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  • 1. Practices and Knowledge on Environmental and Health Hazards of Farm Pesticide Use Kenneth D. Barrientos Researcher Mark Gem M. Merin Presenter
  • 2. Introduction  Pesticides are important inputs used in rice production to eliminate pests in order to increase income of the poor and vulnerable rice farmers. However, pesticides has hazardous effects to human health and negative impacts to the environment.  Previous study shows that the unsystematic use of pesticides resulted to ecological imbalances of farming system, worsening pest problems and creating harmful effects on environment and human health (Oczon, 2012; Rola and Pingali, 1993).  Kedia and Palis (2008) revealed that farmers lack of awareness and limited knowledge on the dangers of using pesticides were due to difficulties to comprehend the complex agrochemical label instructions and health safety information of the use of pesticides.
  • 3. Continued…  Rice farming is one of the major sources of income of poor and vulnerable sector of the society, particularly in the municipality of Ibajay, Aklan.  Increased rice production was given much attention by the national government focuses on trainings and seminars on transfer of technology, while little attention were given to the health and safety of farmers on the use of pesticides.  Hence, this study examined the practices and knowledge of rice farmers on environmental and health hazards brought about by pesticide use.
  • 4. Statement of the Problem The study aimed to determine the practices and knowledge on environmental and health hazards of pesticide use in Ibajay, Aklan. Specifically, the study answers the following questions: 1. What is the socio-demographic and economic profile of the respondents? 2. What are the kinds of pesticide used by the respondents? 3. What are the practices adopted in handling, application and disposal of pesticides? 4. What are the sources of knowledge on pesticide use? 5. What are the symptoms associated with mishandling of pesticides? 6. What is the knowledge of the respondents on the environmental and health hazards of using pesticides?
  • 5. METHODOLOGY  Research Design  Descriptive-survey method.  Locale of the Study   Municipality of Ibajay, Aklan. Seven (7) irrigated rice farming barangays.
  • 6. Location of the Study Agbago Laguinbanwa Aquino Naisud Batuan Maloco Naile
  • 7. Table 1. Number of respondents Population (N) 126 Barangays 1. Agbago Farmers Brgy. Officials 2. Aquino Farmers 3. Batuan Farmers 4. Laguinbanwa Farmers 5. Maloco Farmers 6. Naile Farmers 7. Naisud 12 11 13 11 14 11 174 Brgy. Officials 11 11 136 Brgy. Officials 13 11 130 Brgy. Officials 11 11 120 Brgy. Officials 13 11 132 Brgy. Officials Sample size 11 17 11 Farmers 174 Brgy. Officials 10 Total 992 11 17 10 99 76
  • 8. Sampling Techniques Systematic random sampling with a random start  Research Instrument Interview schedule  Data Gathering Procedure Secured approval from the Municipal Mayor Get permission from the barangay officials  Administered the interview schedule  Data Analysis Procedure Descriptive statistics Frequency count, percent, rank and mean
  • 9. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
  • 10. Table 2. Socio-Demographic and Economic Profile of the Respondents Profile Number Percent Total 38 82 50 5 175 21.71 46.86 28.57 2.86 100.00 Total 146 29 175 83.43 16.57 100.00 Total 24 150 1 175 13.71 85.71 0.57 100.00 Demographics Age* 15-24 years (Young) 25-40 years (Young adult) 41-64 years (Middle adult) 65-above years (Adult) Mean Age = 43 years old Gender Male Female Civil Status Single Married Widow *Source: Erikson’s Psychological Stages
  • 11. Table 2. Continued… Highest Educational Attainment Elementary Secondary Tertiary Total 23 78 74 175 13.14 44.57 42.29 100.0 Total 34 37 65 35 4 175 19.43 21.14 37.14 20.00 2.29 100.0 Total 19 15 13 23 14 18 24 126 15.08 11.90 10.32 18.25 11.11 14.29 19.05 100.0 Number of Children None 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-above Number of Years in Farming 1-5 years 6-10 years 11-15 years 16-20 years 21-25 years 26-30 years 31-above years
  • 12. Table 2. Continued… Socio-Economic Source of Farm Input Salary/Honoraria Loans Personal Total Average Rice Production/cropping 6-20 cavans 21-35 cavans 36-50 cavans 51-65 cavans 66-80 cavans 81-up cavans Total Hectares of Farmland 0.5 hectare 1 hectare 1.5 hectares 2 hectares - above Total 16 59 51 126 12.70 46.83 40.48 100.00 39 46 5 8 11 17 126 30.95 36.51 3.97 6.35 8.73 13.49 100.00 35 59 16 16 126 27.78 46.83 12.70 12.70 100.00
  • 13. Table 2. Continued… Ownership Farm owner 47 37.30 Tenant 79 62.70 126 100.00 Irrigated 72 57.14 Rainfed 54 42.86 126 100.00 Have Attended 97 76.98 Not Attended 29 23.02 126 100.00 Total Type of Farming Total Seminar Attended Total
  • 14. Table 3. Kinds of pesticides used by the respondents. Kinds of Pesticides use* Number Rank Insecticides 126 1 Molluscicides 118 2 Rodenticides 84 3 Fungicides 69 4 *Multiple responses
  • 15. Practices on Pesticide Handling, Storage, Application and Disposal Table 4. Handling and storage of pesticide containers by the respondents. Handling of Pesticides* Number Rank • Bagging pesticides away from groceries. 115 1 • Storing pesticides in locked and labeled cabinets. 93 4 • Putting pesticides on its original containers. 101 3 • Storing pesticides separately from other materials. 56 7 • Keeping storage area dry and well ventilated. 81 5 • Keeping pesticides away from children’s reach. 102 2 • Stored pesticides with intact and readable labels. 79 6 *Multiple responses
  • 16. Pesticide Application practices Table 5. Methods of pesticide application by the respondents. Methods of Application* Number Rank Using Knapsack Sprayer 114 1 Broadcasting 21 2 *Multiple responses
  • 17. Table 6. Disposal practices of empty containers by the respondents. Disposal Practices* Number Rank 7 4 Burying in the soil 104 1 Left in the field 33 3 Burning 36 2 Thrown in the river 1 5 Thrown anywhere 1 5 Garbage bins *Multiple responses
  • 18. Table 7. Protective gears worn by the respondents. Protective gears worn Complete protective clothing (Hat with brim, goggles, face mask, long-sleeved shirt, rubber gloves, protective boots, and long pants) Number Percent 3 2.38 Hat with brim, face mask, long-sleeved shirt, rubber gloves and long pants 32 25.40 Hat with brim, face mask, long-sleeved shirt, rubber gloves, protective boots, long pants 9 7.14 Long-sleeved shirt, rubber gloves, long pants 14 11.11 Face mask, long-sleeved shirt, long pants 57 45.24 Hat with brim, long-sleeved shirt and long pants 8 6.35 No protective gears 3 2.48 126 100.00 Total
  • 19. Table 8. Sources of pesticide knowledge by the respondents. Sources* Number Rank Through experience 67 2 From specialist 19 4 Agricultural Technologists 68 1 Product label 52 3 Pesticide dealer 13 5 *Multiple responses
  • 20. Table 9. Symptoms associated with mishandling pesticides. Symptoms* Dermal Skin rashes Redness of skin Excessive sweating Blackening of toe nails Respiratory Coughing Shortness of breath Neurological Headache Fatigue Gastrointestinal Vomiting Salivation Ophthalmic Eye itching Vision disturbance Systemic Abdominal pain *Multiple responses Number Rank 91 44 18 3 1 2 3 4 21 12 1 2 65 21 1 2 10 4 1 2 44 15 1 2 11 1
  • 21. Knowledge of the Respondents on Environmental and Health Hazards of Pesticide Use Table 10. Knowledge on environmental and health hazards of pesticide use. Responses Hazards Yes % No % 140 80.00 35 20.00 127 72.57 48 27.43 Pesticides accumulate on soil and harmful to crops. 104 59.43 71 40.57 Pesticides affects the acidity of the soil 108 61.71 67 38.29 102 58.29 73 41.71 121 69.14 54 30.86 75 42.86 100 57.14 111.00 63.43 64.00 36.57 ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS Hazards on Soil Toxic chemicals harm earthworms and soil microbes. Excess toxic chemicals accumulates in soil Soil became compacted Pesticide decreases the soil quality Pesticides prevent higher water retention. Average
  • 22. Table 10. Continued… Hazards on Air Pesticides contribute to air pollution. 153 87.43 22.00 12.57 143 81.71 32.00 18.29 Pesticides contribute to acid rain buildup. 96 54.86 79.00 45.14 Pesticides affect the ozone layer. 98 56.00 77.00 44.00 122.50 70.00 52.50 30.00 Pesticide residues contaminate bodies of water. 158 90.29 17 9.71 Pesticide is responsible for water pollution. 139 79.43 36 20.57 Pesticide contributes to the proliferation of algae. 59 33.71 116 66.29 Groundwater could be affected by pesticide leaching 111 63.43 64 36.57 Pesticides can accumulate on the bottom sediments of rivers, lakes, streams etc. 86 49.14 89 50.86 110.60 63.20 64.40 36.80 With pesticides use, disease could occur. Average Hazards on Water Average
  • 23. Table 10. Continued… HEALTH HAZARDS Hazards on Humans and Living Organisms Pesticides can kill birds, insects and others. 148 Pesticides could enter the human body through skin, inhalation or ingestion. Average 57.71 74 42.29 60.57 69 39.43 67.43 57 32.57 63.43 64 36.57 121 Pesticides can cause abnormalities on human and animals. 42.86 111 Pesticides can lead to the migration of animals. 75 118 Pesticides affect the food sources of human and animals. 57.14 106 Pesticides can create pest resistance. 15.43 101 Pesticides can accumulate on the body of organisms 27 100 Pesticides could affect nontarget organisms. 84.57 69.14 54 30.86 105 60.00 70 40.00 113.75 65.00 61.25 35.00
  • 24. CONCLUSIONS 1. Most farmers were in their middle age (43 years old); secondary education was the highest educational attainment; mostly were married; attended seminars on rice farming; with limited knowledge on proper handling and application of pesticides. 2. Insecticides, molluscicides, rodenticides and fungicides were the pesticides commonly used by the farmers.
  • 25. Cont… 3. Wearing protective clothing and storing pesticide in safe places were the most common handling practices; knapsack sprayer was commonly used; and burying empty containers near their houses was the disposal practices adopted by the farmers. 4. Agricultural Technologists from the LGU- Ibajay were the main sources of knowledge and information of the farmers on the proper use of pesticides.
  • 26. Cont… 5. Dermal symptoms (skin rashes, redness of the skin, and blackening of the toe nails), neurological symptom (headache), and ophthalmic symptoms such as eye itching and vision blurredness were experienced by the farmers due to mishandling of pesticides. 6. Hazard on use of pesticides on soil, water, air humans and living organisms were known to the farmers, but they had limited knowledge on how to get out from their usual practices on pest control.
  • 27. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Farmers should be given continuous trainings and seminars on the proper use of pesticides. 2. Technical assistance by Agricultural Technologists should be strengthen especially on the use of organic farming to minimize the use of commercial pesticide. 3. Locally made information materials such as videos, leaflets, flyers, comics, brochures on proper use of pesticide should be available to farmers.
  • 28. Cont… 4. The Agricultural Technologists may utilize the findings of this study to incorporate proper use of pesticide in their training design and seminars, particularly providing safety precautionary measures to safeguard the welfare of the poor and vulnerable rice farmers.