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Upper Body Structural Balance

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Presentation on upper bidy muscle balance and strength ratios

Presentation on upper bidy muscle balance and strength ratios


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  • 1. Mark McKean PhD CSCS
    Upper Body Structural Balance
    RESEARCH
  • 2. Session Summary
    This session will cover
    Shoulder strength & flexibility research
    The relative ratios for shoulder strength & flexibility.
    Key issues for program design
  • 3. Research summary
  • 4. Research Areas
    Scapula position/stability
    Shoulder strength
    Shoulder flexibility
    Other notes
  • 5. Scapula position/stability
  • 6. Muscles Involved
    Trapezius and serratus anterior most important stabilisers acting on scapula thoracic joint (Mottram 1997)
    The external rotators function in a synchronised pattern, with the deltoids to creata force couple necessary for normal, unrestricted motion (Kolber 2009).
    The deltoid provides dynamic stability with the arm in the scapular plane. (Lee 2002)
  • 7. The rotator cuff and biceps are active 0.092–0.215 s prior to the initiation of the actual movement and 0.112–0.034 s prior to onset of deltoid and pectoralis major activity when performing shoulder rotations (David 2000)
    The infraspinatus, subscapularis, and latissimus dorsi act as stabilizers during flexion; the subscapularis acts as a stabilizer during external rotation and the supraspinatus during extension. (Kronberg 1990)
  • 8. Program Design
    Exercise routines that emphasise the deltoid musculature and neglect the rotator cuff may create an imbalance of the deltoid–rotator cuff force couple, leading to altered muscle coordination, restricted AROM, and impingement of the shoulder complex during arm elevation (Kolber 2009)
    Increases in rotator cuff muscle forces tended to improve stability whereas increases in deltoid or pectoralis major muscle forces tended to further decrease stability (Labrioloa 2005)
  • 9. The mid and posterior heads of deltoid should be strengthened vigorously in anterior shoulder instability...., because they provide more stability generating higher compressive force and lower shear force... (lee 2002)
  • 10. Scapula stability exercises and thoracic curve correction should be done before rotator cuff exercises (Kibler 1998)
    Ideal scapula position yet to be determined but it is not in its inner range of lower traps, and “down and back” is not an appropriate command (Mottram 1997)
  • 11. Imbalances
    Overhead athletes with impingement symptoms demonstrated strength deficits and muscular imbalance in the scapular muscles compared with uninjured athletes. (Cools 2005)
    Significant difference in awareness of scapula position between dominant and non-dominant shoulders. (Boyar 2007)
  • 12. Shoulder strength
  • 13. Pull:Push Ratio
    Rugby players – bench press to pull ups 1:1(Baker 2004)
    Kayak paddlers – bench press to pull ups females - 1:1.47, & males 1:1.29 (McKean 2009)
    Normal population – pull:push ratio using dynamometer 1:1.12 (Peebles 2003)
  • 14. Shoulder Strength Ratios
    If use a key predictor exercise - 1RM Pull up = 100% (kayakers – McKean 2009)
    8 RM Shoulder press - Deltoid – 18%
    8 RM External rotation - External rotators – 9%
    8 RM Bent over trap 3 raise - Lower Traps – 6%
  • 15. Suggested rotator cuff ratio of internal to external strength is approx 1.3 to 1.6. (Codine 1997, Niederbracht 2008, Barlow 2002, Hughes 1999)
    Deltoid : External Rotators : Lower Traps
    3 : 1.5 : 1 ratio of strength (McKean 2009)
  • 16. Flexion:extension – 1.26-2.22 (depending on angle isometric measure taken 30-60-90 degrees flexed - Hughes 1999)
    Abduction:adduction – 1.53-2.63 (depending on angle isometric measure taken 30-60-90 degrees abducted - Hughes 1999)
    Both ratios above increased to a higher ratio with age. i.e. Both extension and adduction movements became proportionally weaker
  • 17. Other RatiosNot published
  • 18. Based on key predictor exercise
  • 19. based on Different predictor exercises
  • 20. Strength Summary
    A few key issues to remember
    Upper body structural balance not solely based on numbers but also posture and movement
    Aim to achieve a steady and progressive change in loads across all lifts
    Every sport has a different ratio outcome but try and keep Traps and Rotators relatively strong for improved shoulder stability
  • 21. Shoulder flexibility
  • 22. ranges of movement about the shoulder
    Based on position of assessment done at 900 abduction
  • 23. Other Notes
  • 24. Push pull movements/stabilising showed postural adjustments were initiatedshortly before all focal movements (Cordo 1990)
    Isometric strength was significantly lower for the Scapula Protracted position compared with the Scapula Neutral position and Scapula retracted position (Smith 2002)
    By increasing the eccentric external total exercise capacity without a subsequent increase in the concentric internal total exercise capacity, it potentially decreases shoulder rotator muscle imbalances and the risk for shoulder injuries (Niederbracht 2008)
  • 25. Bodybuilders showed an overall loss of shoulder rotation ROM (1660 vs. 1880) and a significantly decreased internal rotation ROM (-110) compared with the control group, and were significantly weaker in lower trapezius strength when expressed as a percentage of body weight. (Barlow 2002)
  • 26. Changes in Shoulder Posture
  • 27. 2007
  • 28. 2010
  • 29. April 2008
  • 30.
  • 31. Oct 2008
  • 32.
  • 33. Key issues for program design
  • 34. Posture
    Ensure thoracic curve close to ideal before you address shoulder related strength problems
    Must reinforce correct thoracic curve at all times for all upper body exercises
    Need to negate the associated and exaggerated movement of thoracic hyperextension when pulling
  • 35. Pattern
    Control must occur before strength
    Practice makes permanent – not always perfect
    Simplify pattern until it can be controlled and perfected
    Poor movement patterns are the main cause of most muscle balance related issues – i.e. Trying to go too heavy, too quickly, too dynamic, too early before good patterns established
  • 36. Proprioception
    Teach client to “feel” the exercise, the movement, the stress, and the response of the body
    Unstable surface and complex movement training is often applied too quickly before client can “feel” a posture or pattern and once complicated by increased proprioceptive demand, loses “control” of the pattern and is unable to develop proper force output
  • 37. Pushing Exercise Progressions
    Chest press pw
    Change grip
    Chest press pl
    Use 1 arm
    Change grip
    BB chest press
    Change angle
    Change grip/line
    DB chest press
    Change grip
    Change angle
    Use 1 arm
  • 38. Sample progression
    Chest press pin weight
    Chest press plate loaded – horizontal grip
    Seated chest press pin weight
    Chest press plate loaded – vertical grip
    Chest press plate loaded – alternate push
    BB chest press – close grip
    BB incline chest press
    BB incline chest press mid grip – high bar
    DB chest press – neutral grip
    DB incline chest press – horizontal grip
    DB chest press – alternate arms
    DB chest press 1 arm
  • 39. Pulling Exercise Progressions
    Lat pulldown RG
    Lat pulldown CG
    Seated row
    Use 1 arm
    Assisted pull ups
    Single arm DB row
    Change support
    Pull ups
    Change angle
    BB row
  • 40. Sample progression
    Lat pulldown RG
    Lat pulldown CG
    Lat pulldown sup grip
    Assisted chin ups rg
    Assisted chin ups sup grip
    Pullups eccentrics
    Pull ups - RG
    Seated row – cg
    Seated row – neutral grip
    DB prone row
    Seated row – 1 arm
    1 arm DB row – kneeling
    1 arm DB row standing bent over
    • BB standing bent over row – cg, low bar
    • 41. BB standing bent over row – rg/mg, mid bar
  • Stability Exercise Progressions
    Thoracic posture
    Scapula rhythm
    Scapula setting
    Traps/subscap/serratus
    Scapula - humerus
    Shoulder rotation
    Int/ext rotators
    ROM control
    deltoids
    Stability-mobility
    Initial Strength ex
    Partial to full
    Push-pull
    Normal exercises
  • 42. Sample progression
    Straight arm wall sags and press
    Wall/floor angles up and down
    Bent over trap 3 raise
    Shoulder rotations – scap controlled – limited ROM
    Side arm scaption raises - partial to match control
    Single arm DB scaption press - partials to match ROM control
    Chest press/lat pulldown/seated row – partials to match ROM control
  • 43. Program Management
    Develop awareness of posture and ROM client can control
    Assess ROM, strength ratios either via real testing or subjective assessment depending on stage of client
    Progress clients according to ability and regress when required
  • 44. Suggested progressions
    0 - 6 months
    8-15 reps
    2-4 sets
    Up to 70% efforts
    Slower tempos to develop control eg 4020
    Aim for control of shoulder movements and stability as a priority
    6-18 months
    6-15 reps
    3-5 sets
    Up to 90% efforts
    Tempos can range up to 2010 still keeping slower eccentric
    Aim for proper strength ratios and good ROM
  • 45. Program samples
  • 46.
  • 47.
  • 48.
  • 49.
  • 50.
  • 51. Mark McKean
    Post Doctoral Research Fellow
    Australian Institute of Fitness Research
    University of Sunshine Coast
    mmckean@usc.edu.au