Introduction to RDF and RDFS Mark Birbeck http://webBackplane.com/mark-birbeck
RDF...a four letter word
RDF/XML is the real villain
The promise of XML
RDF Documents <ul><li>Primer </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Syntax </li></ul><ul><li>Semantics </li></ul><ul...
This tutorial <ul><li>Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Transporting  RDF </li></ul><ul><li>Storing </li></ul><ul><li>Some source...
Metadata: data about data
Getting data from the web is easy...getting metadata is hard
 
XML was supposed to give us this information
<ul><li><music genre=&quot;classical&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li><title> </li></ul><ul><li>The Well-tempered Clavier </li></u...
Why has XML not delivered?
<ul><li><document type=&quot;classical music&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li><name> </li></ul><ul><li>The Well-tempered Clavier <...
We want to say: &quot;give me everything   created by   J. S. Bach&quot;
To achieve that we need to agree how to  say ' created by ' in any  document
Dublin, Ohio Photo by Sleestak66: http://www.flickr.com/people/kesselring/
 
DC.Creator = &quot;J. S. Bach&quot;
DC.Title = &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;
<ul><li>abstract </li></ul><ul><li>audience </li></ul><ul><li>contributor </li></ul><ul><li>creator </li></ul><ul><li>desc...
<ul><li><html> </li></ul><ul><li><head> </li></ul><ul><li><title> </li></ul><ul><li>Bach: The Well Tempered Clavier </li><...
<ul><li><html> </li></ul><ul><li><head> </li></ul><ul><li><title> </li></ul><ul><li>An introduction to RDF </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li><html> </li></ul><ul><li><head> </li></ul><ul><li><title> </li></ul><ul><li>An introduction to RDF </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li><music genre=&quot;classical&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li><title> </li></ul><ul><li>The Well-tempered Clavier </li></u...
<ul><li><music genre=&quot;classical&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li><title> </li></ul><ul><li>The Well-tempered Clavier </li></u...
Recap <ul><li>XML doesn't help </li></ul><ul><li>Having unique identifiers does </li></ul>
Unique identifiers are a key concept in RDF
DC.Creator DC.Title
http://purl.org/dc/terms/ creator http://purl.org/dc/terms/ title
Resource  Description Framework
http://purl.org/dc/terms/ creator http://purl.org/dc/terms/ title
 
 
 
Recap <ul><li>Resources and unique identifiers are fundamental for RDF: </li></ul><ul><li>http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator...
Triples
<ul><li><html> </li></ul><ul><li><head> </li></ul><ul><li><title> </li></ul><ul><li>Bach: The Well Tempered Clavier </li><...
 
<ul><li>var piece = {   title : &quot;The Well-tempered Clavier&quot;,   creator : &quot;J. S. Bach&quot; }; </li></ul>
<ul><li>Triples are sometimes called statements: </li></ul><ul><li>J. S. Bach  composed  &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&q...
The parts of a triple
Subject A URI: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach
Predicate <ul><li>Also a URI: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator </li></ul></ul>
Object <ul><li>Literal or URI: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Johann Sebastian Bach&quot; http://dbpedia.org/resource/Well-Te...
Plain literals <ul><li>Essentially strings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Johann Sebastian Bach&quot; &quot;The Well-Tempere...
Plain literals <ul><li>But can contain language information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Johann Sebastian Bach&quot;@en &q...
Typed literals <ul><li>And a datatype: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;1685-03-21&quot;^^xsd:date &quot;1750-07-28&quot;^^xsd:...
XML literals &quot;H<sub>2</sub>O&quot;^^rdf:XMLLiteral
Recap <ul><li>J. S. Bach  composed  &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;. J. S. Bach  was born on  21 st  March, 1685 J. ...
Recap <ul><li>J. S. Bach composed &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;. J. S. Bach was born on 21 st  March, 1685 J. S. B...
Recap <ul><li>J. S. Bach composed &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;. J. S. Bach was born on 21 st  March, 1685 J. S. B...
Recap <ul><li>J. S. Bach composed &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;. J. S. Bach was born on 21 st  March, 1685 J. S. B...
Graphs
The Well Tempered Clavier Wohltemperiertes Klavie dc:title dc:title 1685-03-21 1750-07-28 p:dateOfBirth p:dateOfDeath dc:c...
rdf:type
<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach>   rdf:type  yago:Composer . <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebast...
Lists
Performed by Performed by dc:creator Performed by dc:creator rdf:Bag rdf:type
Blank nodes
Representing RDF
RDF/XML <rdf:RDF> <yago:Composer109947232 rdf:about=&quot;http://[...]/Johann_Sebastian_Bach&quot;   >   <p:birthPlace   r...
Turtle dbpedia:Johann_Sebastian_Bach   p:dateOfBirth &quot;1685-03-21&quot;^^xsd:date; p:dateOfDeath &quot;1750-07-28&quot...
RDFa <ul><li><html> </li></ul><ul><li><head> </li></ul><ul><li><title> </li></ul><ul><li>Johann Sebastian Bach </li></ul><...
RDFa <ul><li><html> </li></ul><ul><li><head> </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul><ul><li></head> </li></ul><ul><li><body> </li...
Storing RDF
Sources of RDF
Querying RDF
<ul><li>SELECT  ?composer WHERE {  ?composer  rdf:type yago:Composer } </li></ul>
<ul><li>SELECT ?composer WHERE { ?composer rdf:type yago:Composer } </li></ul><ul><li><http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_...
<ul><li>SELECT  ?piece WHERE { dbpr: Johann_Sebastian_Bach  dc:creator  ?piece  } </li></ul><ul><li><http://dbpedia.org/re...
Creating vocabularies
Classes
Composer Musician Is a type of Artist Is a type of Creator Is a type of
<ul><li>yago:Composer a  rdfs:Class  . </li></ul>
<ul><li>yago:Composer a rdfs:Class . </li></ul><ul><li>yago:Composer  rdfs:subClassOf  yago:Musician . </li></ul><ul><li>y...
<ul><li>yago:Composer a rdfs:Class . </li></ul><ul><li>yago:Composer rdfs:subClassOf yago:Musician . </li></ul><ul><li>yag...
<ul><li>SELECT  ?composer WHERE {  ?composer  rdf:type yago:Composer } </li></ul><ul><li><http://dbpedia.org/resource/Joha...
<ul><li>SELECT ?s WHERE { ?s rdf:type  yago:Artist  } </li></ul><ul><li><http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach...
Properties
<ul><li>foaf:surname a  rdfs:Property  . </li></ul>
<ul><li>foaf:surname a rdfs:Property . </li></ul><ul><li>foaf:surname  rdfs:Range rdfs:Literal  . </li></ul>
<ul><li>foaf:surname a rdfs:Property . </li></ul><ul><li>foaf:surname rdfs:Range rdfs:Literal . </li></ul><ul><li>foaf:sur...
Validation v. inference
<ul><li>foaf:surname a rdfs:Property . </li></ul><ul><li>foaf:surname rdfs:Range rdfs:Literal . </li></ul><ul><li>foaf:sur...
<ul><li>xyz:composedBy a rdfs:Property . </li></ul><ul><li>xyz:composedBy rdfs:Range yago:Composer . </li></ul><ul><li>xyz...
<ul><li>xyz:composedBy a rdfs:Property . </li></ul><ul><li>xyz:composedBy rdfs:Range yago:Composer . </li></ul><ul><li>xyz...
OWL
Conclusion
References <ul><li>RDF Primer: http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-primer/ </li></ul><ul><li>RDF Schema: http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sch...
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A First Course in RDF and RDFS (Resource Description Framework and Resource Description Framework Schema)

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This tutorial was given at SemTech 2008, on May 19th.

From the program: "RDF is a key W3C specification and a foundational component of the Semantic Web. This tutorial will explain the basics of RDF and how it functions as a key building block of semantic systems.

Mark Birbeck is the managing director of webBackplane. He has been creating software for many years, and his particular interests are the semantic web, and components that help to create dynamic, flexible, user interfaces. He has consulted, given training, spoken at conferences and contributed to books and articles on these and other topics. He is also heavily involved in the creation of new standards on these themes. Mark is an Invited Expert on both the XForms Working Group and the XHTML 2 Working Group, at the W3C. Over the years his work there has included devising and proposing RDFa."

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  • A First Course in RDF and RDFS (Resource Description Framework and Resource Description Framework Schema)

    1. 1. Introduction to RDF and RDFS Mark Birbeck http://webBackplane.com/mark-birbeck
    2. 2. RDF...a four letter word
    3. 3. RDF/XML is the real villain
    4. 4. The promise of XML
    5. 5. RDF Documents <ul><li>Primer </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Syntax </li></ul><ul><li>Semantics </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Test cases </li></ul>
    6. 6. This tutorial <ul><li>Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Transporting RDF </li></ul><ul><li>Storing </li></ul><ul><li>Some sources of RDF data </li></ul><ul><li>Querying </li></ul><ul><li>Defining vocabularies </li></ul>
    7. 7. Metadata: data about data
    8. 8. Getting data from the web is easy...getting metadata is hard
    9. 10. XML was supposed to give us this information
    10. 11. <ul><li><music genre=&quot;classical&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li><title> </li></ul><ul><li>The Well-tempered Clavier </li></ul><ul><li></title> </li></ul><ul><li><composer>J. S. Bach</composer> </li></ul><ul><li></music> </li></ul>
    11. 12. Why has XML not delivered?
    12. 13. <ul><li><document type=&quot;classical music&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li><name> </li></ul><ul><li>The Well-tempered Clavier </li></ul><ul><li></name> </li></ul><ul><li><author>J. S. Bach</author> </li></ul><ul><li></document> </li></ul>
    13. 14. We want to say: &quot;give me everything created by J. S. Bach&quot;
    14. 15. To achieve that we need to agree how to say ' created by ' in any document
    15. 16. Dublin, Ohio Photo by Sleestak66: http://www.flickr.com/people/kesselring/
    16. 18. DC.Creator = &quot;J. S. Bach&quot;
    17. 19. DC.Title = &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;
    18. 20. <ul><li>abstract </li></ul><ul><li>audience </li></ul><ul><li>contributor </li></ul><ul><li>creator </li></ul><ul><li>description </li></ul><ul><li>publisher </li></ul><ul><li>rightsHolder </li></ul><ul><li>...and many more </li></ul>Often called a vocabulary or taxonomy
    19. 21. <ul><li><html> </li></ul><ul><li><head> </li></ul><ul><li><title> </li></ul><ul><li>Bach: The Well Tempered Clavier </li></ul><ul><li></title> </li></ul><ul><li><meta name=&quot; DC.Title &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>content=&quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li><meta name=&quot; DC.Creator &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>content=&quot;J. S. Bach&quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li></head> </li></ul><ul><li><body> </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul><ul><li></body> </li></ul><ul><li></html> </li></ul>
    20. 22. <ul><li><html> </li></ul><ul><li><head> </li></ul><ul><li><title> </li></ul><ul><li>An introduction to RDF </li></ul><ul><li></title> </li></ul><ul><li><meta name=&quot; title &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>content=&quot;Introduction to RDF&quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li><meta name=&quot; author &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>content=&quot;Mark Birbeck&quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li></head> </li></ul><ul><li><body> </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul><ul><li></body> </li></ul><ul><li></html> </li></ul>
    21. 23. <ul><li><html> </li></ul><ul><li><head> </li></ul><ul><li><title> </li></ul><ul><li>An introduction to RDF </li></ul><ul><li></title> </li></ul><ul><li><meta name=&quot; DC.Title &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>content=&quot;Introduction to RDF&quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li><meta name=&quot; DC.Creator &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>content=&quot;Mark Birbeck&quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li></head> </li></ul><ul><li><body> </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul><ul><li></body> </li></ul><ul><li></html> </li></ul>
    22. 24. <ul><li><music genre=&quot;classical&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li><title> </li></ul><ul><li>The Well-tempered Clavier </li></ul><ul><li></title> </li></ul><ul><li><composer>J. S. Bach</composer> </li></ul><ul><li></music> </li></ul><ul><li><document type=&quot;classical music&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li><name> </li></ul><ul><li>The Well-tempered Clavier </li></ul><ul><li></name> </li></ul><ul><li><author>J. S. Bach</author> </li></ul><ul><li></document> </li></ul>
    23. 25. <ul><li><music genre=&quot;classical&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li><title> </li></ul><ul><li>The Well-tempered Clavier </li></ul><ul><li></title> </li></ul><ul><li>< dc:creator >J. S. Bach</ dc:creator > </li></ul><ul><li></music> </li></ul><ul><li><document type=&quot;classical music&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li><name> </li></ul><ul><li>The Well-tempered Clavier </li></ul><ul><li></name> </li></ul><ul><li>< dc:creator >J. S. Bach</ dc:creator > </li></ul><ul><li></document> </li></ul>
    24. 26. Recap <ul><li>XML doesn't help </li></ul><ul><li>Having unique identifiers does </li></ul>
    25. 27. Unique identifiers are a key concept in RDF
    26. 28. DC.Creator DC.Title
    27. 29. http://purl.org/dc/terms/ creator http://purl.org/dc/terms/ title
    28. 30. Resource Description Framework
    29. 31. http://purl.org/dc/terms/ creator http://purl.org/dc/terms/ title
    30. 35. Recap <ul><li>Resources and unique identifiers are fundamental for RDF: </li></ul><ul><li>http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator http://purl.org/dc/terms/title http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach http://dbpedia.org/resource/Well-Tempered_Clavier </li></ul>
    31. 36. Triples
    32. 37. <ul><li><html> </li></ul><ul><li><head> </li></ul><ul><li><title> </li></ul><ul><li>Bach: The Well Tempered Clavier </li></ul><ul><li></title> </li></ul><ul><li><meta name=&quot; DC.Title &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>content=&quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li><meta name=&quot; DC.Creator &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>content=&quot;J. S. Bach&quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li></head> </li></ul><ul><li><body> </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul><ul><li></body> </li></ul><ul><li></html> </li></ul>
    33. 39. <ul><li>var piece = { title : &quot;The Well-tempered Clavier&quot;, creator : &quot;J. S. Bach&quot; }; </li></ul>
    34. 40. <ul><li>Triples are sometimes called statements: </li></ul><ul><li>J. S. Bach composed &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;. J. S. Bach was born on 21 st March, 1685. J. S. Bach died on 28 th July, 1750. </li></ul>
    35. 41. The parts of a triple
    36. 42. Subject A URI: http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach
    37. 43. Predicate <ul><li>Also a URI: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator </li></ul></ul>
    38. 44. Object <ul><li>Literal or URI: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Johann Sebastian Bach&quot; http://dbpedia.org/resource/Well-Tempered_Clavier </li></ul></ul>
    39. 45. Plain literals <ul><li>Essentially strings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Johann Sebastian Bach&quot; &quot;The Well-Tempered Clavier&quot; </li></ul></ul>
    40. 46. Plain literals <ul><li>But can contain language information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Johann Sebastian Bach&quot;@en &quot;Бах, Иоганн Себастьян&quot;@ru &quot;The Well-Tempered Clavier&quot;@en &quot;Wohltemperiertes Klavie&quot;@de </li></ul></ul>
    41. 47. Typed literals <ul><li>And a datatype: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;1685-03-21&quot;^^xsd:date &quot;1750-07-28&quot;^^xsd:date </li></ul></ul>
    42. 48. XML literals &quot;H<sub>2</sub>O&quot;^^rdf:XMLLiteral
    43. 49. Recap <ul><li>J. S. Bach composed &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;. J. S. Bach was born on 21 st March, 1685 J. S. Bach died on 28 th July, 1750. </li></ul>
    44. 50. Recap <ul><li>J. S. Bach composed &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;. J. S. Bach was born on 21 st March, 1685 J. S. Bach died on 28 th July, 1750. </li></ul><http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach> dc:creator <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Well-Tempered_Clavier> . <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Well-Tempered_Clavier> dc:title &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;@en . <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Well-Tempered_Clavier> dc:title &quot;Wohltemperiertes Klavie&quot;@de .
    45. 51. Recap <ul><li>J. S. Bach composed &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;. J. S. Bach was born on 21 st March, 1685 J. S. Bach died on 28 th July, 1750. </li></ul><http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach> p:dateOfBirth &quot;1685-03-21&quot;^^xsd:date .
    46. 52. Recap <ul><li>J. S. Bach composed &quot;The Well Tempered Clavier&quot;. J. S. Bach was born on 21 st March, 1685 J. S. Bach died on 28 th July, 1750. </li></ul><http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach> p:dateOfDeath &quot;1750-07-28&quot;^^xsd:date .
    47. 53. Graphs
    48. 54. The Well Tempered Clavier Wohltemperiertes Klavie dc:title dc:title 1685-03-21 1750-07-28 p:dateOfBirth p:dateOfDeath dc:creator
    49. 55. rdf:type
    50. 56. <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach> rdf:type yago:Composer . <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach> rdf:type foaf:Person .
    51. 57. Lists
    52. 58. Performed by Performed by dc:creator Performed by dc:creator rdf:Bag rdf:type
    53. 59. Blank nodes
    54. 60. Representing RDF
    55. 61. RDF/XML <rdf:RDF> <yago:Composer109947232 rdf:about=&quot;http://[...]/Johann_Sebastian_Bach&quot; > <p:birthPlace rdf:resource=&quot;http://[...]/Eisenach&quot; /> <p:dateOfDeath rdf:datatype=&quot;http://[...]/XMLSchema#date&quot; >1750-07-28</p:dateOfDeath> </yago:Composer109947232> </rdf:RDF>
    56. 62. Turtle dbpedia:Johann_Sebastian_Bach p:dateOfBirth &quot;1685-03-21&quot;^^xsd:date; p:dateOfDeath &quot;1750-07-28&quot;^^xsd:date; p:death &quot;1750-07-28&quot;^^xsd:date; p:deathPlace dbpedia:Leipzig; a yago:Composer, foaf:Person .
    57. 63. RDFa <ul><li><html> </li></ul><ul><li><head> </li></ul><ul><li><title> </li></ul><ul><li>Johann Sebastian Bach </li></ul><ul><li></title> </li></ul><ul><li>< link rel =&quot;dc:creator&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>href =&quot;http://[...]/Well-Tempered_Clavier&quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li><meta property=&quot;p:dateOfBirth&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>content =&quot;1685-03-21&quot; datatype =&quot;xsd:date&quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li></head> </li></ul><ul><li><body> </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul><ul><li></body> </li></ul><ul><li></html> </li></ul>
    58. 64. RDFa <ul><li><html> </li></ul><ul><li><head> </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul><ul><li></head> </li></ul><ul><li><body> </li></ul><ul><li><span property=&quot;foaf:name&quot;> </li></ul><ul><li>Johann Sebastian Bach </li></ul><ul><li></span> </li></ul><ul><li>was born in </li></ul><ul><li><span property=&quot;p:dateOfBirth&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>content=&quot;1685-03-21&quot; datatype=&quot;xsd:date&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>> 1685 </span> , </li></ul><ul><li>in <span rel=&quot;p:placeOfBirth&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>resource=&quot; [dbp:Eisenach] &quot;> Eisenach </span>. </li></ul><ul><li></body> </li></ul><ul><li></html> </li></ul>
    59. 65. Storing RDF
    60. 66. Sources of RDF
    61. 67. Querying RDF
    62. 68. <ul><li>SELECT ?composer WHERE { ?composer rdf:type yago:Composer } </li></ul>
    63. 69. <ul><li>SELECT ?composer WHERE { ?composer rdf:type yago:Composer } </li></ul><ul><li><http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach> </li></ul><ul><li><http://dbpedia.org/resource/Ludwig_van_Beethoven> </li></ul>
    64. 70. <ul><li>SELECT ?piece WHERE { dbpr: Johann_Sebastian_Bach dc:creator ?piece } </li></ul><ul><li><http://dbpedia.org/resource/Well-Tempered_Clavier> </li></ul><ul><li><http://dbpedia.org/resource/Cello_Suites_%28Bach%29> </li></ul>
    65. 71. Creating vocabularies
    66. 72. Classes
    67. 73. Composer Musician Is a type of Artist Is a type of Creator Is a type of
    68. 74. <ul><li>yago:Composer a rdfs:Class . </li></ul>
    69. 75. <ul><li>yago:Composer a rdfs:Class . </li></ul><ul><li>yago:Composer rdfs:subClassOf yago:Musician . </li></ul><ul><li>yago:Musician rdfs:subClassOf yago:Artist . </li></ul><ul><li>yago:Artist rdfs:subClassOf yago:Creator . </li></ul>
    70. 76. <ul><li>yago:Composer a rdfs:Class . </li></ul><ul><li>yago:Composer rdfs:subClassOf yago:Musician . </li></ul><ul><li>yago:Musician rdfs:subClassOf yago:Artist . </li></ul><ul><li>yago:Artist rdfs:subClassOf yago:Creator . </li></ul><ul><li>dbpedia:Johann_Sebastian_Bach a yago:Composer , foaf:Person . </li></ul>
    71. 77. <ul><li>SELECT ?composer WHERE { ?composer rdf:type yago:Composer } </li></ul><ul><li><http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach> </li></ul><ul><li><http://dbpedia.org/resource/Ludwig_van_Beethoven> </li></ul>
    72. 78. <ul><li>SELECT ?s WHERE { ?s rdf:type yago:Artist } </li></ul><ul><li><http://dbpedia.org/resource/Johann_Sebastian_Bach> </li></ul><ul><li><http://dbpedia.org/resource/Ludwig_van_Beethoven> </li></ul>
    73. 79. Properties
    74. 80. <ul><li>foaf:surname a rdfs:Property . </li></ul>
    75. 81. <ul><li>foaf:surname a rdfs:Property . </li></ul><ul><li>foaf:surname rdfs:Range rdfs:Literal . </li></ul>
    76. 82. <ul><li>foaf:surname a rdfs:Property . </li></ul><ul><li>foaf:surname rdfs:Range rdfs:Literal . </li></ul><ul><li>foaf:surname rdfs:Domain foaf:Person . </li></ul>
    77. 83. Validation v. inference
    78. 84. <ul><li>foaf:surname a rdfs:Property . </li></ul><ul><li>foaf:surname rdfs:Range rdfs:Literal . </li></ul><ul><li>foaf:surname rdfs:Domain foaf:Person . </li></ul><ul><li>dbpedia:Johann_Sebastian_Bach foaf:surname &quot;Bach&quot; . </li></ul>dbpedia:Johann_Sebastian_Bach a foaf:Person .
    79. 85. <ul><li>xyz:composedBy a rdfs:Property . </li></ul><ul><li>xyz:composedBy rdfs:Range yago:Composer . </li></ul><ul><li>xyz:composedBy rdfs:Domain yago:Piece . </li></ul><ul><li>dbp:Cello_Suites_%28Bach%29 xyz:composedBy dbp:Johann_Sebastian_Bach . </li></ul>dbp:Johann_Sebastian_Bach a yago:Composer .
    80. 86. <ul><li>xyz:composedBy a rdfs:Property . </li></ul><ul><li>xyz:composedBy rdfs:Range yago:Composer . </li></ul><ul><li>xyz:composedBy rdfs:Domain yago:Piece . </li></ul><ul><li>xyz:composedBy rdfs :subPropertyOf dc:creator . </li></ul>
    81. 87. OWL
    82. 88. Conclusion
    83. 89. References <ul><li>RDF Primer: http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-primer/ </li></ul><ul><li>RDF Schema: http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/ </li></ul><ul><li>OWL: http://www.w3.org/2004/OWL/ </li></ul>
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