Marketing Communication-2.1 - MarCom theories
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Marketing Communication-2.1 - MarCom theories Marketing Communication-2.1 - MarCom theories Presentation Transcript

  • Marketing Communication Marketing Communication Theories Part TWO out of Four (2.1) Danny Abramovich Marketing Plan Specialist 1 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • Course Introduction, Main Topics Background: CB ü Human Communication ü Marketing Communication Creativity Integrated MarCom Global IMC 2 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom 4 Introduction Information Human Communication Communication-Mix --- or --- Marketing Communication = MarCom! 0. Background: CB 3. Creativity 3 1. Communication 4. Integrated MarCom www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1 2. MarCom 5. Global IMC
  • 2. MarCom 4 Definition MarCom is . . . 4 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom 4 Goals – Provide information. – Manage demand and sales. – Communicate unique selling points – Enhance positioning. – Build brand equity. – Influence attitudes and behavior. – Increase market share! 5 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom 4 Theoretical Background BASIC ASSUMPTION: Consumers move through a step by step process as they receive marketing information and move toward a decision. This is called: Hierarchy of Effects! 6 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom 4 Hierarchy of Effects! Awareness levels that customers must go THRU: unawareness awareness comprehension conviction action 7 (Burnett and Moriarty, 1998) www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom 4 Hierarchy of Effects! Hierarchy of Effects Model 8 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom 4 Response Models Model AIDA Hierarchy Innovation Information Stages (1925) of effects adoption processing Cognitive Attention Awareness Awareness Presentation Knowledge Interest Attention Affective Interest Linking Evaluation Yielding Desire Preference Retention Conviction Behavioral Action Purchase Trial Behavior Adoption 9 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom 4 DAGMAR - model#4 DAGMAR - Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results The basic hierarchy of effects model is AIDA developed by E. K. Strong (1925). Many variations have been made on this original model, including Colley's DAGMAR model with a sequence as follows: awareness, comprehension, conviction, and action. 10 (Colley, 1961) www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom 4 IPM - model#5 Information Processing Model (IPM) of Advertising Effectiveness: 6 Steps (From David G. Myers, 2002, p.244. Reprinted there from W.J. McGuire, "An Information Processing Model of Advertising Effectiveness," Behavioral and 11 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1 Management Sciences in Marketing , Davis and A.J. Silk, 1978.)
  • 2. MarCom 4 IPM - model#5 Information Processing Model (IPM) of Advertising Effectiveness: 8 Steps 1. Exposure 5. Retention 2. Perception 6. Retrieval 3. Comprehension 7. Decision-making 4. Agreement 8. Action (From David G. Myers, 2002, p.244. Reprinted there from W.J. McGuire, "An Information Processing Model of Advertising Effectiveness," Behavioral and 12 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1 Management Sciences in Marketing , Davis and A.J. Silk, 1978.)
  • 2. MarCom 4 ELM - model#6 Elaboration-likelihood Model (ELM) Assumptions: People are overloaded with persuasive messages. It is impossible to evaluate every message. People process messages in two main ways: Ÿ Central - elaborated (major decisions). Ÿ Peripheral - not elaborated (minor decisions). 13 (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986) www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom 4 ELM - model#6 People process messages in two main ways: 14 Ÿ Central - elaborated (major decisions). www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1 Ÿ Peripheral - not elaborated (minor decisions).
  • 2. MarCom 4 ELM - model#6 People process messages in two main ways: 15 Ÿ Central - elaborated (major decisions). www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1 Ÿ Peripheral - not elaborated (minor decisions).
  • 2. MarCom 4 ELM - model#6 Elaboration-likelihood Model (ELM) Peripheral Processing: Driven more by “who” rather than “what”. Explains learning & attribution theories. Tends to produce less permanent impact: Ÿ Short-term. Ÿ Lower-level of commitment. 16 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom 4 ELM - model#6 Elaboration-likelihood Model (ELM) Practical Outcome: Determine which route the audiences are taking to process a message. Select a strategy based on that route. Develop tactics based on strategy: Central route – more logical arguments, evidence-based. Peripheral route – use learning & attribution theories. 17 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom 4 Supporting Model - a Push/ Pull Communications PUSH-Through Communications Activities targeting channel intermediaries to motivate resellers to become more aggressive in customer communications. The overall objective is to increase reseller support and market coverage. 18 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom 4 Supporting Model - a PUSH-Through Communications Ø Cooperative advertising deals Ø Collaterals, catalogs, manuals Ø Dealer premiums, prizes, gifts Ø Advertising materials, mats, inserts Ø Point of sale displays, racks, stands Ø Trade shows, conventions, meetings 19 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom 4 Supporting Model - a Push/ Pull Communications PULL-Through Communications Activities used by manufacturers and suppliers to target final customers and to create customer demand (pull). The objective is to move goods and services forward in the distribution channels by pre-selling final customers. 20 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom 4 Supporting Model - a PULL-Through Communications Ø Coupons Ø Price-off deals Ø Refunds/rebates Ø Sampling, free trial Ø Frequency/loyalty programs Ø Point-of-purchase advertising 21 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom 4 Supporting Model - a 22 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom 4 Supporting Model - b FCB Grid – Working in Foote, Cone & Belding (FCB) advertising agency, Richard Vaughn has incorporated a model that allows to understand people’s attitude toward advertising (1980). It is based on two dimensions: 1. Level of Involvement. 2. Thinking/ Feeling-related products. 23 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom 4 Supporting Model - b products Level of Involvement > FCB Grid 24 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom 4 Supporting Model - b products Level of The The Involvement Thinker Feeler > FCB Grid The The Doer Reactor 25 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom 4 Supporting Model - b products Level of The The Thinker Feeler Involvement L-F-D F-L-D > FCB Grid The The Learn=information Doer Reactor Feel=attitude D-L-F D-F-L Do=behavior 26 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom 4 Supporting Model - b products Level of Involvement > FCB Grid Learn=information Feel=attitude Do=behavior 27 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom 4 Supporting Model - b products Level of Life insurance Perfume Involvement L-F-D F-L-D > FCB Grid Learn=information Detergent Beer D-L-F D-F-L Feel=attitude Do=behavior 28 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom 4 Supporting Model - b products Level of Involvement > FCB Grid Learn=information Feel=attitude Do=behavior 29 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom 4 Supporting Model - b products Level of Life insurance Perfume Involvement L-F-D F-L-D > FCB Grid Learn=information Detergent Beer D-L-F D-F-L Feel=attitude Do=behavior 30 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom 4 Persuasion Matrix Model AIDA Hierarchy of Innovation Information (1925) effects adoption processing Stages Cognitive Attention Awareness Awareness Presentation Knowledge Interest Attention Pe Comprehension Affective Interest Linking Evaluation Yielding rsu x Desire Preference Retention Ma Conviction asi Behavioral Action Purchase Trial Behavior tri Adoption on 31 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom4Promotional Planning 1. Receiver/ comprehension Can the receiver comprehend the ad? 2. Channel/ presentation Which media will increase presentation? 3. Message/ yielding What type of message will create favorable attitude? 4. Source/ attention Who will be effective in getting consumers’ attention? 32 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom 4 Persuasion Matrix Independent variables: The Communications Components Dependent Source Message Channel Receiver Destination Variables Message presentation 2 Attention 4 Comprehension 1 Yielding 3 Retention Behavior 33 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom4 Message Recall Recall Beginning Middle End 34 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom4 Message Appeal A tu A Selected Types of tt i d e tt i tu c de ha Message Appeals: s a ng nd e 4Emotional vs. Rational: Ÿ Sex Ÿ Metaphors Ÿ Humor Ÿ Rational Ÿ Fear Ÿ Emotional 35 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom4 Message Appeal A tu A tt i d e tt i tu c de ha Ÿ Sex s a ng nd e • Subliminal techniques. • Sex increases attention. • Brand recall is lower. • May interfere message. 36 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom4 Message Appeal A tu A tt i d e tt i tu c de ha Ÿ Sex s a ng Ÿ Humor nd e • Used in 30% of all ads. • Score á in recall tests. 37 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom4 Message Appeal A tu A tt i d e tt i tu c de ha Ÿ Sex s a ng Ÿ Humor nd e Ÿ Fear • Solutions to anxiety. • “If-than approach”. • á fear can backfire. 38 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • Ÿ Sex Ÿ Humor Ÿ Fear 39 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom4 Message Appeal A tu A tt i d e tt i tu c de ha Ÿ Sex s a ng Ÿ Humor nd e Ÿ Fear Ÿ Metaphors When a word or phrase is applied to something it does not literally resemble in order to emphasize particular qualities. 40 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom4 Message Appeal Ÿ Sex Ÿ Humor Ÿ Fear Ÿ Metaphors Ÿ Rational • Suites for: - Printed media, - B2B advertisers, - á involvement products. 41 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • Ÿ Sex Ÿ Humor Ÿ Fear Ÿ Metaphors Ÿ Rational • Suites for: - Printed media, 42 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1 - á involvement products.
  • 2. MarCom4 Message Appeal A tu A tt i d e tt i tu c de h a Ÿ Sex s a ng Ÿ Humor nd e Ÿ Fear Ÿ Metaphors Ÿ Rational Ÿ Emotional This ad for a nonprofit animal rights and rescue group 43 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1 draws on viewers’ sympathies toward animals.
  • 2. MarCom4 Message Appeal Ÿ Sex Ÿ Humor Ÿ Fear Ÿ Metaphors Ÿ Rational Ÿ Emotional Ÿ Comparative 44 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom4 Message Appeal Ÿ Sex Ÿ Humor Ÿ Fear Ÿ Metaphors Ÿ Rational Ÿ Emotional Ÿ Comparative 45 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom4 Effects (example) 90% Awareness 70% Knowledge 40% Liking 25% Preference 20% Trial 5% Use 46 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2. MarCom; Theory & Planning 47 Next Issue: MarCom Elements www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • Marketing Communication Marketing Communication Theories Part TWO out of Four (2.1) Danny Abramovich Marketing Plan Specialist 48 www.marketingPlanNOW.com MarCom-1
  • 2 pter Cha ing et m ark ation , unic c om m (2.2) cont.