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Lecture3 computer systems

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  • A: To 'split up' data intensive tasks. 
  • Petaflops – quadrillion floating point operations/ second
  • Transcript

    • 1.  We talked about the evolution of computers  How initial computers were mechanical, and then came electro-mechanicals, then tube-based, and finally transistor based, and how the future belongs to quantum computers  We discussed how the size is drastically decreasing with time and how their capability is increasing year by year
    • 2. 1. To learn to classify computers according to their capability and targeted applications 2. To find out about the essential building blocks that make up a modern computer
    • 3.  Amount of data that can be stored in memory  Speed of internal operation of the computer  Number and type of peripheral devices  Amount and type of software available for use with the computer
    • 4.  Supercomputers  Mainframes  Servers  Desktops  Portables
    • 5.  State-of-the-art machines designed to perform calculations as fast as the current technology allows  Used to solve extremely complex and large-scale problems: weather prediction, simulation of atomic explosions; aircraft design; movie animation  Cost tens of millions of dollars  Unique in that unlike mainframes & personal computers, designed to focus all their resources and capabilities on a single task at a time
    • 6.  Early supercomputers used a single or a few processors working in parallel  Those processors were custom-built for the supercomputers, and were, therefore, very expensive  Modern supercomputers use the same processors that are used in desktop PCs. They, however, are designed to use 1000’s of them working together in parallel
    • 7. ? Why not just design a single, really powerful processor ? Post your answers on YG
    • 8.  Most powerful computer as of February 2002  Capable of 12.3 trillion calculations/sec  74,000 times faster than Cray 1 (1976)  1,000 times faster than Deep Blue (1997)  Designed for complex 3-D simulations required for testing nuclear weapons  Powered by 8192 microprocessors  6 TB of memory; 160 TB of storage capacity
    • 9.  As of June 2010, Jaguar is the world's most powerful computer according to TOP500.  Peak performance of just over 1750 teraflops (1.75 petaflops)  Has 224, 256 Opteron processor cores  Operates with a version of Linux called Cray Linux Environment.  300TB of memory;
    • 10.  Also called “Enterprise Servers”  Designed for performing multiple, intensive tasks for multiple users simultaneously  Used by large businesses (e.g. banks, e- commerce sites), military, and industrial organizations
    • 11.  Designed for very-high reliability  Can be serviced/upgraded while in operation  Generally consist of multiple processors, GB’s of memory, and TB’s of storage  Cost in millions of dollars
    • 12.  The name minicomputers used to define the class of computers that lies between personal computers and mainframes  Then very high-end desktop computers – called low-end or mid-range servers – took over the role that was previously played by minicomputers
    • 13.  Low-end and mid-range servers are used by small businesses and organizations as file-stores, to run e-mail systems and Web sites  Generally are more reliable than desktops, but not as solid as the mainframes  Generally consist of 2 or more processors, GB’s of memory, and TB’s of storage  Costs in hundreds of thousands of dollars
    • 14.  Also called microcomputers  Low-end desktops are called PC’s and high-end ones “Workstations”  Generally consist of a single processor only, some times 2, along with GB’s of memory, and GB’s of storage
    • 15.  PC’s are used for running productivity applications, Web surfing, messaging  Workstations for more demanding tasks like low- end 3-D simulations and other engineering & scientific apps  Are not as reliable and fault-tolerant as servers  Workstations cost a few thousand dollars; PC around a $1000
    • 16.  Laptops, palmtops, and wearable computers are very capable computers but are light-weight and consume very little power  Laptops (also called notebook computers) generally weigh around 2kg, use special low-power processors, typically have 1GB memory, 320GB of storage, can work for more than 2 hours on battery  Their usage is similar to that of PCs  They cost in the range of $1500-2500
    • 17.  Palmtops, also known as PDA’s - Personal Digital Assistants  Weigh less than a pound, have very low-power processors, KB’s of memory, MB’s of storage capacity  Can run for many hours on AA batteries  Used as an electronic version of a pocket diary. Also for Web surfing and e-mail or even as mobile phones  Palmtops cost $200-600
    • 18.  Wearables are small in size, carried in a pocket, worn on the arm, waist, or head or elsewhere on the body  Capability similar to PDA’s, but more expensive  They are always ON, and always accessible. That is, the user can always enter and execute commands, even while walking around or doing other activities  Each soldier of the future will be fitted with one
    • 19.  PC’s  PDA’s  Workstations  Servers  Wearables (will take the top spot in future)  Mainframes  Supercomputers
    • 20. Hardware: The physical equipment in a computing environment such as the computer and its peripheral devices (printers, speakers, etc.) Software: The set of instructions that operates various parts of the hardware. Also termed as “computer program”
    • 21. Input – the component through which a user instructs a computer about what to do Processor – the engine that processes the instructions given by the user Memory – where the processor stores information that is required during its computations Storage – where information that is required to be used much later is stored Output – the component that communicates the results of a computation to the user
    • 22. Control Integer Keyboard Mouse Unit Unit Compact Floating Disk Cache Point Memory Unit Processor Hard System Bus Disk Memory Bus Memory Printer Monitor
    • 23.  Mouse  Keyboard  Joystick  Camera  Microphone  Scanner
    • 24. The connection point at which we connect input and output devices to a computer
    • 25. 1. Parallel 2. Serial 3. SCSI 4. USB 5. Firewire
    • 26.  Pentium  Celeron  Athlon  PowerPC  StrongARM (PDA)  Crusoe (Laptops)  SPARC (Workstations)
    • 27.  RAM  Punch cards  ROM  Hard disk  Floppy disk  Tape  CD  DVD
    • 28.  Electronic (RAM, ROM) magnetic (HD, FD, Tape), optical (CD, DVD)  Volatile (RAM), non-volatile (HD)  Direct access (RAM, HD), serial access (Tape)  Read/write (HD, RAM), read-only (CD)
    • 29. Printer Plotter Speakers Monitor
    • 30. demodulator mo dem
    • 31.  Can you think of any other such dual- purpose devices?  Network card  Touch screens
    • 32. 1. What are the major building blocks of a modern personal computer? 2. How those building blocks are put together to form a PC?