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Hmns10085 mod2

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  • Swearer, et al (2010).
  • Transcript

    • 1. Issues in Human Services (HMNS 10085) Module 2: Issues Pertaining to Youth
    • 2. What is Youth? • Adolescence - the years of 10 to 18 • Teenage years - 13-18 years • Period of time between when puberty begins and when adulthood is reached – Menarche – Semenarche – Time of rapid growth • Emerging adulthood 18 to 2 years
    • 3. The Emergence of Adolescence as a Stage of Childhood • Adolescence - recent stage of childhood – Emerged in 1890s – Time period when attending school – This has increased over time • Cultures vary by expectations on adolescents- may be based on gender
    • 4. Issues for Youth • High Risk Behaviours - aggression/ “delinquent behaviour”, gang activity – Bullying – Substance Use • Mental Health Issues - depression, anxiety, eating disorders, self-harm/suicide • Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual/Transgender/Queer Youth
    • 5. Classification of Problems • Externalizing problems: – Directed towards others • Internalizing problems: – Directed inward
    • 6. Externalizing Problems: “Delinquent” Behaviour & Violence: • Criminal activity and violence attract a lot of attention. • Youth do commit a disproportionate number of violent crimes • Youth - 7% of the overall, general population • Youth are 4 times more likely to be victims of crime - female more than male.
    • 7. “Delinquent” Behaviour & Violence: • • • • • • Problem-solving cognition Judgement Connection to disruptive peers Early maturation (girls) Values Witnessing or experiencing violence
    • 8. Contributors to “Delinquent” Behaviour & Violence: • Youth “act out” for a reason • Conditions within the youth • Past or present abuse, neglect or chaotic environments (due to substance abuse) • Structural risk factors – Living in poverty > food insecurity, specifically.
    • 9. How School Experience May Contribute • Teacher insensitivity to a youth’s individuality • Rigid discipline • Continuous negative interactions • Failing to assess the strengths of youth • Lack of funding for special education resources that help promote school success.
    • 10. Gang Activity: Types of Gangs • • • • • Groups of friends Spontaneous Criminal Activity Gang Purposive Gang Youth Street Gang Structure Criminal Organization
    • 11. Myths about gangs: • Cultural or ethnic groups form gangs composed of individuals from their own cultural or racial groups • Newcomers to Canada frequently form gangs • Criminal gangs are composed of youth
    • 12. What do gangs provide youth? • • • • • Respect A sense of making a contribution Potential for leadership Relief from boredom Acknowledgement of the youth as a unique individual • A feeling of membership, belonging • A feeling of empowerment
    • 13. Why gangs tend to form: • • • • • Living in poverty Unemployment Racism Family-oriented difficulties Not succeeding in school/low attachment to school • Chaos in community
    • 14. Interventions for Youth Involved in Gangs: • Structural approach: – Mobilize a community to take action – Provide educational, recreational and employment opportunities – Social intervention (eg. housing)
    • 15. Bullying • Bullying is defined as, “…a way of attaining power through aggression.” • There is intentionality • Tends to be repetitive in nature
    • 16. Bullying Behaviour & Types of Bullying • Bullying Behaviour: – – – – – Physical Verbal Social Used electronically Being a bystander • Types: Racial, religious, sexual & disability
    • 17. How Often Does it Happen? • 20% of children & youth report being bullied. • Increases in early adolescence • Decreases in later adolescence • Boys are bullied more using physical behaviours • Girls - more use of exclusion, gossip behaviours.
    • 18. Who is particularly at risk: • Large body type • Not fitting in with peer group • Students who have disabilities &/or use special education services • Students who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ)
    • 19. Impact of being bullied: • • • • Anxious and lonely School avoidance Illness - depression and suicidal thoughts Poor academic performance
    • 20. Who tends to bully? • Anyone • Do not possess effective social problemsolving skills • Considered attractive, popular & leaders in their school communities
    • 21. Measures to combat bullying: • • • • • School-based awareness campaigns Directed to the whole school body “Norm” Research evidence - mixed Raising awareness of the bystander role
    • 22. Substance Use • It becomes problematic when: – habitual – involves street or illegal drugs – Interferes with daily life & functioning
    • 23. How many youth use substances? • >65% of students had used alcohol (25.3% had been binge-drinking) • 29.8% had used cannabis • >23% smoked tobacco • 6% used ecstasy • No substance use > 27.4% • At least 4 different drugs - 14% of all students • 5.6% of students - could not stop using
    • 24. Trends in Youth Substance Use: • Alcohol & using drugs increasing since the 90s. – – – – Some increase in use of most substances Highest increase - marijuana Increase in alcohol Increase in designer drugs or rave drugs (Ecstasy) • Use of tobacco decreased since 90s. – Except it has increased in young women – Highest smoking rate in country
    • 25. Associated Problems in Substance Use: • Use of alcohol, marijuana, cocaine & amphetamines linked to violent behaviour • More likely to gamble • Substance use (alcohol use especially) is linked to depression • ADHD diagnoses
    • 26. Factors Thought to Contribute to Substance Use: • • • • Influenced by peers Have mothers Move frequently/school adjustment Have lower parent supervision & support in single parent families • Have parents who are more authoritative & directing • Come from households where parents are religious
    • 27. Individual Characteristics/Resources that decrease likelihood of substance use in youth: • • • • Good self-concept Religious beliefs/values Authoritative parenting Social support
    • 28. Mental Health Issues in Youth: • Externalizing Disorders: – Conduct Disorder – Oppositional Defiance Disorder • Internalizing Disorders: – – – – – Depression Self-injury Suicide Anxiety Eating disorders • ~20% of youth have a mental health disorder
    • 29. Depression: • Symptoms: – – – – – – – – – – Low mood Feelings of sadness Crying easily Loss of interest in activities previously enjoyed Sleep disturbances Appetite disturbances Low energy Stomach aches or headaches Diminished memory & ability to concentrate Youth > irritability • Interferes with functioning in daily life
    • 30. Depression: How many youth does it affect? • 3.5% of children and youth experience depression • Tends to increase in adolescence • Girls more affected than boys • Can be difficult to detect
    • 31. Anxiety • Anxiety - level is such that it interferes with functioning in daily life • Often occurs with depression. • Impacts ~6% of children & youth • Types of anxiety disorders: – Generalized Anxiety-many worries & fears – Specific Phobia - anxiety response specific to 1 thing > highly avoidant – Social Phobia - excessive worry about social situations – Panic Disorder - physical panic response > “attack” – Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder - uncontrollable & unreasonable thoughts (obsessions) & routines/rituals (compulsions)
    • 32. Factors Contributing to Depression & Anxiety: • • • • • • • • Genetic - runs in family Early life stress - trauma Attachment issues Psychological controlling by parents Economic problems in household Low marital happiness in parents Parental hostility towards you Reaction to a stressful life event
    • 33. Self-injurious Behaviour • “…any deliberate, repetitive attempt to harm one’s own bodily tissue without a conscious desire to commit suicide.” (Nock & Prinstein, 2005, in Martin, 2011). • Most frequent - cutting legs and arms with razor blade, burning one’s self.
    • 34. Prevalence of Self-injurious Behaviour • Adolescents are at higher risk for selfinjuring than adults • 39% of adolescents have self-inflicted injury at some point in their lifetime • Female youth self-injure at a much higher rate.
    • 35. Causes of Self-injuring Behaviour • Causes are unclear • Associated with: – – – – – Eating Disorders Depression Anxiety Physical, sexual or severe emotional abuse Being a perfectionist
    • 36. Reasons for Self-injury • It allows youth to feel something when they otherwise feel emotionally numb • Allows youth to numb psychic pain • Internal expression of rage or intense anger • Self-punishment • Means of getting attention
    • 37. Eating Disorders • A group of disorders characterized by a distorted body image in which eating behaviours are severely restricted or unhealthy, to alter body weight & shape – See themselves as fat when dangerously thin • Primary onset- tends to be adolescence • Risk for medical problems such as: – – – – – – – Infertility Tooth damage Heart & kidney problems Bone loss Anemia Premature death Growth may be halted
    • 38. Types of Eating Disorders • Anorexia Nervosa - refusal to maintain expected body weight (< 85% of normal body weight) through starvation, excessive exercise, use of diuretics, laxatives. Use of excessive calorie counting, lack of satisfaction with weight loss, intense fear of gaining weight. Part of diagnosis - absence of menstrual cycle for 3 months. • Bulimia Nervosa - binge eating followed by purging (vomiting, using laxatives). Youth feels no control over the eating behavior. • Binge-eating Disorder - Eats excessively to point of being uncomfortable. Feels highly guilty which can lead to other binges.
    • 39. Prevalence • Anorexia - half to 1% of youth • Bulimia - 1 to 3% of youth • Females much more likely to have an eating disorder
    • 40. Causes • Interplay of cultural, genetic & psychological causes • Cultural -related to unrealistic body image ideals • Genetic - predisposition to mental disorders • Psychological - may have anxiety disorder earlier in childhood. Low self-esteem, trying to be “perfect”; family interaction patterns – Control
    • 41. Suicide • The most extreme internalizing disorder • Adolescents - high risk, females higher suicidal ideation • Rate is higher for adolescents than adults • Rate is growing
    • 42. Types of Suicidal Behaviour • Gestures - cry for help vs. attempt with intent to kill oneself • Attempts/Completed • Females - 85% of those who attempt but are unsuccessful • Males - 80% of those who complete suicide
    • 43. Risk Factors for Suicide: • Youth feeling hopeless, with little social support, having feelings of hostility & negative self-esteem > greatest risk • Strongly linked to family disruption & divorce • Having a friend commit suicide. • Having a gun (for males) • High level of school involvement > associated with a decreased risk for suicide
    • 44. Schizophrenia • Most often diagnosed in late adolescence or emerging adulthood • Thought Disorder • Symptoms: – – – – – Unclear or illogical thinking Delusions Hallucinations Cognitive impairment Inability to express emotions
    • 45. Early Signs • 30 times more likely to commit suicide • Increased social isolation - especially from peers • Declining cognitive functioning - confusing thoughts • Indications of hallucinations
    • 46. Treatment of Mental Health Disorders: • Prevention • Medical treatment • Cognitive Behavioural Therapy - for depression, anxiety & eating disorders • Family therapy
    • 47. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender/Transexual, Queer (LGBTQ) Youth • Often the victims of bullying - 75% of gay youth in one study reported being verbally abused at school & 14% reported physical abuse • 85% of LGBTQ youth reported being victimized by bullying - 60% report having been assaulted • Male youth were abused more than female youth • School climate in which there is heterosexist, homophobic language used > increased anxiety & depression amongst LGBTQ youth – 39.4% heard such remarks from adults in their schools • High rate of suicide - 30% reported attempting
    • 48. How to make communities safe & inclusive for LGBTQ Youth • Address the harassment - provide education to school personnel to begin with • Policies that do not condone harassment based on LGBTQ status > “Zero Tolerance” policies • Focus on sexuality as part of youth’s personhood - not the sole defining factor of a human being • Teach students to respect the dignity of all persons
    • 49. Readings: • Centre For Addiction & Mental Health (2002). Alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among Ontario Students. Youth Scoop, Vol 2. Toronto: Centre For Addiction & Mental Health. • Retrieved from: http://www.camh.net/education/Resources_teachers_alcdruguse.pdf. • Centre For Addiction & Mental Health (2002). Youth violence: what’s the story? . Youth Scoop, Vol 3. Toronto: Centre For Addiction & Mental Health. • Retrieved from: http://www.camh .net/education/Resources_teachers_schools/Youth%20Scoop/youth_scoop_violence_youth.pdf • Centre For Addiction & Mental Health (2009). Hear me, understand me, support me: what young women want you to know about depression. Toronto: Centre For Mental Health & Addiction. • Retrieved from: http://www.camh.net/Publications/Resources_for_Professionals/Validity/validity_sizism.html • Hamilton Wentworth District School Board (____). Bullying: Information for parents and students. In Safe and Caring Schools #3. • Retrieved from: http://www.hwdsb.on.ca/programs/safeschools/bullying/pdfs/bullying_booklet_english.pdf.
    • 50. Readings continued… • Offord Centre For Child Studies (2007). Eating problems in children and adolescence. Hamilton, ON: Centre of Knowledge on Healthy Child Development. • Retrieved from: http://knowledge.offordcentre.com/images/stories/offord/pamphlets/EatingDisorder_en.pdf. • Offord Centre For Child Studies (2007). Mood problems in children and adolescents. Hamilton, ON:Centre of Knowledge on Healthy Child Development. • Retrieved from: http://knowledge.offordcentre.com/images/stories/offord/pamphlets/Mood%20B&W.pdf.

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