Application potential and commercial experience with
       pulsed electric fields in food processing
                    ...
Situated in the hotspot of German food production…




                                          95 employees
            ...
Non-Profit Membership Organization
Mechanisms of Action
Emerging Technologies…
                            G.C.Hahn        R.Koch VanErmengem
                                   L...
PEF – Application in Food Processing



     Applications and processing parameters
PEF treatment of plant tissue
Quantification of relevant interactions – technical scale

                   80

          ...
PEF treatment of plant tissue
Application to key elements – pretreatment




10 t/h installation in German fruit juice com...
Separation: PEF treatment of plant tissue
    Quantification of relevant interactions – technical scale



        Polyphe...
Separation: PEF treatment of plant tissue


   Anthocyanin and polyphenol extraction from grapes




Lopez et al. 2008
Separation: PEF treatment of microalgae


  Extraction of functional compounds from microalgae

        Component     Chl....
PEF treatment of plant tissue
Application to key elements – pretreatment

Olive oil recovery




Replacement of malaxation...
tabletop device
  PEF treatment of plant tissue
  Sensors



   Impedance analysis to evaluate tissue integrity


       Z...
Application of Pulsed Electric Fields – Treatment costs
                                          ELCRACK       ELCRACK   ...
PEF Processing of Meat

  Potential applications of PEF tissue disintegration

  Drying Enhancement
  Raw Products (Salami...
Mass transport in meat tissue
Freezing/Thawing
Energy and time-consuming ( >> 330 kJ/kg)
Microbial contamination during th...
PEF – Treatment of meat tissue
                       Impact on dry-cured ham production


                               ...
PEF – Treatment of meat tissue
                        Impact on meat pickling/curing

                        1,30
      ...
PEF Treatment of Meat Products – REM Micrographs


 Improvement of water
 binding indicated by
 swollen, sponge-like
 tiss...
PEF – Treatment of meat tissue

   Impact on meat water binding capacity


     Improvement of
     mass transfer
     in ...
Equipment development at DIL
                           Concept for treatment of meat
                           pieces
Application of Pulsed Electric Fields
Gentle Juice Preservation



Non-thermal effect on microorganisms


                ...
Application of Pulsed Electric Fields
Gentle Juice Preservation
Inactivation of different microorganisms
                 ...
Integration of temperature-time-profile

Evaluation of thermal and PEF effects
Determination of c-value
                  ...
E. sakazakii

  Comparison
  to thermal
  portion of
  inactivation




L. monocytogenes
                   15s


  Protec...
Solid state pulse modulator, based on transformer typology
Rectangular pulses, bipolar
Peak voltage 25 kV
Pulse width 4 to...
Different treatment chamber modulels available
5 kW technical scale system




                              30 kW industrial scale system
Applicability of novel technologies for food preservation

                            Oliven Äpfel
                      ...
Cost comparison of different novel techniques




Assumptions:
Thermal
Liquids, with heat
recovery
PEF
liquid food, 50 –
5...
Application of Pulsed Electric Fields - Conclusions




 Cost effective, short-time cell disintegration technique,
 improv...
Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF)



                                                   E < Ecrit      Intact
                 ...
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

DIL German Institute of Food Technologies
Stefan Toepfl
s.toepfl@dil-ev.de www.elcrack.de
T ...
DIL Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) Promatec Food Ventures
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DIL Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) Promatec Food Ventures

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DIL is represented in the Benelux by Promatec Food Ventures BV, tel 0031 (0)497 33 00 57.

DIL - German Institute of Food Technologies is designing and manufacturing Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) generators. DIL is a specialist in process technology and fooddesign. www.dil-ev.de and www.elcrack.de

PEF for winning of fruit and vegetable juices, mass transport enhancement, food safety, retain freshness and quality and a tool for cell desintegration.

Published in: Technology, Business

DIL Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) Promatec Food Ventures

  1. 1. Application potential and commercial experience with pulsed electric fields in food processing Stefan Toepfl
  2. 2. Situated in the hotspot of German food production… 95 employees 6 Mio. € turnover 60 % bilateral projects 30 % public projects active for 600 companies
  3. 3. Non-Profit Membership Organization
  4. 4. Mechanisms of Action
  5. 5. Emerging Technologies… G.C.Hahn R.Koch VanErmengem L.Pasteur Esty & R.Rausing N.Appert Meyer 1795 1876 Heat 1848 1951 1857 1895 1922 Van´t Hoff Bridgmen Industrial B. Hite V Platen Equipment HPP 1885 1904 1954 1899 Flaumenbaum Sale Krupp Electropure Doevenspeck PEF 1920 1948 1958 1986 1967 Roentgen Prescott Bequerel Gewürzmüller Irradiation 1895 1896 1904 1957 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000
  6. 6. PEF – Application in Food Processing Applications and processing parameters
  7. 7. PEF treatment of plant tissue Quantification of relevant interactions – technical scale 80 70 60 50 juice yield [%] 40 30 20 10 0 JonaGold 2 kJ/kg 10 kJ/kg 20 kJ/kg enzyme 5 kJ/kg 10 kJ/kg 15 kJ/kg enzyme JG + GD control control Impact of PEF-treatment (2 kV/cm) on Jona Gold (JG) and Golden Delicious (GD) juice yield using a decanter centrifuge. Juice yield including an eventual transition of solids to juice
  8. 8. PEF treatment of plant tissue Application to key elements – pretreatment 10 t/h installation in German fruit juice company Premium cloudy juice production, using continuous belt press yield increase + 4 to 6 % in comparison to untreated Subsequent enzymatic maceration yield increase + 0 to 2 % Shift to higher production of premium quality first press Energy input: 4 to 6 kJ/kg Kea-Tec Electroporator (Müller et al. 2007)
  9. 9. Separation: PEF treatment of plant tissue Quantification of relevant interactions – technical scale Polyphenol extraction from Red Boskop apple Schilling, Toepfl et. al. 2007
  10. 10. Separation: PEF treatment of plant tissue Anthocyanin and polyphenol extraction from grapes Lopez et al. 2008
  11. 11. Separation: PEF treatment of microalgae Extraction of functional compounds from microalgae Component Chl. dm Chl. dm Yield Spir. dm Spir. dm Yield BM PEF BM increase BM PEF BM increase % %Spirulina Chlorella Protein 5,48 6,98 + 27 33,68 38,12 +13 g/100g Chlorophyll 0,011 0,1 + 809 0,17 0,26 + 52,9 g/100g Carotenoids 0,008 0,05 + 525 0,044 0,11 + 150 g/100g Protease 204,7 707,2 + 245,5 864,2 812,5 -6 Unit/100g Koehler, Toepfl et. al. 2006
  12. 12. PEF treatment of plant tissue Application to key elements – pretreatment Olive oil recovery Replacement of malaxation process with same yield
  13. 13. tabletop device PEF treatment of plant tissue Sensors Impedance analysis to evaluate tissue integrity Zp1,00 100 [%] 0,90 90 CDI Zp 0,80 80 0,70 70 0,60 60 CDI Zp 0,50 50 (related to 0,40 40 juice) 0,30 30 juice yield 0,20 20 w/ w [%] 0,10 10 0,00 0 coa P P P fr fi e ju rse EF 3,6 EF 7,3 EF 10 ozen ne gr nzym ice grin 6 [ k 1 [ k ,97 -18 ind e din J J [ kJ ° ing g / kg] / kg] / kg C ] Impedance analysis of apple tissue after PEF treatment; juice yield determined by centrifugation handheld device
  14. 14. Application of Pulsed Electric Fields – Treatment costs ELCRACK ELCRACK ELCRACK ELCRACK Model 5 kW 5 kW 30 kW 30 kW Application Tissue disintegration Average power kW 5 5 30 30 Chamber diameter mm 10 10 50 50 Electric field strength kV/cm 25 25 6 6 Specific energy kJ/kg 5 10 5 10 Operation per day h 20 20 20 20 per year h 4400 4400 4400 4400 Investment and operation Investment i. k€ 85 85 185 185 Depreciation y 5 5 5 5 Capacity Production kg/h 3600 1800 21600 10800 Daily production t 72,0 36,0 432,0 216,0 Operarion costs per kg Depreciation €-cent/kg 0,078 0,157 0,033 0,065 Maintenance/wear €-cent/kg 0,002 0,008 0,001 0,003 Energy €-cent/kg 0,021 0,042 0,021 0,042 Total €-cent/kg 0,101 0,206 0,054 0,110 Total per t €/t 1,011 2,061 0,543 1,102 Energy costs €/kWh 0,120
  15. 15. PEF Processing of Meat Potential applications of PEF tissue disintegration Drying Enhancement Raw Products (Salami type sausages, Parma or Serrano Ham) Brining / Injection Cooked Products (Prosciutto type) Tenderization/Curing Beef Meat
  16. 16. Mass transport in meat tissue Freezing/Thawing Energy and time-consuming ( >> 330 kJ/kg) Microbial contamination during thawing Salt diffusion in meat, fresh and frozen (Brandscheid, Honikel et al. 1998) Impact of a PEF-treatment on the structure of chicken meat (1.6 kV, 40 p) (Gudmundsson 2001)
  17. 17. PEF – Treatment of meat tissue Impact on dry-cured ham production control hand salted 110 control brine injection 4 kV/cm, 20 kJ/kg, injection 100 4 kV/cm, 20 kJ/kg hand salted 3 kV/cm, 5 kJ/kg, injection relative weight [%] 90 3 kV/cm, 5 kJ/kg, hand salted 80 70 60 50 40 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 drying time [h] Drying of pork shoulder after hand salting (approx. 10 % of weight on surface) or saturated brine (approx. 8 %) injection after a PEF-treatment at different intensity in comparison to untreated control. Drying at 8° 95 % rel. humidity C,
  18. 18. PEF – Treatment of meat tissue Impact on meat pickling/curing 1,30 1,25 1,20 relative weight [%] 1,15 PEF 1,10 1,05 1,00 control 0,95 0,90 fresh injection tumbling/curing cooking Relative weight development during production of cooked ham in relation to fresh weight. Injection: 22 % brine with 1.5 % phosphate addition, 2 h tumbling and 4 h curing, cooking up to 64° core temperature C PEF Control
  19. 19. PEF Treatment of Meat Products – REM Micrographs Improvement of water binding indicated by swollen, sponge-like tissue structure 100x Improved micro- diffusion of brine Improved water binding due to interaction between protein/salt/phosphate
  20. 20. PEF – Treatment of meat tissue Impact on meat water binding capacity Improvement of mass transfer in meat tissue •Increase of water loss after PEF •Improvement of water binding capacity in combination with binding agents Impact of PEF-treatment phosphate (PO4) addition on weight yield after cooking of pork shoulder. Injection of 25 % brine, 2 h tumbling.
  21. 21. Equipment development at DIL Concept for treatment of meat pieces
  22. 22. Application of Pulsed Electric Fields Gentle Juice Preservation Non-thermal effect on microorganisms control Potential to achieve microbial decontamination at low thermal load Example: PEF-Treatment of S. cervisiae in fruit juice PEF-treated
  23. 23. Application of Pulsed Electric Fields Gentle Juice Preservation Inactivation of different microorganisms 0 0 0 0 35°C -1 -1 -1 -1 45°C 55°C -2 -2 -2 -2 -3 -3 -3 -3 lg (N/N0)[-] -4 -4 -4 -4 -5 -5 -5 -5 -6 -6 -6 -6 E. coli L. innocua S. cerevisae B. megaterium -7 -7 -7 -7 0 40 80 120 0 40 80 120 0 40 80 120 0 40 80 120 -1 Specific Energy [kJ kg ] Inactivation of E. coli, L.innocua, S. cerevisae and B. megaterium in ringer solution with an electrical conductivity of 1.25 mS cm-1 after PEF treatment with graphite anode and a field strength of 16 kV cm-1
  24. 24. Integration of temperature-time-profile Evaluation of thermal and PEF effects Determination of c-value 3.5 log-cycle of E. sakazakii Thermal inactivation tx N ∫ − k(T(t))dt (t ) = e 0 N0 k = e a ⋅T - b Product deterioration t T − Tref c - value = ∫ 10 z dt 0
  25. 25. E. sakazakii Comparison to thermal portion of inactivation L. monocytogenes 15s Protective effect in comparison to Ringer solution (dotted lines)
  26. 26. Solid state pulse modulator, based on transformer typology Rectangular pulses, bipolar Peak voltage 25 kV Pulse width 4 to 30 µs Pulse repetition 0 to 1.000 Hz Touch Screen, measurement of peak voltage and current Flowmeter, calculation of specific energy input Titanium electrodes Al2O3 insulator
  27. 27. Different treatment chamber modulels available
  28. 28. 5 kW technical scale system 30 kW industrial scale system
  29. 29. Applicability of novel technologies for food preservation Oliven Äpfel Mikroorganismen Fleisch Wein Mechanism Membrane Protein DNA Membrane Makro molecules Operation continuous batch continuous Products liquid liquid/solid liquid/solid packed packed Installed units 3 130 170 Capacity 2.000 l/h 2.000 kg/h 10.000 kg/h Disadvantage only vegetative discontinuous Acceptance microbes Oxidation
  30. 30. Cost comparison of different novel techniques Assumptions: Thermal Liquids, with heat recovery PEF liquid food, 50 – 500 kJ/kg HHP 600 MPa, 5 min HPT 700 MPa, 5 min Irradiation 5 – 10 kGy
  31. 31. Application of Pulsed Electric Fields - Conclusions Cost effective, short-time cell disintegration technique, improvement of mass transfer processes Highly effective microbial inactivation, low maximum temperature and residence time Equipment available at DIL
  32. 32. Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) E < Ecrit Intact E cell E > Ecrit Reversible E >> Ecrit Irreversible Key elements: Localized effect on cell membranes Affecting cell/tissue integrity Improvement of mass transport
  33. 33. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION DIL German Institute of Food Technologies Stefan Toepfl s.toepfl@dil-ev.de www.elcrack.de T 0049 5431 183 140 DIL is represented in the Benelux by: Promatec Food Ventures BV Mark de Boevere mark.deboevere@promatecfoodventures.com www.promatecfoodventures.com T 0031 497 33 00 57

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