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  • Vivian, Rakoff, in Fleras (2010), p. 269

Hmns10085 mod8 2 Hmns10085 mod8 2 Presentation Transcript

  • Issues in Human Services (HMNS 10085) Module 8: Issues Pertaining to Newcomers to Canada, Racialized Minorities & First Nations Peoples
  • Defining Racism: 3 Types: • Defined as, the “Collection of actions, attitudes, beliefs and practices that reflect a negative view of people in particular racial groups.” (Hick, 2007). • Individual racism • Institutional racism • Structural racism • Outcome not intent
  • Defining Ethnocentrism • Defined as, “a belief in the superiority of one culture over another.” (Fleras, 2010).
  • Legislation: • Prior to first Immigration Act of 1952, for groups considered “undesirable” to immigrate: – Outright ban – Head taxes (prohibitively expensive) • “most favoured” groups- British, or French (in Quebec), Americans, Northern Europeans & then, other Europeans. • People from Asia, Africa & Latin America considered too difficult to assimilate. • Immigration Act, 1962 – system of point that did not include race – Points based on labour needs of Canada at time, education, level of skill, having a pre-arranged job, knowledge of official languages, “personal qualities” considered desirable
  • Categories to Immigrate to Canada • Economic Class • Family Class • Refugee Class
  • Current Trends: • 60% - Economic class • 40% - Family & Refugee classes • Countries of origin – China – Philipines -India -Pakistan • Areas of settlement: Toronto, Montreal & Vancouver – Ontario - 54% of newcomers – BC - 17% of newcomers – Quebec – 16.5% of newcomers • Immigration is forecast to be main form of population growth in Canada over next couple of decades.
  • Legislation: Protection: • Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 1982 • Employment Equity Act, 1986 – Visible minorities – Aboriginal people • Multiculturalism Act, 1988 – Composed of many cultures that we accept and celebrate
  • Experiences of Newcomers & Racialized Minorities • Newcomer – 5 years or less in Canada • Visible minority- define people who are neither Caucasian or white – Better termed “racialized minorities” • “Every act of immigration is like suffering a brain stroke. One has to learn to walk again, to talk again, to move around the world again, and probably most difficult of all, one has to learn how to re-establish a sense of community.”
  • Experiences of Newcomers • May not be able to communicate in English/French • Difficulty obtaining adequate, affordable housing • Social exclusion or marginalization due to racism & ethnocentrism • Learning to navigate complex institutions such as immigration department, health system, social services, school system • Few social supports • Concern for family remaining in country of origin • Islamophobia
  • Experiences of Newcomers: • Wage gap - $9581 between racialized minorities & white workers – Racialized women worse off • More likely to live in poverty • Barriers related to employment: – – – – – More likely to be in low-income earning jobs Educational credentials are not seen as valid or transferable Need to update credentials before working Work experience outside of Canada less valued Language/cultural barriers produce challenges to “fitting in” to workplace culture – Older newcomers fare worse than younger newcomers – Glass ceiling re: promotion
  • Who Are First Nations Peoples? • Inuit • Metis • Status & Non-Status “Indians”
  • First Contact: Relationship with Colonial Settlers: • First Contact – arrival of French & British settlers • First Nations peoples seen as inferior • No recognition of sovereignty of First Nations peoples • Value conflict – cooperative vs. individualist approach • One-sided assimilation • Imposition of Christianity • Decreased self-sufficiency
  • Indian Act, 1876 • Defined who was “Indian” – Male person of Indian blood belonging to a particular band – Child of the above – Woman married to male person of Indian blood • Decision-making rested with the federal government over their lands and people – In return, government provided social, health & educational services on government terms • Could not vote • This occurred on reserves administered by an “Indian Agent”
  • Increased Assimilation into White Culture • 20th century – aim of assimilation • Residential schools – not exposed to any teachings about their communities, ways of life, language or spirituality > damage • Children – adopted out of their families & communities in large numbers
  • Income Inequality & Poverty: • Low income rates – 31.2% First Nations families vs. 12.9% of all Canadian families – 55.9% single, unattached First Nations individuals vs. 38% for all Canadian single, unattached individuals • Income from social assistance: – 20-30% of peoples in Ontario & Quebec receive sole income from social assistance – 75% in Atlantic provinces – 48-58% in western provinces
  • Employment Inequality: • Unemployment rate 19.1% (First Nations Peoples) vs. 7.4% (general Canadian population) • Less full-time, full-year employment: 40.5% in full-time employment vs. 53.9% (general Canadian population) • Lower employment incomes: – Full time workers: $33,416 vs. $43,298 (general Canadian population) – Part time workers: $13,795 vs. $19,207
  • Other Social Issues: • Housing – inadequate/substandard, often overcrowded on reserves – Shortage of water and sewer connections – Recent Attawapiskat attention in media highlighted this • Incarceration – overrepresented in prisons • Less likely to graduate from high school
  • Health Inequality: • 2 times more likely to experience heart problems, cancer or have a long-term disability • 5 times more likely to have diabetes • Tuberculosis is an ongoing concern in reserve communities • Gap in life expectancy is 6 years less for both genders • Infant mortality rate – 3.5 times higher • Suicide rate – 8 times higher for female youth & 5 times higher for male youth
  • Self Government: • Hundreds of land claim negotiations • Oka crisis of 1990 • Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples early 1990s – Recommended a return to nation to nation relationship between First Nations and the government
  • Readings: • Hick, S. (2007). Social Welfare in Canada: Understanding Income Security, 2nd Ed. Toronto: Toronto Educational Publishing Inc. Ch. 7, and 8. On reserve in library • Research and read an article on Attawapiskat crisis.