PROJECTED VISUALS PROJECTION -to jut out beyond or farther than something, or make something jut out beyond or farther than something.
PROJECTED VISUALS Projected visuals - have long been popular as a medium of instruction as well as entertainment. Projected visuals are defined as media formats in which still pictures are enlarged and displayed on a screen.
Integration Projected visuals are suitable for all use at all grade levels and for instruction in all curriculum areas.
Following are some typical subjects among the myriad possibilities for visual presentations:
Provide a tour for new employees of a local business without walking through the plant.
Make a visual history of your community, schools or organizations.
Illustrate lectures about art history or art technique.
Document student activities, products and student work, and community problems (e.g. crime and pollution)
Present a preoperative explanation of a surgical tailored to a specific surgeon’s patient.
Show people at work in various jobs, for career awareness.
Illustrate the uses of company’s product throughout the world.
Teach a step-by-step process with close-ups of each operation.
Simulate a field trip
Promote public understanding of your school of your organization.
2.1. DOCUMENT CAMERAS The document camera is a video camera mounted on a copy stand, pointed downward at documents, flat pictures, or graphics and small objects (like coins). The image may be projected onto a large screen within the room or it may be transmitted to distant sites via television.
Advantages of document Cameras No projection required. A document camera allows on-the-spot projection of readily available classroom materials. All students have equal view. Permits everyone to have an equal opportunity to view the same materials easily. Allows group viewing of student work. Permits group viewing and discussions of student work, such as drawings, student compositions, solutions to math problems and the like.
Limitations of document Cameras Bulky hardware. It requires monitor or video projector, which is bulky, heavy, and cumbersome to move without a cart. Monitor or projection required. You cannot use it without a monitor or video projector. Additional lighting. Document cameras need additional lights for good image.
All subjects – group critique of student work and review the test items
Art – group discussion of reproductions of paintings, etc.
Business – group work on business and accounting forms
Home Economics – group viewing of sewing pattern, recipes, etc.
Industry – projection of blueprints for group study.
Language Arts – group critique of student composition
Medicine – group study of anatomical drawing
Military – review of maps and official documents, illus. of lights
Music – group reading of musical colors
Religion – religious story illustrations
Science – magnification of specimens; group study of maps and tables
Social Studies – viewing of artifacts from other cultures, etc.
2.2. OVERHEAD PROJECTOR Overhead projection has become the most widely used audiovisual device in North America classrooms and training sites.
Types of Projector Transmissive type – light passes through the transparency Reflective type – the light from the lamp is reflected off the mirror like stage. This type if easy to carry since it is lighter and more compact.
Acetate - transparent film whose regular size is 8 x 10 inchOverlays - are sheets of transparent film
Advantages of OHP Brightness Eye contact Ease of use Abundance of materials Manipulable Availability of materials Self-prepared materials Advance preparation Impact attitudes Organization and discussion
Not programmed – overhead projector cannot be programmed to display visual sequences by itself, nor is an audio accompaniment provided.
Not self-instructional – It is designed for large-group study.
Production process required – materials have to be made into transparencies by means of some production process.
Keystone effect – distortion
2.2.1 CREATING OVERHEAD TRANSPARENCIES Direct Drawing Method Electrostatic Film Process (Xerography) Overhead Created by Computer
Types of graphics software available: a.1.Presentation programs – special software that simplifies creation of slide or transparencies of graphics that combine text, data and visuals. a.2. Drawing and paint programs – allow the user to draw geometric shapes and figures a.3. Photo-enhancement programs – allow the manipulation of color and use of special effects to alter photographic and styles a.4. Desktop publishing programs – combines features of many other methods to create sophisticated products such as newsletters and books
Technical processes in production transparencies
Laser printers print images directly onto special film.
Ink-jet printers spray droplets of ink onto specially coated ink-jet film.
Thermal transfer printers use heat to imprint images onto thermal film
Pen plotters draw with pens directly onto specially coated film.
Impact printers press the ink from ribbons onto impact film.
Advantages of OHP
Sequencing – arrange slides into many different sequence
Automatic cameras – automatic exposure control, easy focusing, and high-speed color film have contributed to this trend.
Automatic projection – offers convenience use of remote control
Collection building – easy to build up permanent collections
Individualized instruction – feasible for small- group and independent study.
Limitations of OHP Disorganization – since slides comes as individual units, they can easily becomes disorganized. Jamming – they are made of cardboard, plastic and glass varying thickness Susceptible to damage – slides can easily accommodate dusts and fingerprints; careless storage or handling can lead to permanent damage.
2.3 SLIDES The term slide refers to a small-format photographic transparency individually mounted for one-at-time projection.
2.3.1 Teacher – and Student- Produced Slides A major advantage of slides as an instructional medium is the ease with which both teachers and students can produce them.
2.3.2 Producing “Slide Shows” by Digital Photography Digital cameras have quickly found a place in the computer realm. They are widely use to capture images for incorporation into documents produced by presentation software or desktop publishing.
2.3.3 Producing Slides by Copying Visuals You can take close-ups using macro portion of the range, allowing you to copy flat visuals such as maps, charts, etc.
2.3.4 Producing Slides with Computers Computers now offer capability of generating graphic images that can become slides.
2.4 DIGITAL IMAGES It is possible to store images in a digital form and show them on a computer or television monitor or project them before a group. Available digital storage media includes CD-ROM, photo CD, DVD-ROM, and computer disks
DIGITAL IMAGES STORAGE DEVICES CD-ROM (Compact disc – read only memory) has the capacity to handle not only quality sound but also large quantities of text and visuals. CD-ROMs are read only which means that the user cannot change or modify information on the disc. CD – ROM discs requires their own special player; the audio VD player attached to your stereo will not play them. Photo CD (photographic compact disc – utilized digital technology to store photographic images. You can only show the photographs on CD using a special photo CD player.
DIGITAL IMAGES STORAGE DEVICES DVD – ROM (digital videodisc – read only memory) – is also a digital storage but with greater capacity. DVD is an ideal medium for txt, visuals, animation, motion video and audio formats that have large storage requirements.
Digital Camera – digital cameras are directly connected to a computer to place the image onto the computer. Others store digital images directly onto a computer disk or a small digital “flash memory” card or “smart card” inside the camera. This camera can be used in many ways. You can connect the computer to an LCD panel or data projector for group viewing. It is also possible to use software programs called photoshop
Advantages of Digital Images
Random access. Digital images stored on discs can be rapidly and randomly access.
Durability. The discs are very durable. Fingerprints do not interfere with the quality of the projected visual, as is the case of slides and filmstrips.
Storage capacity. All the discs store thousands of colorful images at your fingertips.
High quality visuals. The quality of digital still images is better than the photographic images on slides and does fade with time as photographic images do.
Portable. Digital discs are extremely portable.
Less storage space. It would require 67580 slide trays to store the 54,000 still images on a single videodisc.
Limitations of Digital Images
Expensive to produce – time consuming and expensive to produce
Requires player and projection – more complex and more difficult to operate
Format becoming outdated – the laser disc format is rapidly being placed by CD-ROM and DVD, and fewer new titles are available
Integration Projected digital visuals are suitable for most of the same applications where you would use overhead transparencies or slides.
2.5 DIGITAL IMAGE PROJECTION Digital (and analog) images can be shown to individual using a computer monitor. Designed for use with presentation graphics software, liquid crystal display (LCD) projection panels project computer images on screen. Power point is also a presentation package that has become very popular. You can include sound and animation in your presentation.
Limitations Lack of brightness Legibility Expense
Integration The extra expense and logistical arrangements required by LCD projection would be difficult to justify for simple, static presentations. Where it yields real benefits in providing dynamic or interactive presentation.