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Belch Chapter 5: The Communication Process

Belch Chapter 5: The Communication Process

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  • Chapter Five The Communications Process © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Chapter005 Chapter005 Presentation Transcript

  • The Communications Process © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  • The Communications Process © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  • Attractive sources are appropriate for image-related products © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin View slide
  • There are many forms of encoding Verbal Graphic Musical © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin Encoding Graphic
    • Pictures
    • Drawings
    • Charts
    Verbal
    • Spoken Word
    • Written Word
    • Song Lyrics
    Musical
    • Arrange-ment
    • Instrum-entation
    • Voices
    Animation
    • Action/ Motion
    • Pace/ Speed
    • Shape/ Form
    View slide
  • The Semiotic Perspective Object Brand such as Marlboro Object Brand such as Marlboro Sign or symbol representing intended meaning (Cowboy) © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin Three Components to every marketing message Sign or symbol representing intended meaning (Cowboy) Interpretant/ intended meaning (masculine,rugged individualistic)
  • What is the symbolic meaning of the Snuggle bear? © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  • Images Encoded in Pictures Convey Emotions Very Powerfully © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  • Communications Channels Personal Channels Personal Channels © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin Nonpersonal Channels Personal Selling Word of Mouth Print Media Broadcast Media
  • Tremor Recruits Teens to Generate Word-of-Mouth © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  • Experiential Overlap © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin Receiver Experience Sender Experience Different Worlds Receiver Experience Sender Experience Moderate Commonality Receiver Experience Sender Experience High Commonality Receiver Experience
  • Test Your Knowledge © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin Which of the following would be an example of an advertising message? A) a radio commercial telling you to why you should fly to Florida on Delta Airlines B) a print ad explaining a sweepstakes in which the winner will receive a walk-on role on an NBC soap opera C) a print ad for DeBeers diamonds with a picture of a woman wearing a diamond necklace and the DeBeers name D) a television ad that tells you to watch the next episode of ER E) all of the above
  • Successful Communication Select an appropriate source Select an appropriate source © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin Receive feedback Select the appropriate channel for the target audience Develop a properly encoded message Select the appropriate channel for the target audience Develop a properly encoded message
  • Levels of Audience Aggregation Market Segments Market Segments © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin Mass Markets Niche Markets Small Groups Individuals Niche Markets Mass Markets Small Groups
  • Models of the Response Process © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  • Models of Obtaining Feedback © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin Circulation reach Listener, reader, viewer recognition Recall, checklists Brand attitudes, purchase intent Recall over time Inventory POP consumer panel Scanner data Effectiveness Test Persuasion Process Exposure/presentation Attention Comprehension Message acceptance/ yielding Retention Purchase behavior Retention Recall over time Message acceptance/ yielding Brand attitudes, purchase intent Comprehension Recall, checklists Attention Listener, reader, viewer recognition Exposure/presentation Circulation reach
  • Alternative Response Hierarchies © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin High Low High Low Topical Involvement Perceived product differentiation Learning model Low involvement model Dissonance/ attribution model Cognitive Affective Conative Conative Affective Cognitive Cognitive Conative Affective
  • Heavy Repetition vs. Lengthy, Detailed Messages © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  • Foote, Cone & Belding Grid © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin 1 Informative The Thinker 3 Habit Formation The Doer Thinking Feeling Low Involvement 2 Affective The Feeler 4 Self- Satisfaction The Reactor High Involvement
  • Foote, Cone & Belding Grid © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin 1 Informative The Thinker Car-house-furnishings-new products Model: Learn-feel-do (economic?) Possible implications Test: Recall diagnostics Media: Long copy format Reflective vehicles Creative: Specific information Demonstration Thinking High Involvement
  • Products Such as Televisions Are High Involvement Purchases © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  • Test Your Knowledge © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin Marketers of _____ often must communicate with a passive, uninterested consumers who may focus more on nonmessage elements such as music, slogans, and jingles than on message content: A) employment services B) ketchup, mustard, margarine, and soy sauce C) personal computers D) x-ray machines, road building equipment, and walk-in refrigeration units E) business-to-business services such as advertising agencies
  • Foote, Cone & Belding Grid © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin 2 Affective The Feeler Jewelry-cosmetics-fashion goods Model: Feel-learn-do (psychological?) Possible implications Test: Attitude change Emotional arousal Media: Large space Image specials Creative: Executional Impact Feeling High Involvement
  • Foote, Cone & Belding Grid © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin 3 Habit formation The Doer Food-household items Model: Do-learn-feel (responsive?) Possible implications Test: Sales Media: Small space ads 10-second ID’s Radio; Point of Sale Creative: Reminder Thinking Low Involvement
  • Foote, Cone & Belding Grid © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin 4 Self-satisfaction The Reactor Cigarettes, liquor, candy Model: Do-feel-learn (social?) Possible implications Test: Sales Media: Billboards Newspapers Point of Sale Creative: Attention Feeling Low Involvement
  • Cognitive Response © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin A method for examining consumers’ cognitive processing of advertising messages by looking at their cognitive responses to hearing, viewing, or reading communications. Examines types of thoughts that are evoked by an advertising message. Consumers write down or verbally report their reactions to a message.
  • A Model of Cognitive Response © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  • Cognitive Response Categories Thoughts about the ad itself Source bolstering Source derogation Support arguments Counterarguments © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin Product/Message Thoughts Source-Oriented Thoughts Ad Execution Thoughts Counterarguments Support arguments Source derogation Source bolstering Thoughts about the ad itself Affect attitude toward the ad
  • Elaboration Likelihood Model © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin Focuses on the way consumers respond to persuasive messages based on the amount and nature of elaboration or processing of information Peripheral route to persuasion – ability and motivation to process a message is low and receiver focuses more on peripheral cues rather than message content Central route to persuasion – ability and motivation to process a message is high and close attention is paid to message content Routes to attitude change
  • Test Your Knowledge © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin The elaboration likelihood model (ELM) states that there are two basic routes to persuasion, the central route and the peripheral route. With the peripheral route to persuasion,: A) the message will be more likely received if a celebrity endorser is used B) the message should contain a lot of information C) the receiver is viewed as very actively involved in the communication process D) the quality of the message claims are more important than the spokesperson, headline, pictures, or music bed E) the sender is dealing with a high- involvement buying situation
  • Celebrity Endorsers Can Be Peripheral Cues © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin
  • How Advertising Works Advertising Input Message content, media scheduling, repetition Advertising Input Message content, media scheduling, repetition Filters Motivation, ability, (involvement) Consumer Cognition, affect, experience © 2007 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin Filters Motivation, ability, (involvement) Consumer Cognition, affect, experience Consumer Behavior Choice, consumption, loyalty, habit, etc.