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Hmns10085 mod3
Hmns10085 mod3
Hmns10085 mod3
Hmns10085 mod3
Hmns10085 mod3
Hmns10085 mod3
Hmns10085 mod3
Hmns10085 mod3
Hmns10085 mod3
Hmns10085 mod3
Hmns10085 mod3
Hmns10085 mod3
Hmns10085 mod3
Hmns10085 mod3
Hmns10085 mod3
Hmns10085 mod3
Hmns10085 mod3
Hmns10085 mod3
Hmns10085 mod3
Hmns10085 mod3
Hmns10085 mod3
Hmns10085 mod3
Hmns10085 mod3
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Hmns10085 mod3

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  • 1. Issues in Human Services (HMNS 10085) Module 3: Poverty
  • 2. Definition of Poverty • “The experience of material and social deprivation that prevents individual, communities and entire societies from reaching their full potential.” (Raphael, 2007, p. 6). • Income and wealth inequality
  • 3. How should poverty be defined? • Relative poverty - compares incomes to average incomes in that society • Absolute poverty - resources to pay for basic needs (food & shelter) • Being excluded or marginalized from the standards of living available to the average income-earning Canadian
  • 4. How is poverty measured? • Poverty line > Statistics Canada Low Income Cut-Off (LICO) • Income level that below it, individuals would spend a larger share of their income on basic necessities – 55% of income vs. ~34% of income
  • 5. How is poverty measured? • Depth of poverty - how much income would it take to raise individual/family to the LICO • Poverty duration - length of time someone experiences low income
  • 6. Poverty in Canada • 3.2 million Canadians lived below LICO in 2009 – 9.6% of all Canadians • Same number of people had incomes that moved above LICO, as moved below LICO • Depth of poverty - 26% below LICO • Duration of poverty - 60% of Canadians living in poverty, it is temporary – For 40% of those living in poverty it is more enduring – 5% - they lived in poverty for > 10 years.
  • 7. What causes poverty? • Income distribution across a nation. • Income equality vs. inequality • Top income earning group - 40% of the total income generated by Canadians – Bottom income group - 6% of the total income • Top 2 income earning groups - 65% of total income generated by Canadians – Bottom 2 income earning groups - 18% of total income • Above figures from 1996 > in 2004, the total income of top earning group has risen by almost 20% • The rich are getting richer! • OR, income inequality is increasing
  • 8. What causes poverty? • Cost of living - cost of goods generally rises • Those whose incomes have not risen, actually paying more of their income for the same goods • Low social assistance & income assistance benefits • Trends in the types of jobs available • Wage trends • Groups of people at risk
  • 9. Job Trends Contributing to Poverty: • More temporary or part time jobs being created • Secure full time jobs with benefits are disappearing • In the “new economy”, jobs are in the service sector - retail, hospitality industries
  • 10. Job Trends Contributing to Poverty • 2007- 194, 000 or 50% of families experiencing poverty had a major income earner with full time work – Average income was $23,500 • Single individuals experiencing poverty, 306,000 or 28% had full time work – Average income was $10, 400 • “Working poor” • Lack of consistent minimum wage standards
  • 11. Poverty impacts some groups more than others: • • • • • Women Aboriginal individuals People of colour People with disabilities Recent newcomers to Canada
  • 12. Child Poverty • Between 2002 & 2007, 23% of all children (1.4 million) living in poverty at least one year in 6. – 107, 000 lived in poverty for all 6 years. • Impacts child growth & development • When parents had a higher level of educational attainment > opportunities for earning higher than poverty-level income. This may provide: – Access to play items likely to lead to optimal development – Lowered stress of parents – Access to neighbourhoods that are a safer physical & social environment
  • 13. Child Poverty • Educational outcomes associated with child poverty: 1. Lowered receptive vocabulary scores 2. Almost 50% more likely to have cognitive difficulties 3. 45% more likely to experience behavioural difficulties
  • 14. Child Poverty • Health outcomes associated with childhood poverty: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Higher probability of health problems Higher infant mortality rate Lower birth weight babies Growth delay More likely to have asthma & other chronic diseases More likely to visit hospital emergency departments More likely to die from injuries
  • 15. Impact of Experiencing Poverty: Material & Social Deprivation: • Food insecurity – Food bank usage > 25% of those accessing the Daily Bread Food Bank are employed, the rest receive social assistance • On average, people accessing the Daily Bread Food Bank, had $5.67 left over after paying rent and utility bills. • Half of those accessing DBFB had not eaten for a whole day in the past, and half of these people did so “almost every month”. • 43% identified not being able to afford nutritionally balanced meals
  • 16. Impact of Experiencing Poverty: Material & Social Deprivation: • Housing: – 2004 - the proportion of renters spending more than 30% on housing was ~42% in Toronto. – The proportion spending more than 50% was 20% >high risk of homelessness
  • 17. Impact of Experiencing Poverty: Material & Social Deprivation • Homelessness: – A state of having nowhere to live – Can be “hidden homeless” > couch surf – Use of homeless or family shelters • Housing crisis > exacerbated by the lack of affordable housing • Not only is subsidized housing not being built, rent controls (regulations to control rent increases) have been relaxed. • Wait lists in Hamilton for subsidized housing were at > 4000 applicants long in 2005. • Housing also needs to be adequate - not in need of major
  • 18. Impact of Experiencingn Poverty: Material & Social Deprivation: • Health outcomes: – Cardiovascular disease is 3 times higher for those living in poverty – Incidence of heart attack - 2.5 times higher in the lowest income level than in the highest – 1 year survival rates 82% for those in the upper income level, & 76.4 for those in the lowest income level – Slower access to specialists
  • 19. Impact of Experiencing Poverty: Material & Social Deprivation: • Health outcomes: – Rate of diabetes is higher - 4 times greater for women in lower income communities than those in higher income communities – For men in lower income communities, 40% higher rate than middle income earning men, & 50% higher than men in higher income communities – Higher incidence of death due to mental health disorders amongst those living in poverty – Life expectancy> men 2.8 years less for those in lowest income communities compared to men in the next income earning group >5 years less than those in the highest income earning
  • 20. Impact of Experiencing Poverty: Material & Social Deprivation: • Inequality of opportunities - culture, recreation & leisure: areas of deprivation – Access to leisure, recreation & cultural activities is a determinant of health – Cost money, and tend to be not affordable – Recreation pursuits > health behaviours that may make people less vulnerable to health concerns
  • 21. Impact of Experiencing Poverty: Experience of Stress • Associated with being able to meet basic needs, social needs • Worry about this on a daily basis • Where will money come from to cover some costs that are unexpected? • Stress involved with “going without”
  • 22. Impact of Experiencing Poverty: Experience of Stigma • Blame • Seen as “undeserving” • Feelings of degradation - internalized public sentiments • Lowered self-esteem effects of stigma
  • 23. Readings: • National Council on Welfare (2010). Duration of poverty. Poverty Profile 2007. Ottawa: National Council on Welfare. • National Council on Welfare (2010). Education & poverty. Poverty Profile 2007. Ottawa: National Council on Welfare. • National Council on Welfare (2010). Paid work and poverty. Poverty Profile 2007. Ottawa: National Council on Welfare. • National Council on Welfare (2010). Sources of income. Poverty Profile 2007. Ottawa: National Council on Welfare. • National Council on Welfare (2010). The dollars and sense of solving poverty. Poverty Profile 2007. Ottawa: National Council on Welfare. Above profiles all retrieved from site for National Council on Welfare http://www.ncw.gc.ca/

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