Adman Lecture 6

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Adman Lecture 6: Establishing Objectives & Budgeting for the Promotional Program

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Adman Lecture 6

  1. 1. Advertising Management Lecture 6: Establishing Objectives and Budgeting for the Promotional Program
  2. 2. Lecture Objectives <ul><li>Recap </li></ul><ul><li>Nature and purpose of objectives and the role they play in guiding the development, implementation, and evaluation of an IMC program. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the budget-setting process and the interdependence of objective setting and budgeting. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Value of Objectives <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Planning and Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement and Evaluation of Results </li></ul>
  4. 4. Determining Promotional Objectives <ul><li>Marketing vs. Communication Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Statements of what is to be accomplished by the overall marketing program within a given time period </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>usually defined in terms of specific, measurable outcomes such as sales volume, market share, profits, or return on investment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S.M.A.R.T. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Determining Promotional Objectives <ul><li>Marketing vs. Communication Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IMC Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Statements of what various aspects of the IMC program will accomplish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the particular communications tasks required to deliver the appropriate messages to the target audience. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Determining Promotional Objectives <ul><li>Marketing vs. Communication Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IMC Objectives should provide info on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Market segments the firm wants to target and the target audience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The product and its main features, advantages, benefits, uses, and applications. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The company’s and competitors’ brands (sales and market share in various segments, positioning, competitive strategies, promotional expenditures, creative and media strategies, and tactics). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas on how the brand should be positioned and specific behavioral responses being sought (trial, repurchase, brand switching, and increased usage). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Sales vs. Communication Objectives <ul><li>Sales-oriented objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem with Sales-oriented objectives: carryover effect (monies spent on advertising do not necessarily have an immediate impact on sales but may occur later) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Sales vs. Communication Objectives
  9. 9. Sales vs. Communication Objectives <ul><li>Where sales objectives are appropriate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales promotion, direct response advertising, retail advertising </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Sales vs. Communication Objectives <ul><ul><li>Advertising and promotional programs tend to be evaluated in terms of sales, particularly when expectations are not being met. Marketing and brand managers under pressure to show sales results often take a short-term perspective in evaluating advertising and sales promotion programs. They are often looking for a quick fix for declining sales or loss of market share. They ignore the pitfalls of making direct links between advertising and sales, and campaigns, as well as ad agencies, may be changed if sales expectations are not being met. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Communication Objectives <ul><li>primary role of an IMC program is to communicate and that planning should be based on communications objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising and other promotional efforts are designed to achieve such communications as brand knowledge and interest, favorable attitudes and image, and purchase intentions. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Communications Objectives <ul><li>use some form of the hierarchical models when setting advertising and promotion objectives. In all these models, consumers pass through three successive stages: cognitive, affective, and conative. As consumers proceed through the three stages, they move closer to making a purchase. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Communication Objectives
  14. 14. Communication Effects Pyramid <ul><li>Advertising and promotion perform communications tasks in the same way that a pyramid is built, by first accomplishing lower-level objectives such as awareness and knowledge or comprehension. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Communication Effects Pyramid
  16. 16. Communication Effects Pyramid
  17. 17. DAGMAR <ul><li>Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results (DAGMAR): model for setting advertising objectives and measuring the results of an ad campaign. </li></ul><ul><li>communications effects are the logical basis for advertising goals and objectives against which success or failure should be measured. </li></ul>
  18. 18. DAGMAR <ul><li>an advertising goal involves a communications task that is specific and measurable </li></ul><ul><li>communications task must be based on a hierarchical model of the communications process with four stages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness —making the consumer aware of the existence of the brand or company. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehension —developing an understanding of what the product is and what it will do for the consumer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conviction —developing a mental disposition in the consumer to buy the product. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action —getting the consumer to purchase the product. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Characteristics of Objectives <ul><li>Concrete, measurable tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Target audience </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmark and degree of change sought </li></ul><ul><ul><li>benchmark measures : determining the target market’s present position regarding the various response stages requires </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specified time period </li></ul>
  20. 20. Setting Objectives for the IMC Program <ul><li>Inside-out planning : focuses on what the marketer wants to say, when the marketer wants to say it, about things the marketer believes are important about his or her brand, and in the media forms the marketer wants to use </li></ul><ul><li>Outside-in Planning : starts with the customer and builds backward to the brand. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>promotional planners study the various media customers and prospects use, when the marketer’s messages might be most relevant to customers, and when they are likely to be most receptive to the message. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Setting Objectives for the IMC Program
  22. 22. Setting Objectives for the IMC Program <ul><li>Zero-based planning: involves determining what tasks need to be done and which marketing communications functions should be used and to what extent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As with a traditional advertising campaign, the basis of an IMC campaign is a big idea. However, in IMC the big idea can be public relations, direct response, packaging, or sales promotions. an effective IMC program should lead with the marketing communications function that most effectively addresses the company’s main problem or opportunity and should use a promotional mix that draws on the strengths of whichever communications functions relate best to the particular situation. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Establishing and Allocating the Promotional Budget
  24. 24. Budgeting Approaches <ul><li>Many firms employ more than one method </li></ul><ul><li>budgeting approaches vary according to the size and sophistication of the firm </li></ul>
  25. 25. Budget Approaches
  26. 26. Budgeting Approaches <ul><li>Top-Down Approaches: a budgetary amount is established (usually at an executive level) and then the monies are passed down to the various departments </li></ul>
  27. 27. Top-Down Approaches <ul><li>Affordable method : the firm determines the amount to be spent in various areas such as production and operations. Then it allocates what’s left to advertising and promotion, considering this to be the amount it can afford. </li></ul><ul><li>Arbitrary Allocation : no theoretical basis is considered and the budget is determined by management solely on the basis of what is felt to be necessary. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Top-Down Approaches <ul><li>Percentage-of-sales method : the advertising and promotions budget is based on sales of the product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management determines the amount by either (1) taking a percentage of the sales dollars or (2) assigning a fixed amount of the unit product cost to promotion and multiplying this amount by the number of units sold. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>variation on the percentage-of-sales method uses a percentage of projected future sales as a base. This method also uses either a straight percentage of projected sales or a unit cost projection. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Top-Down Approaches
  30. 30. Top-Down Approaches <ul><li>Competitive Parity : managers establish budget amounts by matching the competition’s percentage-of-sales expenditures. </li></ul><ul><li>Companies that provide competitive advertising information, trade associations, and other advertising industry periodicals are sources for competitors’ expenditures. Larger corporations often subscribe </li></ul><ul><li>to services such as Competitive Media Reporting, which estimates the top 1,000 companies’ advertising in 10 media and in total. Smaller companies often use a clipping service, which clips competitors’ ads from local print media, allowing the company to work backward to determine the cumulative costs of the ads placed. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Top-Down Approaches <ul><li>Return-on-Investment (ROI): advertising and promotions are considered investments, like plant and equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Share-of-voice Budgeting: brand’s portion of total media spending in that brand’s product category. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Build-Up Approaches <ul><li>consider the firm’s communications objectives and budget what is deemed necessary to attain these goals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective and Task Method: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>defining the communications objectives to be accomplished, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>determining the specific strategies and tasks needed to attain them, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>estimating the costs associated with performance of these strategies and tasks. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The total budget is based on the accumulation of these costs. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Objective and Task Method <ul><li>Isolate objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Determine tasks required </li></ul><ul><li>Estimate required expenditures </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor </li></ul><ul><li>Reevaluate objectives </li></ul>
  34. 34. Objective and Task Method
  35. 35. Build-up Approaches <ul><li>Payout Planning: To determine how much to spend, marketers often develop a payout plan that determines the investment value of the advertising and promotion appropriation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>project the revenues the product will generate, as well as the costs it will incur, over two to three years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on an expected rate of return, the payout plan will assist in determining how much advertising and promotions expenditure will be necessary when the return might be expected. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Build-Up Approaches <ul><li>Quantitative models </li></ul>
  37. 37. Budget methods
  38. 38. Allocating the Budget <ul><li>Allocation to IMC elements </li></ul><ul><li>Client/Agency policies </li></ul><ul><li>Market size </li></ul><ul><li>Market potential </li></ul><ul><li>Market share goals </li></ul><ul><li>Economies of scale in advertising </li></ul>
  39. 39. Allocating the Budget <ul><li>Organizational characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The organization’s structure—centralized versus decentralized, formalization, and complexity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power and politics in the organizational hierarchy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of expert opinions (for example, consultants) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of the decision maker (preferences and experience). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approval and negotiation channels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure on senior managers to arrive at the optimal budget. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Assignment <ul><li>Read Belch’s Chapter 6 on Source, Message and Channel Factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Create groups of 5 members each </li></ul><ul><li>Look for print advertisements of the following (one of each only): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source types: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Celebrities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate Leaders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Assignment <ul><ul><li>Message appeals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comparative advertising </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refutation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Message Sidedness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion Drawing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Order of Presentation (Primacy effect) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Order of Presentation (Recency effect) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Assignment <ul><ul><li>Compile all the print ads (11 ads in all) in one folder and make sure to label each ad properly based on the source types or message appeals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Please read this chapter because this will be included in the prelim exam. </li></ul><ul><li>Submission of ad compilation is on July 14, 2006 (Friday). </li></ul>

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