Report on my major


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Report on my major

  1. 1. The first part of the general defensesystem are really barriers that stop thepathogens from entering the body. Thesebarriers try to stop all pathogens,therefore, they are considered non-specific defenses. The physicalbarriers of our general defense systemconsist of:
  2. 2. - This was discussed in theexcretion web page. It is a physical barrierthat stops pathogens.
  3. 3. Sebaceous and sweat glands - These produce chemicals that kill bacteria.Caption: Section of a sebaceous gland and sweat gland and duct in humanskin ...
  4. 4. Lysozyme - This is in the saliva and thetear glands. It kills bacteria.
  5. 5. Mucous membranes - These secrete mucuswhich lines many body parts. The mucoustraps pathogens and prevents them fromentering the body
  6. 6. Nasal hairs - These remove suspendedmicro-organisms from the air.
  7. 7. Cilia - These small hairs beat to forcemucus to the pharynx for swallowing tothe stomach. Coughing helps in thisprocess.
  8. 8. Hydrochloric acid - This is found in the stomach. Itkills micro-organisms.
  9. 9. The vagina - It contains bacteria thatproduce lactic acid that prevents the growth ofpathogens. Also the vagina has a low pH to killbacteria as well as mucous membranes.
  10. 10. If pathogens do get past thephysical barriers, our secondline of defense takes over.This is our general defensesystem.
  11. 11. The major components of the general defense system are:1. Phagocytes2. Macrophages3. Complement Defense Proteins4. Interferons5. Inflammation
  12. 12. 1. Phagocytes - These are white bloodcells that engulf pathogens. They ingestthe pathogen in the same way as theAmoeba eats.
  13. 13. 2. Macrophages - These are large,longer living phagocytes. Some movearound the body and act as scavengerswhile others remain in a fixed place.There are many that are present in ourlymph system.
  14. 14. 3. Complement DefenseProteins - These aresubstances produced by otherprotein or in response to thepresence of foreign materialin the body and that triggersor participates ina complement reaction. This isa reaction to the presence ofa foreign microorganism inwhich a series of enzymaticreactions, triggered bymolecular features of themicroorganism, result inthe bursting or engulfing ofthe pathogen.
  15. 15. 4. Interferon - These are defenseproteins that are produced by body cellsthat are infected by a virus. They travelto nearby cells and prevent the spread ofthe virus.
  16. 16. 5. Inflammation - Cells that have been infected produce chemicalcalled histamine. This chemical causes the blood capillaries to dilate(get wider) and become more porous. As a result the area swells,gets red, becomes warm, and is painful. This results in more whiteblood cells coming to the area to fight the infection. If theinflammation happens over the whole body we get a fever. The feveris the body’s way to combat bacteria and viruses. The highertemperature inhibits the pathogen from reproducing.
  17. 17. Specific Defense SystemThis defense system is calledthe specific defensesystem because the system attacksspecific invaders. This can happen bythe production of antibodies orby white blood cells engulfing aparticular pathogen.
  18. 18. 1.White Blood Cells – a.) Lymphocytesand b.) monocytes are produced in thebone marrow. They then are transported bythe blood to lymph vessels, lymph nodes,the spleen or the thymus gland.
  19. 19. a. Monocytes- These are white blood cellsthat become macrophages. These are largewhite blood cells. They engulf invaders. Onceengulfed part of the invader remains on thesurface of the microphage. This is called anantigen. Antibodies are produced to fight offfuture invaders.
  20. 20. b. Lymphocytes- Some attack bodycells that have antigens (parts of theinvader) on their surface. Otherlymphocytes produce antibodies.
  21. 21. 2. Antibodies- Lymphocytes produce antibodies as a result ofantigens. These are proteins in the group called immunoglobulins.Each antigen will only stimulate the production of one specificantibody that will fit into its receptor area. This iscalled natural active induced immunity. It is protection gainedagainst a particular pathogen by the production of specificantibodies after the antigen on the pathogen has beendetected.
  22. 22. These antibodies act innumerous ways:a. Some bind to theantigens on the surface onthe pathogens.This prevents thepathogen from entering thehost cell.b. Others cause thepathogens to clumptogether. Phagocytes thenengulf the clumpedpathogens.c. Some antibodies activatethe complementsystem which then acts toburst the pathogen.
  23. 23. This antibody protection remains in our bodies. When thesame pathogen invades the antibodies are quickly producedbecause some of the lymphocytes from the previousinvasion are still present.We may get various types of ailments although they mayappear to be the same ailment as a previous one. That isbecause there are different forms of the same ailment. Anexample is colds. Different pathogens may produce colds.When that occurs our body must produce new antibodies toattach to those specific antigens.Sometimes our antibody system works against us. In thiscase the body produces antibodies against itself! Theseconditions are called autoimmune diseases. Rheumatoidarthritis and multiple sclerosis are 2 examples.Sometimes our bodies produce antibodies against non-invaders. For some reason the body perceives a harmlesssubstance to be an invader. As a result allergies arise toparticular substances.
  24. 24. 2. Artificial active immunity contrastswith natural active immunity. In thistype of immunity the person isinoculated with a non-diseasing causingpart of the pathogen. (either a part ofthe pathogen or a dead pathogen) Thiswill carry the antigen that will triggerthe production of antibodies. This iscalled a vaccination. Genetic engineeringis now producing antigens that can beinoculated into people. The antibodiesform without any risk to the person.
  25. 25. 1. Preparation of the dead pathogen.2. Preparation of the live but weakenedpathogen (cannot reproduce).3. Preparation of a close but relativelyharmless relative of the pathogen.4. Preparation of parts of the pathogenthat carry the antigen.
  26. 26. The first vaccine was produced by Edward Jenner in 1796. Hediscovered a vaccine that produced antibodies against smallpox. 3. Natural Passive Immunity occurs when a child gets antibodies from the mother either before it is born or in the mother’s milk. This type of immunity only lasts a few months. 4. Artificial Passive Immunity occurs when a person is injected with antibodies made by another organism. A tetanus shot is an example. The antibodies are gotten from horses. This immunity lasts only a short time.
  27. 27. 1. B-cells- B-cells work in the lymphatic system especially thespleen and lymph nodes. Each B-cell works on 1 specific antigentherefore produces only 1 type of antibody to that specific antigen.A B-cell will come into contact with the antigen and then reproducerapidly. These rapidly produced cells are called plasma cells. Theselast only a few days but are extremely effective.
  28. 28. Most of these B-cells die within a few days but others remainalive. They are called Memory B-cells. When the same antigenbecomes present in the organism these memory B-cells arealready there to begin the production of plasma cells andantibodies. This is called a secondary B-cell response. This ismore effective than the original B-cell response for thefollowing reasons:a. The antibodies are produced to a smaller amount ofantigen.b. The antibodies are produced much faster.c. More antibodies are produced than in the originalresponse.
  29. 29. 2. T-cells- These defenders are produced in the bone marrowbut become activated in the thymus gland. These cells do notproduce antibodies but protect us in the following ways:1. Helper T-cells: They recognise antigens on the surface of otherwhite blood cells, especially macrophages. The Helper T-cellsenlarge, multiply, and form a group of Helper T-cells. This groupwill produce chemicals including interferon and also stimulate theformation of B-cells. They also stimulate the reproduction of KillerT-cells.
  30. 30. 2. Killer T-cells: These cells destroy abnormal body cells such asvirus-infected cells and cancer cells. As stated previously, theyare stimulated by Helper T-cells. These cells release a proteincalled perforin. These proteins form pores in the membranes ofthe cells they attack. Water and ions from the surroundings flowinto the cells and burst them. This is called lysis.
  31. 31. 3. Suppressor T-cells: As the same suggests, these cellssuppress or inhibit from working after the pathogen has beendestroyed.4. Memory T-cells: Many of these cells survive for life. Theystimulate Memory B-cells to produce antibodies. Othersstimulate the production of Killer T-cells. Both of these“memory cells” are responsible for lifelong immunity.
  32. 32. ASIONG BARNACHEA Thank you for listening!  PASIG BARNACHEA