Browser, web camera
  43. 43. Impact of Web-based AR  Boffswana Living Sasquatch   http://www.boffswana.com/news/?p=605  In first month   100K unique visits   500K page views   6 minutes on page
  44. 44. 2005 - Mobile Phone AR  Mobile Phones   camera   processor   display  AR on Mobile Phones   Simple graphics   Optimized computer vision   Collaborative Interaction
  45. 45. AR Advertising (HIT Lab NZ 2007)  Txt message to download AR application (200K)  See virtual content popping out of real paper advert  Tested May 2007 by Saatchi and Saatchi
  46. 46. 2008: Location Aware PhonesMotorola Droid Nokia Navigator
  47. 47. 2009 - Outdoor Information Overlay  Mobile phone based  Tag real world locations   GPS + Compass input   Overlay graphics data on live video  Applications   Travel guide, Advertising, etc  Wikitude, Layar, Junaio, etc..   Android based, Public API released
  48. 48. Layar (www.layar.com)  Location based data   GPS + compass location   Map + camera view  AR Layers on real world   Customized data   Audio, 3D, 2D content  Easy authoring  Android, iPhone
  49. 49. $784 million USD in 2014
  50. 50. AR Today  Key Technologies Available -  Robust tracking (Computer Vision, GPS/sensors) -  Display (Handheld HMDs) -  Input Devices (Kinect, etc) -  Developer tools (Qualcomm, Metaio, ARTW)  Commercial Business Growing -  Gaming, GPS/Mobile, Online Advertisement •  >$5 Billion USD by 2016 (Markets andMarkets) •  >$1.5 Billion USD in Mobile AR by 2014 (Juniper Research)
  51. 51. AR Business Today  Marketing   Web-based, mobile  Mobile AR   Geo-located information and service   Driving demand for high end phones  Gaming   Mobile, Physical input (Kinect, PS Move)  Upcoming areas   Manufacturing, Medical, Military
  52. 52. Some Commercial AR Companies  ARToolworks (http://www.artoolworks.com/)   ARToolKit, FLARToolKit, SDKs  Metaio (http://www.metaio.com/)   Marketing, Industry, SDKs  Total Immersion (http://www.t-immersion.com/)   Marketing, Theme Parks, AR Experiences  Qualcomm (http://developer.qualcomm.com/dev/augmented- reality)   Mobile AR, Vuforia SDK  Many small start-ups (String, Ogmento, etc)
  53. 53. Summary  Augmented Reality has a long history going back to the 1960’s  Interest in AR has exploded over the last few years and is being commercialized quickly  AR is growing in a number of areas   Mobile AR   Web based AR   Marketing experiences
  54. 54. Sample AR Applications
  55. 55. Applications  Medicine  Manufacturing  Information overlay  Architecture  Museum  Marketing  Gaming
  56. 56. Applications: medical  “X-ray vision” for surgeons  Aid visualization, minimally-invasive operations. Training. MRI, CT data.   Ultrasound project, UNC Chapel Hill. Courtesy UNC Chapel Hill
  57. 57. Medical AR Trials   Sauer et al. 2000 at Siemens Corporate Research, NJ   Stereo video see throughF. Sauer, Ali Khamene, S. Vogt: An Augmented Reality Navigation System with aSingle-Camera Tracker: System Design and Needle Biopsy Phantom Trial, MICCAI 2002
  58. 58. Assembly and maintenance © 1996 S. Feiner, B. MacIntyre, & A. Webster, Columbia University © 1993 S. Feiner, B. MacIntyre, & D. Seligmann, Columbia University
  59. 59. PS3 - Eye of Judgment (2007)  Computer Vision Tracking  Card based battle game  Collaborative AR  October 24th 2007
  60. 60. AR Books – Markerless Tracking
  61. 61. AR Annotations Columbia University© 1993 S. Feiner, B. MacIntyre, © 1997 S. Feiner, B. MacIntyre,M. Haupt, & E. Solomon, T. Höllerer, & A. Webster,Columbia University Columbia University HRL
  62. 62. Broadcast TV
  63. 63. Interactive Museum Experiences  BlackMagic   Virtual America’s Cup   410,000 people in six months  MagicPlanet   TeManawa science museum   Virtual Astronomy   Collaborative AR experience  AR Volcano   Interactive AR kiosk   Scienceworks museum, Melbourne
  64. 64. Digital Binocular Stationhttp://www.DigitalBinocularStation.com/
  65. 65. Museum Archeology  LifePlus (2002-2004)   Natural feature tracking   Virtual characters   Mobile AR system  Archeoguide (2000-2002)   Cultural heritage on-site guide   Hybrid tracking   Virtual overlay
  66. 66. Sales and Marketing  Connect with brands and branded objects  Location Based Experiences   Lynx Angels  Web based   Rayban glasses  Mobile   Ford Ka campaign  Print based   Red Bull Magazine
  67. 67. Summary  AR technology can be used to develop a wide range of applications  Promising application areas include   Games   Education   Engineering   Medicine   Museums   Etc..
  68. 68. AR Experience Design
  69. 69. “The product is no longer the basis of value. The experience is.” Venkat Ramaswamy The Future of Competition.
  70. 70. Gilmore + Pine: Experience Economy experiences Emotion services Value products Function components Sony CSL © 2004
  71. 71. The Value of Good User Experience 50c $3.50 20c
  72. 72. Good Experience Design  Reactrix   Top down projection   Camera based input   Reactive Graphics   No instructions   No training
  73. 73. Using the N-gage
  74. 74. SideTalking  http://www.sidetalkin.com
  75. 75. Interaction Design “Designing interactive products to support people in their everyday and working lives” Preece, J., (2002). Interaction Design   Design of User Experience with Technology   Higher in the value chain than product design
  76. 76.   Interaction Design involves answering three questions:   What do you do? - How do you affect the world?   What do you feel? – What do you sense of the world?   What do you know? – What do you learn?
  77. 77. Interaction Design is All About You   Users should be involved throughout the Design Process   Consider all the needs of the user
  78. 78. Google Glasses
  79. 79. Interaction Design Process
  80. 80. Building Compelling AR Experiences experiences Usability applications Interaction tools Authoring components Tracking, Display
  81. 81. Summary  In order to build AR applications you need to focus on the user experience  Great user experience is based on   Low level AR component technology   Authoring tools   Application/Interaction design   User experience texting

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