collaboration :: cooperation :: coordination




Coordination, Cooperation & Collaboration
Tools & Modalities for Collabor...
Starting At The Beginning




What is participation?
         Dictionary: ‘to take part’
Starting At The Beginning



‘Participation’ must get more defined in order to:
  • to map & augment existing processes
  •...
Understanding Participation




     What is participation?
Understanding Participation


Collective Activity   Process      Output
Understanding Participation


Collective Activity   Process      Output
Understanding Participation




      Why are we here?
Understanding Participation




      Why are we here?
Understanding Participation




      Why are we here?
Understanding Participation



  Opportunity to engage:
   • ideas surrounding this event?
   • presenters like me?
   • p...
Understanding Participation



  Potential lies in the space that is
  our commonalities & differences:
   • ideas
   • ex...
Understanding Participation




    This space is diminished by
     our proximity here, now.
Understanding Participation



  This space is a relational space.
Coordination



 This space is a relational space -
defined by the way it brings together
     disparate
              peop...
Coordination


Collective Activity              Process                         Output

                      disparate el...
Cooperation

   Cooperation (process / set of instructions)
provides for transactional exchange that leads
           to a...
Cooperation

cooperative processes can be
               implicit or explicit
            conscious or unconscious
       ...
Cooperation



Enabler of cooperative process:

        compliance of will
Understanding Participation


Collective Activity              Process                         Output

                   ...
Collaboration




Collaboration = collective creation
Collaboration



What do we typically mean by ‘collaboration’?


‘working together towards a shared objective’
Collaboration


          Collaboration is:

 Co-creation on part of a group of
people with add/edit/delete rights to
    ...
Collaboration


Collective Activity              Process                          Output

                      disparate ...
Collaboration

  Divergent production develops multiple solutions to
              the same problem domain

              ...
Collaboration


To ‘consciously collaborate’
     have to consider:
• What should we collaborate on?
• How shall we do it?...
Negotiation in Collective Activity


    Collaboration, cooperation & coordination
 all require amounts of two types of ne...
Negotiation in Collective Activity



  A collaborative system’s capacity for
negotiation is directly proportional to the
...
Understanding Participation

 Collective
                      Process                   Output             Negotiation
  ...
Understanding Collaboration
Mass Collaboration


Recently, something important has happened:

                         we have broken through
        ...
Thank you!

    Mark Elliott, Director & Chief Consultant
    +61 421 978 501
    Mark.Elliott@Collabforge.com
    Twitter...
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Part Camp Ny Jun09 Elliott

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Dr Mark Elliott's presentation to ParticipationCamp09 - held the weekend of 27-28 June at NYU's Interactive Telecommunications Program @ the Tisch School of the Arts 721 Broadway, New York. Mark's talk focused on how to engage citizens in collaborative planning and policy-making using participatory tools and methods.

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Part Camp Ny Jun09 Elliott

  1. 1. collaboration :: cooperation :: coordination Coordination, Cooperation & Collaboration Tools & Modalities for Collaborative Planning & Policy-making Participation Camp New York, 2009 Mark Elliott Chief Consultant & Director Collabforge
  2. 2. Starting At The Beginning What is participation? Dictionary: ‘to take part’
  3. 3. Starting At The Beginning ‘Participation’ must get more defined in order to: • to map & augment existing processes • develop new processes • build & or match tools to suit
  4. 4. Understanding Participation What is participation?
  5. 5. Understanding Participation Collective Activity Process Output
  6. 6. Understanding Participation Collective Activity Process Output
  7. 7. Understanding Participation Why are we here?
  8. 8. Understanding Participation Why are we here?
  9. 9. Understanding Participation Why are we here?
  10. 10. Understanding Participation Opportunity to engage: • ideas surrounding this event? • presenters like me? • people next to you?
  11. 11. Understanding Participation Potential lies in the space that is our commonalities & differences: • ideas • experiences • resources • connections
  12. 12. Understanding Participation This space is diminished by our proximity here, now.
  13. 13. Understanding Participation This space is a relational space.
  14. 14. Coordination This space is a relational space - defined by the way it brings together disparate people ideas matter
  15. 15. Coordination Collective Activity Process Output disparate elements pulled into a patterns across disparate Coordination relational space elements emerge Example: how a search engine uses keywords to bring together webpages and resources on the Internet.
  16. 16. Cooperation Cooperation (process / set of instructions) provides for transactional exchange that leads to an aggregation of value • reciprocal altruism or recycling • captialism or communism • file sharing or social bookmarking • lining up for our groceries or traffic lights • representative democracy...
  17. 17. Cooperation cooperative processes can be implicit or explicit conscious or unconscious massive or micro designed or evolved proprietary or open source democratic or autocratic
  18. 18. Cooperation Enabler of cooperative process: compliance of will
  19. 19. Understanding Participation Collective Activity Process Output disparate elements pulled into a patterns across disparate Coordination relational space elements emerge individuals comply to process / aggregated value of Cooperation set of instructions individual contributions Examples: a company & profit, a survey & results, voting & elected politician, taxation & social service.
  20. 20. Collaboration Collaboration = collective creation
  21. 21. Collaboration What do we typically mean by ‘collaboration’? ‘working together towards a shared objective’
  22. 22. Collaboration Collaboration is: Co-creation on part of a group of people with add/edit/delete rights to the same pool of content.
  23. 23. Collaboration Collective Activity Process Output disparate elements pulled into a patterns across disparate Coordination relational space elements emerge individuals comply to process / aggregated value of Cooperation set of instructions individual contributions co-created innovation participants of a group add/edit/ Collaboration representing a shared delete same pool of content understanding
  24. 24. Collaboration Divergent production develops multiple solutions to the same problem domain creative arts, lateral thinking, brainstorming Convergent production is a cognitive process whereby an agent seeks a single best solution mathematics, logic, scientific method J. P. Guilford (1950; 1962)
  25. 25. Collaboration To ‘consciously collaborate’ have to consider: • What should we collaborate on? • How shall we do it? • medium, process, tools, etc
  26. 26. Negotiation in Collective Activity Collaboration, cooperation & coordination all require amounts of two types of negotiation. Cultural negotiation: language, norms, beliefs, values (sociology) Social negotiation: personal histories & relationships, personalities & computability issues, reputation (psychology)
  27. 27. Negotiation in Collective Activity A collaborative system’s capacity for negotiation is directly proportional to the robustness of its outcomes.
  28. 28. Understanding Participation Collective Process Output Negotiation Activity disparate elements patterns across Low Coordination pulled into a relational disparate elements (cultural) space become visible individuals comply to aggregated value of Medium Cooperation process / set of individual (cultural, social) instructions contributions participants of a group co-created innovation High Collaboration add/edit/deletes same representing a shared (social, cultural) pool of content understanding
  29. 29. Understanding Collaboration
  30. 30. Mass Collaboration Recently, something important has happened: we have broken through collaboration’s glass ceiling wikis disintermediate social negotiation with creative contribution
  31. 31. Thank you! Mark Elliott, Director & Chief Consultant +61 421 978 501 Mark.Elliott@Collabforge.com Twitter: @MarkElliott
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