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Automatic Creation of User Profiles for Achieving Personal Web Accessibility
 

Automatic Creation of User Profiles for Achieving Personal Web Accessibility

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Paper presented at the ICCHP 2008 conference in Linz (Austria). It describes a component that collects information regarding the interaction context of the user such as assistive techonologies ...

Paper presented at the ICCHP 2008 conference in Linz (Austria). It describes a component that collects information regarding the interaction context of the user such as assistive techonologies features and access devices characteristics in order to create a user profile.

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Automatic Creation of User Profiles for Achieving Personal Web Accessibility Automatic Creation of User Profiles for Achieving Personal Web Accessibility Presentation Transcript

  • Automatic Creation of User Profiles for Achieving Personal Web Accessibility Markel Vigo , A. Aizpurua, M. Arrue and J. Abascal Laboratory of HCI for Special Needs 11th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, ICCHP 2008 University of the Basque Country
  • Outline
    • Motivation
    • Introduction
    • Personal Web Accessibility
    • Context of Use Detector:
      • 4.1 Components
      • 4.2 Architecture
    • Conclusions
    11th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, ICCHP 2008
  • Motivation Introduction Conclusions Motivation
    • Accessibility is about accommodating people with disabilities
    • User-modelling/user-adapted interaction practices can be applied to adapt web systems for people with special needs
    • Context of use has to be captured to have acceptable
    • accessibility levels
    • A software component that collects
      • System features
      • Assistive technologies
      • User characteristics
    • Valuable information can be inferred
    11th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, ICCHP 2008 Personal Web Accessibility Context of Use Detector
  • Introduction Introduction Conclusions
    • User profiles are used (not only) in adaptive (web) user interfaces, intelligent help systems and explanation systems
    • User models/profiles store information about users'
      • characteristics
      • preferences
      • behaviour
      • knowledge on a subject, etc.
    • Data about the user can be collected
      • Explicitly : filling in forms or questionnaires
      • precise, reliable, hard to collect, obtrusive
      • Implicitly : monitoring user's interaction
      • natural, less reliable, unobtrusive
    11th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, ICCHP 2008 Motivation Personal Web Accessibility Context of Use Detector
  • Introduction Introduction Personal Web Accessibility Conclusions
    • Related work on collecting data for user-adapted interaction applications for people with disabilities:
      • Questionnaires (interviews)
      • Filling in electronic forms
      • Smart cards
    • User profiles for accessibility store information about users'
      • abilities
      • software and hardware characteristics of the access device
      • data regarding the installed Assistive Technologies
    • Data are encapsulated in a CC/PP file
    11th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, ICCHP 2008 Motivation Context of Use Detector
  • Personal Web Accessibility Introduction Personal Web Accessibility Conclusions 11th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, ICCHP 2008 Motivation
    • Personal Web Accessibility aims at providing user-tailored resources
      • User profiles are the foundations to achieve Personal Web Accessibility
      • Guidelines are adapted to user and delivery context requirements
    • Regarding guidelines such as WCAG,
      • Satisfying them does not ensure accessibility
      • Meeting them it is not necessary for certain users
    • Why such contradiction?
      • Guidelines are ambiguous
      • Contain unresolved references to the delivery context
      • Incompleteness
    Context of Use Detector
  • Personal Web Accessibility Application Scenarios Context of Use Detector Conclusions
    • User-tailored Web Accessibility Evaluations
      • Design-for-all vs. Design-for-one
    • User-tailored accessibility scores
      • Enriching Information Retrieval processes
      • Accessibility observatories
    • Adapting Web content according to a profile
      • Server-side services are capable of adapting content according to a profile
    11th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, ICCHP 2008 Motivation Introduction Personal Web Accessibility
  • Context of Use Detector Introduction Personal Web Accessibility Context of Use Detector Conclusions 11th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, ICCHP 2008 Motivation
    • Objective: collect data about user's interaction context
    • Requirements
      • Data have to be unobtrusively collected
      • Physical features and software support of the accessing device
      • Assistive technologies, be software of hardware
      • Multiplatform: Java on Windows or Unix systems
      • Output following standards such as CC/PP
  • Context of Use Detector Some remarks Introduction Personal Web Accessibility Conclusions 11th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, ICCHP 2008 Motivation
    • Assistive technologies product name and release version is of major importance
        • New features of ATs make some accessibility barriers obsolete  positive dependencies
        • Example for JAWS: there are not scripting issues for OnClick anymore from version 5 onwards (WCAG 6.3, 6.4, 8.1, 9.3)
        • False positives are produced
        • Older versions may suffer accessibility problems even if guidelines are met  negative dependencies
      • Example for JAWS: older versions do not support acronyms (WCAG 4.2)
      • False negatives are produced
    Context of Use Detector
  • Context of Use Detector Components Introduction Personal Web Accessibility Conclusions 11th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, ICCHP 2008 Motivation
    • A remote database storing information regarding ATs
      • Maintained by an administrator
      • Each record contains: name, vendor, version, description, modality, etc
    • A local database that mirrors the remote DB
    • Assistive Technologies Detector
        • Compares key values in the local DB with the installed ATs
    • Access Device Features Detector
      • Information concerning access device is retrieved
    • Created profiles are stored in a repository
    Context of Use Detector
  • Context of Use Detector Architecture Introduction Personal Web Accessibility Conclusions 11th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, ICCHP 2008 Motivation 1. When the system initializes the coherence between DBs is checked Context of Use Detector Local DB AT s Information Access Device Features Detector Assistive Technologies Detector Profiles Repository User Agent Evaluation Tools developer user admin <software features/> <hardware features/> <assistive technologies/> CC/PP Profile 1 2 3 5 6 System API 2. DB entries are compared with key values in the Registry 3. Information regarding access device features is collected 4. Matches with key values and system information are put in a profile 4 5. User Agents can benefit and provide adaptive hypermedia techniques 6. Profiles are remotely stored and developers can make use of them user remote
  • Context of Use Detector Introduction Personal Web Accessibility Conclusions 11th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, ICCHP 2008 Motivation
    • CC/PP: gain interoperability with
      • User agents
      • Evaluation tools
      • Server-side content adaptation services
    • CC/PP provides a framework to describe hardware, software and user agent characteristics
    • Attributes should be defined by third parties
    • Reuse is encouraged
    • A new vocabulary has been defined
    Context of Use Detector
  • Example of a profile 11th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, ICCHP 2008 <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf=&quot;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#&quot; xmlns:ccpp=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2000/07/04-ccpp#&quot; xmlns:access=&quot;http://sipt07.si.ehu.es/profiles/2008/access-schema#&quot;> <rdf:Description rdf:about=&quot; http://sipt07.si.ehu.es/profiles/2008/user_0017 &quot;> <ccpp:component rdf:resource=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2000/07/04-ccpp#HardwarePlatform&quot;/> <ccpp:component rdf:resource=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2000/07/04-ccpp#SoftwarePlatform&quot;/> <ccpp:component rdf:resource=&quot; http://sipt07.si.ehu.es/profiles/2008/access-schema#AT &quot;/> <ccpp:component rdf:resource=&quot; http://sipt07.si.ehu.es/profiles/2008/access-schema#AT &quot;/> <ccpp:component rdf:resource=&quot; http://sipt07.si.ehu.es/profiles/2008/access-schema#AT &quot;/> </rdf:Description> <rdf:Description rdf:about=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2000/07/04-ccpp#HardwarePlatform&quot;> <access:CpuName>AMD Athlon(tm) XP 2400+</access:CpuName> <access:CpuConstructor>AuthenticAMD</access:CpuConstructor> <access:ramSize>1035172 kB</access:ramSize> <access:display>1024 x 768 pixels</access:display> <access:keyboard>AT Translated Set 2 keyboard</access:keyboard> <access:ColourCapable>Yes</access:ColourCapable> <access:ImageCapable>Yes</access:ImageCapable> <access:SoundOutputCapable>Yes</access:SoundOutputCapable > </rdf:Description> <rdf:Description rdf:about=&quot;http://www.w3.org/2000/07/04-ccpp#SoftwarePlatform&quot;> <access:OSName>Linux</access:OSName> <access:OSVendor>Unknown</access:OSVendor> <access:OSVersion>2.6.9-1.667</access:OSVersion> <access:user>root</access:user> <access:JavaVersion>1.4.2_10</access:JavaVersion> <access:JavaVendor>Sun Microsystems Inc.</access:JavaVendor> <access:JavaVendorURL>http://java.sun.com/</access:JavaVendorURL> </rdf:Description> <rdf:Description rdf:about=&quot; http://sipt07.si.ehu.es/profiles/2008/access-schema#AT &quot;> <access:ATName>Brltty</access:ATName> <access:ATVendor>The Brltty Team</access:ATVendor> <access:ATVersion>3.6.1</access:ATVersion> <access:ATType>Output</access:ATType> <access:ATDescription>BRLTTY is a background process (daemon) providing access to the Linux/Unix console (when in text mode)for a blind person using a refreshable braille display</access:ATDescription> <access:ATIOtype>Braille</access:ATIOtype> </rdf:Description> <rdf:Description rdf:about=&quot; http://sipt07.si.ehu.es/profiles/2008/access-schema#AT &quot;> <access:ATName>K magnifier</access:ATName> <access:ATVendor>Kde Access Team</access:ATVendor> <access:ATVersion>1.0.0</access:ATVersion> <access:ATType>Output</access:ATType> <access:ATDescription>KDE Accessibility Magnifier</access:ATDescription> <access:ATIOtype>Magnifier</access:ATIOtype> </rdf:Description> hardware features software features assistive technologies access namespace
  • Context of Use Detector How can profiles work Introduction Personal Web Accessibility Conclusions 11th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, ICCHP 2008 Motivation
    • Guidelines manager:
        • Guidelines that have an impact on the user are retrieved
        • Guidelines that cause positive dependencies are not retrieved
        • Guidelines that cause negative dependencies will be considered
      • Evaluation engine
        • Produces user-tailored reports and accessibility scores
    Context of Use Detector Evaluation Engine Guidelines Manager Guidelines Repository <html> <head> <title>Test file<title> <body>foo (X)HTML Evaluation Report 1 2 3 4 <software features/> <hardware features/> <assistive technologies/> CC/PP Profile
  • Conclusions Introduction Personal Web Accessibility Context of Use Detector Conclusions 11th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, ICCHP 2008 Motivation
    • This component is part of a more general framework for user-tailored evaluations
    • Profiles are useful to infer user's abilities
      • Select an adequate guideline set for evaluation purposes
    • More accurate using individual abilities rather than group membership
    • These profiles are useful to obtain a first coarse grained profile
    • Privacy issues
  • Automatic Creation of User Profiles for Achieving Personal Web Accessibility Markel Vigo , A. Aizpurua, M. Arrue and J. Abascal Laboratory of HCI for Special Needs 11th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, ICCHP 2008 University of the Basque Country Any question?