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Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
Lecture3  computer systems
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Lecture3 computer systems

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  • A: To 'split up' data intensive tasks. 
  • Petaflops – quadrillion floating point operations/ second
  • Transcript

    • 1.  We talked about the evolution of computers  How initial computers were mechanical, and then came electro-mechanicals, then tube-based, and finally transistor based, and how the future belongs to quantum computers  We discussed how the size is drastically decreasing with time and how their capability is increasing year by year
    • 2. 1. To learn to classify computers according to their capability and targeted applications 2. To find out about the essential building blocks that make up a modern computer
    • 3.  Amount of data that can be stored in memory  Speed of internal operation of the computer  Number and type of peripheral devices  Amount and type of software available for use with the computer
    • 4.  Supercomputers  Mainframes  Servers  Desktops  Portables
    • 5.  State-of-the-art machines designed to perform calculations as fast as the current technology allows  Used to solve extremely complex and large-scale problems: weather prediction, simulation of atomic explosions; aircraft design; movie animation  Cost tens of millions of dollars  Unique in that unlike mainframes & personal computers, designed to focus all their resources and capabilities on a single task at a time
    • 6.  Early supercomputers used a single or a few processors working in parallel  Those processors were custom-built for the supercomputers, and were, therefore, very expensive  Modern supercomputers use the same processors that are used in desktop PCs. They, however, are designed to use 1000’s of them working together in parallel
    • 7. ? Why not just design a single, really powerful processor ? Post your answers on YG
    • 8.  Most powerful computer as of February 2002  Capable of 12.3 trillion calculations/sec  74,000 times faster than Cray 1 (1976)  1,000 times faster than Deep Blue (1997)  Designed for complex 3-D simulations required for testing nuclear weapons  Powered by 8192 microprocessors  6 TB of memory; 160 TB of storage capacity
    • 9.  As of June 2010, Jaguar is the world's most powerful computer according to TOP500.  Peak performance of just over 1750 teraflops (1.75 petaflops)  Has 224, 256 Opteron processor cores  Operates with a version of Linux called Cray Linux Environment.  300TB of memory;
    • 10.  Also called “Enterprise Servers”  Designed for performing multiple, intensive tasks for multiple users simultaneously  Used by large businesses (e.g. banks, e- commerce sites), military, and industrial organizations
    • 11.  Designed for very-high reliability  Can be serviced/upgraded while in operation  Generally consist of multiple processors, GB’s of memory, and TB’s of storage  Cost in millions of dollars
    • 12.  The name minicomputers used to define the class of computers that lies between personal computers and mainframes  Then very high-end desktop computers – called low-end or mid-range servers – took over the role that was previously played by minicomputers
    • 13.  Low-end and mid-range servers are used by small businesses and organizations as file-stores, to run e-mail systems and Web sites  Generally are more reliable than desktops, but not as solid as the mainframes  Generally consist of 2 or more processors, GB’s of memory, and TB’s of storage  Costs in hundreds of thousands of dollars
    • 14.  Also called microcomputers  Low-end desktops are called PC’s and high-end ones “Workstations”  Generally consist of a single processor only, some times 2, along with GB’s of memory, and GB’s of storage
    • 15.  PC’s are used for running productivity applications, Web surfing, messaging  Workstations for more demanding tasks like low- end 3-D simulations and other engineering & scientific apps  Are not as reliable and fault-tolerant as servers  Workstations cost a few thousand dollars; PC around a $1000
    • 16.  Laptops, palmtops, and wearable computers are very capable computers but are light-weight and consume very little power  Laptops (also called notebook computers) generally weigh around 2kg, use special low-power processors, typically have 1GB memory, 320GB of storage, can work for more than 2 hours on battery  Their usage is similar to that of PCs  They cost in the range of $1500-2500
    • 17.  Palmtops, also known as PDA’s - Personal Digital Assistants  Weigh less than a pound, have very low-power processors, KB’s of memory, MB’s of storage capacity  Can run for many hours on AA batteries  Used as an electronic version of a pocket diary. Also for Web surfing and e-mail or even as mobile phones  Palmtops cost $200-600
    • 18.  Wearables are small in size, carried in a pocket, worn on the arm, waist, or head or elsewhere on the body  Capability similar to PDA’s, but more expensive  They are always ON, and always accessible. That is, the user can always enter and execute commands, even while walking around or doing other activities  Each soldier of the future will be fitted with one
    • 19.  PC’s  PDA’s  Workstations  Servers  Wearables (will take the top spot in future)  Mainframes  Supercomputers
    • 20. Hardware: The physical equipment in a computing environment such as the computer and its peripheral devices (printers, speakers, etc.) Software: The set of instructions that operates various parts of the hardware. Also termed as “computer program”
    • 21. Input – the component through which a user instructs a computer about what to do Processor – the engine that processes the instructions given by the user Memory – where the processor stores information that is required during its computations Storage – where information that is required to be used much later is stored Output – the component that communicates the results of a computation to the user
    • 22. Control Integer Keyboard Mouse Unit Unit Compact Floating Disk Cache Point Memory Unit Processor Hard System Bus Disk Memory Bus Memory Printer Monitor
    • 23.  Mouse  Keyboard  Joystick  Camera  Microphone  Scanner
    • 24. The connection point at which we connect input and output devices to a computer
    • 25. 1. Parallel 2. Serial 3. SCSI 4. USB 5. Firewire
    • 26.  Pentium  Celeron  Athlon  PowerPC  StrongARM (PDA)  Crusoe (Laptops)  SPARC (Workstations)
    • 27.  RAM  Punch cards  ROM  Hard disk  Floppy disk  Tape  CD  DVD
    • 28.  Electronic (RAM, ROM) magnetic (HD, FD, Tape), optical (CD, DVD)  Volatile (RAM), non-volatile (HD)  Direct access (RAM, HD), serial access (Tape)  Read/write (HD, RAM), read-only (CD)
    • 29. Printer Plotter Speakers Monitor
    • 30. demodulator mo dem
    • 31.  Can you think of any other such dual- purpose devices?  Network card  Touch screens
    • 32. 1. What are the major building blocks of a modern personal computer? 2. How those building blocks are put together to form a PC?

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