OER: It’s not the artifact, it’s the process (Mark McGuire, U of Otago)
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OER: It’s not the artifact, it’s the process (Mark McGuire, U of Otago)

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See the version with audio and slides: http://goo.gl/gkZR8. ...

See the version with audio and slides: http://goo.gl/gkZR8.
These are the slides from a seminar presentation that I presented on 28 June at the University of Otago. You can hear (and download) the audio (MP3) on UniTube (http://goo.gl/3F7IR). Even better, you can see (and download) the slides and hear the audio together on my blog (http://goo.gl/gkZR8).

Feel free to contact me at mark.mcguire@otago.ac.nz.

"Open Educational Resources: It’s not the artifact, it’s the process". Presented at the Open Educational Resources Seminar, University of Otago, 28 June 2012

Abstract

If we think of OERs as we think of physical artifacts, we might focus on their design, production, storage and distribution. We could quantify their number, calculate their popularity, and track their use. However, in open, distributed, networked learning environments, the emphasis is not be on the resources but on the engagement between participants who create, use, modify, and share experiences. Resources can be used to prompt and fuel conversations, and the results of one conversation can be saved and used as fuel for another, but it is the way in which they are created and used that determines their effectiveness in learning contexts. In this talk, I will use examples from several open courses to explore the nature of digital resources and discuss how they are used to enable constructive engagements between networked learners. I suggest that, although appropriate resources are an important part of the learning process, we need to pay more attention to the design of the structures and networks in which they are generated and circulated.

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OER: It’s not the artifact, it’s the process (Mark McGuire, U of Otago) OER: It’s not the artifact, it’s the process (Mark McGuire, U of Otago) Presentation Transcript

  • Open Educational Resources: It’s not the artifact,Camknows CC-BY-NC-SA http://goo.gl/nQksw it’s the process OER Seminar 28 June 2012 Mark McGuire Department of Applied Sciences, University of Otago Blog: http://markmcguire.net Twitter: @mark_mcguire CC-BY (unless otherwise stated) http://goo.gl/c8M84
  • Open Educational Resources: It’s not the artifact, it’s the processPresented at the Open Educational Resources Seminar, University of Otago, 28 June 2012AbstractIf we think of OERs as we think of physical artifacts, we might focus on theirdesign, production, storage and distribution. We could quantify theirnumber, calculate their popularity, and track their use. However, in open,distributed, networked learning environments, the emphasis is not be on theresources but on the engagement between participants who create, use,modify, and share experiences. Resources can be used to prompt and fuelconversations, and the results of one conversation can be saved and used asfuel for another, but it is the way in which they are created and used thatdetermines their effectiveness in learning contexts. In this talk, I will useexamples from several open courses to explore the nature of digitalresources and discuss how they are used to enable constructiveengagements between networked learners. I suggest that, althoughappropriate resources are an important part of the learning process, we needto pay more attention to the design of the structures and networks in whichthey are generated and circulated.
  • It’s not about the ball, it’s about theCamknows CC-BY-NC-SA http://goo.gl/nQksw game.
  • OER can be defined as“...teaching, learning, andresearch resources thatreside in the public domainor have been released underan intellectual propertylicence that permits theirfree use or re-purposing byothers.”Atkins, D. E., Brown, J. S., & Hammond, A. L. (2007). A Reviewof the Open Educational Resources (OER) Movement:Achievements, Challenges, and new Opportunities. MenloPark, CA: The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. p. 4 CC-BY“White, David. Manton, Marion. JISC-funded OER ImpactStudy, University of Oxford, 2011” CC-BY
  • CC BY 3.0 Licence http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/us/Downloaded report and the applied CC-BY Licencehttp://www.hewlett.org/uploads/files/ReviewoftheOERMovement.pdf
  • #fslt2012 Open Educational Resources and￿Pedagogy (synchronous session) http://goo.gl/JKg2A
  • #fslt2012 Open Educational Resources and￿Pedagogy (with live chat window) http://goo.gl/JKg2A
  • First Steps 12 course, supporting blog, Oxford Brookes http://jennymackness.wordpress.com/2012/06/14/open-educational-resources-and-pedagogy/ 24 June 2012
  • First Steps 12 course, Intro, Oxford Brookeshttp://vle.openbrookes.net/course/view.php?id=5
  • First Steps 12 course overview, Oxford Brookeshttp://vle.openbrookes.net/course/view.php?id=5&topic=5 24 June 2012
  • First Steps 12 course, Week 4, Lecturinghttp://vle.openbrookes.net/course/view.php?id=5&topic=5The collected resources are stored in various repositories and linkedor embedded in Websites that are also linked together in a loose,constantly changing network of related conversations. The result is anecosystem of information, ideas, nodes, and participants.
  • The fslt course forumhttp://vle.openbrookes.net/mod/forumng/discuss.php?d=29
  • This resource, selected to support week 4 of the fslt course, includes links to related content from other conversations that may interest browsers.http://mededelearning.wordpress.com/2012/06/06/are-uk-universities-missing-a-trick-on-moocs-and-open-courses/
  • David White’s TALL Blog (accessed 25 June 2012)http://tallblog.conted.ox.ac.uk/index.php/2011/08/31/disappearing-digital-resources/
  • This video has been uploaded to blip, a video sharing site, and embedded in this blog post. Following the video back to where it is stored allows browsers to find related content. Serendipity is encouraged. (http://goo.gl/3ijg2)David White’s TALL Blog (accessed 25 June 2012)http://tallblog.conted.ox.ac.uk/index.php/2011/08/31/disappearing-digital-resources/
  • First Steps 12 course, Week 4, Lecturinghttp://vle.openbrookes.net/mod/page/view.php?id=77 This resource is hosted YouTube and embedded here. Individuals are provided with the Web address so they can embed this video on their own site, extending the reach of the conversation.
  • Rhona Sharpe on Lecturinghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JnMfo4iUgks&feature=youtu.beRelated videos are aggregated in the repository based on the user’s selections, searches and history.
  • First Steps 12 course, Week 4, Lecturinghttp://vle.openbrookes.net/mod/page/view.php?id=79
  • ‘Anyone, anyone?’Ben Stein as an economics teacher in the film"Ferris Buellers Day Off" 1986References to popular culture leveragesinformal learning and everyday experiences,enriching formal education and creating aricher, more enjoyable experience.http://vle.openbrookes.net/mod/page/view.php?id=79
  • Ferris Buellers Day Off http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dxPVyieptwA
  • http://www.democracynow.org/2012/6/21/are_you_here_to_save_face
  • http://www.democracynow.org/2012/6/21/are_you_here_to_save_face 24 June 2012We can learn a lot from good examples ofpublic broadcasting. Democracy Now! is adaily news programme that is funded bylisteners. The one-hour episodes arebroadcast and podcast in video and audio,and are available for other stations tobroadcast for free. Transcripts, in Spanish aswell as English, are published on theirWebsite immediately following the broadcast.
  • http://www.democracynow.org/2012/6/21/are_you_here_to_save_face 24 June 2012
  • The nature of artifactsIn crossing thethreshold fromanalog to digital,an artifact exchangesa single, traceable pastfor unlimited possiblefutures,solidity for malleability,and financial value forsocial value.Photo by gottanewCC-BY-NC-SA http://goo.gl/lL6vJ 22 June 2012
  • Police PepperSpraying Occupy UCDavis students(Nov. 18, 2011)http://goo.gl/yUt44
  • “pepper spray meme” Google image search 22 June 2012
  • “Ubiquitous low-cost processors, storage media,and networked connectivity have made itpractically feasible for individuals, alone and incooperation with others, to create and exchangeinformation, knowledge, and culture in patternsof social reciprocity, redistribution, and sharing,rather than proprietary, market-basedproduction. The basic material capitalrequirements of information production arenow in the hands of a billion people aroundthe globe who are connected to each othermore or less seamlessly. These materialconditions have given individuals a newpractical freedom of action.”– Yochai Benkler, The Wealth of Networks: How SocialProduction Transforms Markets and Freedoms(New Haven: Yale, 2006), p. 462. http://goo.gl/e0fOfFree PDF download: http://goo.gl/KCru3
  • Austin Kleon “Steal Like an Artist”Book: http://goo.gl/AkSUzRadio NZ Music 101 interview (23 June 2012): http://goo.gl/ZoC0M￿
  • “It’s notwhere youtake thingsfrom —it’s whereyou takethem to.”Jean-Luc GodardJim JarmuschThe Golden Rules of FilmingCC-BY http://goo.gl/Q6cno& http://goo.gl/Z9bVO
  • “The thing about an e-book isthat it’s a social object. It wantsto be copied from friend tofriend, beamed from a Palmdevice, pasted into a mailing list.It begs to be converted to wittysignatures at the bottom ofemails. It is so fluid andintangible that it can spreaditself over your whole life.”– Cory Doctorow, “Giving it Away,” in Content: SelectedEssays on Technology, Creativity, Copyright, and the Futureof the Future (San Francisco; Tachyon, 2008), 71-2.Released as a free text download: http://goo.gl/h9Cj4and as a free audio download: http://goo.gl/m9ZHt
  • Lawrence Lessig, Remix, Penguin Press HC, 2008http://remix.lessig.org/remix.phpWikipedia entry: http://goo.gl/R59lg
  • Free download of Remix book: http://www.scribd.com/doc/47089238/Remix
  • Crowd-sourcing additions & corrections to Remix book: http://wiki.lessig.org/Special:RecentChanges
  • New Zealand Mashups competition: http://www.mixandmash.org.nz/
  • The Remix Game “Rules: This version of the Remix game, inspired by Set, begins with 12 cards dealt face up. Examine these cards, trying to identify a license-compatible aggregation of four cards including one“This game is being designed and developed by the great folks at BYU each of the fourIndependent Study and David Wiley as part of an upcoming course targeted media types (text,at helping public school teachers learn how to find, create, localize, andreuse open educational resources.” image, audio, andA game designed to help people to reuse and re-license open content: video).” . . .http://opencontent.org/game/betagame.html accessed 28 June 2012
  • Martin Weller.“The Digital Scholar”, 2011.http://goo.gl/gaI9vAccessed 12 April 2012Read the content for free, and/orpurchase the book.
  • http://www.psych.auckland.ac.nz/uoa/home/about/our-staff/academic-staff/niki-harre/psychologyforabetterworldAccessed 28 JUne 2012Download the PDF for free, and/or purchase a printed copy (the content promotes the artifact).
  • https://www.wickedproblems.com/
  • Paying forthe form(of the experience),not for thecontent.Chris Anderson.“Free: The Future of a RadicalPrice”, Hyperion (2009)Business models based on variations of “free”http://goo.gl/5BZoM
  • The nature of networksIn the changefrom physical tovirtual,networks change fromcentralized todispersed,fixed to fluid,and hierarchical to flat.Nicholas Carr “The Big Switch”,W. W. Norton & Co., (2009)http://goo.gl/5nNn4
  • Learning to learn in a network of connected individuals who collaborate through the free exchange of resources and ideas.http://connectedlearning.tv/infographic/(CC-BY) Accessed 10 April, 2012
  • The notion of connectedness:“It’s about expertise that’s widelydistributed in our society and culture, andthe fact that anybody can help somebodyelse get better at something.”Mimi Ito, Cultural Anthropologist, Digital Media & LearningResearch Hub (University of California, Irvine)http://www.itofisher.com/mito/
  • Individuals act as collectors and curators ofresources on specific topics, often sendinglinks to their “publications” using Twitter.http://www.scoop.it/t/connectivismAccessed 10 April, 2012
  • http://curation.masternewmedia.org/Accessed 10 April, 2012
  • “the networked environment makespossible a new modality of organizingproduction: radically decentralized,collaborative, and nonproprietary,based on sharing resources and outputsamong widely distributed, looselyconnected individuals who cooperatewith each other without relying oneither market signals or managerialcommands. This is what I callcommons-based peerproduction.”– Yochai Benkler, The Wealth of Networks: How SocialProduction Transforms Markets and Freedoms(New Haven: Yale, 2006), 60. http://goo.gl/e0fOfFree PDF download: http://goo.gl/KCru3
  • Copenhagen civic squareOct. 16-18 2008Commons-based peer production in physical space
  • “The product of learningis not knowledge, theproduct of learning is atransformed learner.”– Stephen Downes http://www.downes.ca/Connections with other people and with appropriate resources canfacilitate meaningful conversations and support collaborativelearning. The result can be a transformative experience.
  • “Message in a bottle”near to Covehithe, Suffolk, Great Britain“I found the bottle at Benacre, itwished me well and has an emailaddress, this had faded.”Photo by Ashley Dace CC-BY-SA.jpghttp://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1095870Tossing disconnected messagesand resources into the commonswithout considering the needsand context of indentedrecipients (listeners/viewers/users) is unlikely to be a verysuccessful approach.
  • Teaching and Learning ParadigmsLocus, Mode, Temporality, Structure, ObjectivePUSHteacher, broadcast, synchronous, hierarchical, knowledge￿PULLresource, download, asynchronous, nodal, individual learningSHAREsite, co-create, continuous, networked, knowledge network
  • Open Courseware Models (How are they doing now?)MIT model Structure: highly centralized, dedicated staff Goal: 1,900 courses Annual cost: US$3,600,000.Utah State University model Structure: hybrid of centralized and decentralized Goal: as many courses as possible Annual cost: US$110,000Rice University model Structure: decentralized, volunteer, collaborative effort Goal: no fixed target Annual cost: lowOpen Educational Resources: Opportunities and Challengers for Higher Education. A briefingPaper by Li Yuan, Sheila MacNeil and Wilbert Kraan. Sept. 2008.http://jisc.cetis.ac.uk/publications
  • The Kahn Academy: http://www.ted.com/talks/salman_khan_let_s_use_video_to_reinvent_education.html Accessed 9 April, 2012
  • https://www.ai-class.com/ Accessed 9 April, 2012Also see Sebastian Thrun discussing “University 2.0” and introducing Udacity.com: http://goo.gl/Efi73
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SkneoNrfadk Accessed 9 April, 2012
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SkneoNrfadk Accessed 9 April, 2012
  • http://www.udacity.com/ Accessed 28 June, 2012This Website is constantly changing as Udacity ramps up and developsits organizational structure, courses, and business model.
  • A consortium of providers https://www.coursera.org/ Accessed 28 June, 2012
  • https://www.coursera.org/ Accessed 28 June, 2012
  • edX http://www.edxonline.org/about.htmlAccessed 24 May, 2012
  • http://techcrunch.com/2012/04/03/minerva-gets-25m-from-benchmark/ Accessed 9 April, 2012
  • http://www.minervaproject.com/philosophy.html Accessed 28 June, 2012This site is a sleeper. It has been announced but not yet fleshed out. The branding suggests an elite institution.
  • https://twitter.com/#!/criticalwisdoml Accessed 28 June, 2012The Minerva Twitterstream has been pretty quiet to date.
  • Change11 MOOChttp://change.mooc.ca/Accessed 28 June, 2012George Siemens, StephenDownes and Dave Cormier(all Canadian-based)developed the MOOC(Massive Open OnlineCourse) model, and havebeen offering courses usingthis approach since 2008.
  • Change11 MOOChttp://change.mooc.ca/ Accessed 28 June, 2012All of the resources and session recordings for this 35-week course are available online.
  • An OER-focussed model of provision - free resources, peersupport, pay only for accreditation by consortium members.http://wikieducator.org/OER_university/Home Accessed 28 June, 2012
  • Otago Polytechnic:Institutional innovation supported from the top.http://www.odt.co.nz/campus/otago-polytechnic/208382/personalising-own-degrees-promisingAccessed 22 June 2012
  • Tony Bates: “Transforming teaching and learning through technology management”Change11 MOOC Live Session 16 October, 2011 http://change.mooc.ca/recordings.htmBates, A. W. T., & Sangra, A. (2011). Managing Technology in Higher Education: Strategies for Transforming Teaching and Learning: Jossey-Bass.
  • Using new technology to support older technologyPhoto by by thumeco (CC-BY-NC-SA)http://goo.gl/Ngc41
  • We accept thestatus quo,not because itis optimal,but because itis familiar.￿￿
  • Dyson Vacuum cleaner (DC07), Dyson airblade, Dyson Hot (AM04)Product innovation through the application of new technologies: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Dyson_products
  • Innovationis about exceedingcurrent expectationsthrough the applicationof new technologies.￿
  • Industries, organizations, and other non-physical,non-tangible “purposed systems” can beconsidered as technologies .Whereas one technology might be “adopted” by anothertechnology this process does not work for institutionalsystems, which are comprised of a collection or “body” oftechnologies.The process that takes place when one body of technologycomes into contact with a different body of technology ismore like an encounter than an adaptation. The result canbe a parting of the ways, or a transformation that leads to anew combination of technologies.W. Brian Arthur“The Nature of Technology: What It Is and How It Evolves”, 2009. http://goo.gl/b9MG9
  • The dominant perspectives on technology give priority toeither the social or the technology side of the equation, andthey share what Wanda Orlokowski calls an “ontologyof separateness”.She argues for a “relational ontology”that focuses on the assemblages,associations, and networks of humansand technologies that occur through“entanglements in practice”.Wanda. J. Orlokowski“The sociomateriality of organisational life:considering technology in management research” (2009) http://goo.gl/Acm4k
  • Design resources to encourage“entanglements in practice.”Consider individual artifacts ascomponent parts ofassemblages, associations,relationships and networks.Facilitate discoverability,manipulation, and circulation. Gannet Photo by Matt Binn (CC-BY): http://www.flickr.com/photos/69029168@N00/3971643845 Lego Photo by Alan Chia (CC-BY-SA): http://www.flickr.com/photos/13403905@N03/2080281038/
  • Some assembly required Photo: Alan Chia http://www.flickr.com/photos/13403905@N03/2080281038/
  • Or notPhoto by PinkCakeBOX http://www.flickr.com/photos/pinkcakebox/335356652/
  • Open Educational Resources Granularity Programme Course Module Lesson Website Game Article Chart Image
  • http://www.flickr.com/commons/ June 22 2012Crowd-sourcing metadata - users are invited to apply tags to photos so they can be more easily discovered by others.
  • The most useful resources areconversational,contextualized,curated, connected, ￿
  • and CC-licenced. ￿ http://www.creativecommons.org.nz/ Accessed 24 June 2012
  • It’s not about the wood, it’s about the B.navez Stack of Firewood CC-BY-SA http://goo.gl/Y6F7p fire.Gurumustuk Singh “Fireside Chanting” CC-BY-NC-SA http://goo.gl/GQSle