Issues in Human Services
(HMNS 10085)
Module 7: Issues Pertaining to People
With Disabilities
Defining Disability
• “Persons with disabilities include those who
have long-term physical, mental, intellectual
or sensor...
Definition in Accessibility for Ontarians
with Disabilities Act (AODA):
• “any degree of physical disability, infirmity, m...
Defining Barriers:
• Anything that would prevent a person with a
disability from participating fully in all aspects
of soc...
Result of Barriers
• Discrimination: “…any distinction, exclusion or
restriction on the basis of disability, which has the...
Ableism
• The result of a belief in the inherent
superiority of people without disabilities over
people who have disabilit...
Some Historical Influences
• Damaging policies have cast people with
disabilities as;
–
–
–
–

An eternal child
Deviant
Ob...
Legislative & Policy Frameworks
• Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act,
2005 (AODA)
– Accessibility standards...
Nature of Disabilities in Canada
• 16.6% of Canadians ages 15 yrs + have a
disability
• 15.5% of Ontario residents 15 yrs+...
Nature of Disabilities
• Disability related to pain- 11.7%
– 27.9% have cyclical/recurring pain
– 72.1% have constant pain...
Nature of Disabilities
•
•
•
•

Very severe limitations – 13.5%
Severe limitations – 24.8%
Mild limitations – 35.4%
Affect...
Impact of Barriers
• Poverty: related to workforce participation
– 48% of people with disabilities are not in the
labour f...
Impact of Barriers
• Poverty: Related to income:
• People with disabilities, when working, earn
only ~86% of the incomes p...
Impact of Barriers
• Workplace barriers:
• Need for workplace accommodations:
– Job modifications – personal help
• job re...
Persistence of Workplace Barriers
• Discrimination – 5 X more likely to report experiencing
discrimination
• People who pl...
Impact of Barriers
• Poverty: Related to disability income:
1. Canada Pension Plan Disability (CPPD)
– Severe and prolonge...
Impact of Barriers:
• Poverty: Related to disability income
2. Ontario Disability Support Plan
–

2 components: Income ass...
Impact of Barriers
• Additional Economic Disadvantage: Costs:
–
–
–
–
–

Necessity for equipment
Only 62.3% of people had ...
Impact of Barriers
• Diminished opportunities for friendship &
intimate relationships
– Symptoms
• Fatigue
• Mobility diff...
Impact of Barriers
• Unequal opportunities for recreation
• Women with disabilities more likely to be
abused than other wo...
Special issues for People With
Intellectual Disabilities:
• Independent living – in their community
– Variety of residenti...
Special Issues for People with
Autism Spectrum Disorders:
• Challenges unique to the disorder:
–
–
–
–
–

Experiencing dif...
Reading:
• Hutchison, P. & McGill, J. (1996). Leisure,
Integration and Community. Toronto:
Leisurability Publications, Inc...
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Hmns10085 mod7

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  • Turner and Turner, 2010, p. 329
  • Turner and Turner, 2010, p. 330
  • 1.Turner and Turner, 2010, p. 3312. Hick, 2007, p. 378
  • From PALS survey, Statistics Canada (2008)
  • Hmns10085 mod7

    1. 1. Issues in Human Services (HMNS 10085) Module 7: Issues Pertaining to People With Disabilities
    2. 2. Defining Disability • “Persons with disabilities include those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.”
    3. 3. Definition in Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA): • “any degree of physical disability, infirmity, malformation, or disfigurement that is caused by bodily injury, birth defect, or illness and, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, includes diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, a brain injury, any degree of paralysis, amputation, lack of physical coordination, blindness, or visual impediment, deafness or hearing impediment, muteness or speech impediment, or physical reliance on a guide dog or other animal or on a wheelchair or other remedial appliance of device; • a condition of mental impairment or a developmental disability; • a learning disability, or a dysfunction in one or more of the processes involved in understanding or using symbols or spoken language; • a mental disorder; or • an injury or disability for which benefits were claimed or received under the insurance plan established under the Workplace Safety and Insurance Act, 1997.
    4. 4. Defining Barriers: • Anything that would prevent a person with a disability from participating fully in all aspects of society because of his or her disability. • Types: – Physical/architectural – Informational or communication – Attitudinal – Technological – Systemic (policy or practice)
    5. 5. Result of Barriers • Discrimination: “…any distinction, exclusion or restriction on the basis of disability, which has the purpose or effect of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal basis with others, of all human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil, or any other field. …in includes denial of reasonable accommodation.” • Social exclusion – limited opportunities to participate in the social, economic and cultural activities of society 1 2
    6. 6. Ableism • The result of a belief in the inherent superiority of people without disabilities over people who have disabilities. • 2 models of disability: – Medical model – Social oppression model
    7. 7. Some Historical Influences • Damaging policies have cast people with disabilities as; – – – – An eternal child Deviant Objects of ridicule Devalued – not valued by society as those who don’t have disabilities. • Policies of segregation • Focus on diagnosis and labels • Lowered expectations of learning
    8. 8. Legislative & Policy Frameworks • Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act, 2005 (AODA) – Accessibility standards to promote barrier free province – Implemented and enforced – 2025 • Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 1981; Canadian Human Rights Code – Also, the Human Rights Codes of the provinces – court challenges • UN Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities
    9. 9. Nature of Disabilities in Canada • 16.6% of Canadians ages 15 yrs + have a disability • 15.5% of Ontario residents 15 yrs+ have a disability • 18.4% of people report having 1 disability • 27.9% report have 3+ disabilities
    10. 10. Nature of Disabilities • Disability related to pain- 11.7% – 27.9% have cyclical/recurring pain – 72.1% have constant pain • • • • • • Disability related to mobility – 11.5% Disability related to agility – 11.1% Disability related to hearing – 5% Disability related to sight – 1.9% Developmental disability - .5% Disability related to psychological/emotional problems
    11. 11. Nature of Disabilities • • • • Very severe limitations – 13.5% Severe limitations – 24.8% Mild limitations – 35.4% Affects women more than men
    12. 12. Impact of Barriers • Poverty: related to workforce participation – 48% of people with disabilities are not in the labour force • Labour force participation rate depends on the severity, duration & type of disability • Severe or very severe activity limitations – 38.6% participation rate • Moderate activity limitation – 56.6% participation rate
    13. 13. Impact of Barriers • Poverty: Related to income: • People with disabilities, when working, earn only ~86% of the incomes people without disabilities earn • Men with long term disabilities – 8 X more at risk for low income • Women with log-term disabilities – 4 X more at risk
    14. 14. Impact of Barriers • Workplace barriers: • Need for workplace accommodations: – Job modifications – personal help • job redesign – eg. Hours of work – Workplace modifications – changes to environment • Ramps • Parking spots
    15. 15. Persistence of Workplace Barriers • Discrimination – 5 X more likely to report experiencing discrimination • People who plan physical workspaces don’t take the time to consider all the possible needs in order to consider how to include everyone in the workplace. • Lack of will of individual employers • Costs- seen as more costly to support varying needs • Not seen as the responsibility of an individual employer • Lack of awareness of barriers created by a workplace • Lack of consultation with those experiencing disabilities • Harassment may discourage people from seeking to ensure their legal, human rights are upheld • Employers may be more vigilant for “proof” that the employee with a disability cannot do the job.
    16. 16. Impact of Barriers • Poverty: Related to disability income: 1. Canada Pension Plan Disability (CPPD) – Severe and prolonged – Labour force income for 4 of last 6 years – Under 65 years – Contributing to Canada Pension Plan – $775 per month – 50% below the poverty line (LICO) – No drug benefit plan
    17. 17. Impact of Barriers: • Poverty: Related to disability income 2. Ontario Disability Support Plan – 2 components: Income assistance – basic needs & shelter Employment supports – prepare for work or start a business – Drug benefits, eyeglasses, dental care, some assistive devices 3. Other programs – Employment Insurance (temporary), Worker’s Safety & Insurance Board, Ontario Works (while waiting for ODSP, or if temporary disability)
    18. 18. Impact of Barriers • Additional Economic Disadvantage: Costs: – – – – – Necessity for equipment Only 62.3% of people had the equipment they needed 28.9% used some equipment but needed more 9.9% had none of the equipment they required 41.3% of severely disabled had equipment they needed – 70% of people with communication disabilities did not have the equipment they needed – Costs – purchase and maintenance of equipment
    19. 19. Impact of Barriers • Diminished opportunities for friendship & intimate relationships – Symptoms • Fatigue • Mobility difficulties – Social skill impairment – Social service structure
    20. 20. Impact of Barriers • Unequal opportunities for recreation • Women with disabilities more likely to be abused than other women – Greater than 50% for some women • Lower self-esteem > Denial of basic human rights
    21. 21. Special issues for People With Intellectual Disabilities: • Independent living – in their community – Variety of residential options • Individualization – services based on individual strengths, needs and wishes • Abuse – almost 11 X more likely to be sexually assaulted
    22. 22. Special Issues for People with Autism Spectrum Disorders: • Challenges unique to the disorder: – – – – – Experiencing difficulty to articulate thoughts Managing with change Managing anxiety Being able to participate in group activities Tendency to fixate on a topic of interest • Services for adults are grouped in services for people with Intellectual Disabilities • Planning for adulthood • Need for specialized mental health services
    23. 23. Reading: • Hutchison, P. & McGill, J. (1996). Leisure, Integration and Community. Toronto: Leisurability Publications, Inc. Ch. 2.
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