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ADHD Marjie Hicks ECE 275 Current Issues in Brain Development August 9, 2010
History of ADHD <ul><li>Over the last 100 years ADHD has been known as several  different things: </li></ul><ul><li>  MED ...
What is ADHD? <ul><li>ADHD is a condition in which people have trouble controlling behaviors in different settings. </li><...
What does having ADHD feel like? <ul><li>Try to imagine what ADHD feels like. First turn on the TV and the radio, then ask...
How is ADHD Diagnosed? <ul><li>There is no actual test that can diagnose ADHD.  New technology such as MRI, PET and SPECT ...
What Causes ADHD? <ul><li>The cause of ADHD is not yet known.  It may be inherited and linked to the  </li></ul><ul><li>ge...
Other factors related to ADHD <ul><li>Recent studies have found a link between maternal smoking and ADHD, hyper-aggressive...
Treatment Options <ul><li>ADHD can be treated with medicine.  Ritalin (methylphenidate hydrochloride), a stimulant, has be...
Bibliography (Books & Articles) <ul><li>Lipkin, MD, Paul H. &quot;Pesticide exposure implicated in ADHD.&quot; Editorial. ...
Bibliography (Books & Articles) <ul><li>Silverstein, Alvin, Virgina Silverstein, and Laura Silverstein-Nunn.  The ADHD Upd...
Bibliography (Web Resources) <ul><li>&quot;add - adhd attention-deficit-drugs.&quot;  Healthline.com . N.p., n.d. Web. 5 A...
Bibliography (Web Resources) <ul><li>ADHD Treatments . AnswersTV, n.d. Web. 6 Aug. 2010. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W...
Bibliography (Web Resources) <ul><li>&quot; What is ADHD?.&quot;  about.com . N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Aug. 2010. </li></ul><ul><...
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Adhd ppt (2)

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  • Excellent info. Confusion exists because too often diagnosis and treatment are based upon appearances not precise data. Just did a SlideShare over here to clarify: http://slidesha.re/1aLiWuA Thanks! cp
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  1. 1. ADHD Marjie Hicks ECE 275 Current Issues in Brain Development August 9, 2010
  2. 2. History of ADHD <ul><li>Over the last 100 years ADHD has been known as several different things: </li></ul><ul><li> MED – Minimal Brain Damage or Dysfunction </li></ul><ul><li> Hyperactivity </li></ul><ul><li> ADD – Attention Deficit Disorder </li></ul><ul><li> ADHD – Attention Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder as it is </li></ul><ul><li> currently called </li></ul><ul><li> (Silverstein & Nunn 2008) </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is ADHD? <ul><li>ADHD is a condition in which people have trouble controlling behaviors in different settings. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 3 (possibly more) main types of ADHD: </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperactive – Impulsive, always on the go, can’t sit still, talk out of turn or as a teenager they may be restless on the inside. </li></ul><ul><li>Inattentive – Difficulty in paying attention or focusing on one thing. May be easily bored especially if something is not interesting to them. Suffer from a lack of organizational skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Combined – Show symptoms of both above types and can change on a daily basis. One day fidgety & restless, the next day quiet and dreamy. </li></ul><ul><li>Boys are up to 3 times more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD and usually have the hyperactive-impulsive type of ADHD. Girls are more prone to the inattentive type of ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Watch this video for a brief overview: YouTube - ADHD and the Brain </li></ul><ul><li>(Silverstein & Nunn 2008) </li></ul>
  4. 4. What does having ADHD feel like? <ul><li>Try to imagine what ADHD feels like. First turn on the TV and the radio, then ask a friend to talk to you. While all this is going on, sit down and try to do your homework. Are you able to tune out all the distractions and do your homework? Can you talk to your friend without being distracted by the TV or radio? Some people have trouble sorting out all the sights, sounds and thoughts that demand their attention. They are incapable of focusing on just one thing at a time. (Silverstein & Nunn 2008) YouTube - ADHD </li></ul><ul><li>I highly recommend reading the book “all dogs have ADHD” by Kathy Hoopman. Then find someone you know with ADHD and ask them if this is how they feel inside. </li></ul>
  5. 5. How is ADHD Diagnosed? <ul><li>There is no actual test that can diagnose ADHD. New technology such as MRI, PET and SPECT scans have given us the ability to view the working parts of the brain, but they cannot determine if an individual has ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnoses is usually done through the collaboration of doctors, teachers, counselors and parents by way of screening tools and observations of a child's behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>There are a variety of self screening tests available online such as this: http://newideas.net/adhd-online-test-screening </li></ul><ul><li>( Silverstein & Nunn 2008) </li></ul>
  6. 6. What Causes ADHD? <ul><li>The cause of ADHD is not yet known. It may be inherited and linked to the </li></ul><ul><li>genes that control the way the brain uses neurotransmitters. In some cases </li></ul><ul><li>it can be traced to brain trauma that causes injury to the nerves. </li></ul><ul><li>(Silverstein & Nunn 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Recent research is looking at the relationship between dopamine </li></ul><ul><li>( neurotransmitter that helps control behavior), norepinephrine </li></ul><ul><li>( neurotransmitter than works to block distractions and focus attention) and glutamine </li></ul><ul><li>which is pre curser of glutamate, which is important to for the function of the Pre-frontal Cortex. (http://newideas.net/adhd/neurology.q=book/expeort/html/22) </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube - ADHD Symptoms & Treatments : Causes of ADHD in Children </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube - Brain imaging gives new insight into underlying cause of ADHD </li></ul><ul><li>ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - What Is ADHD Video </li></ul>
  7. 7. Other factors related to ADHD <ul><li>Recent studies have found a link between maternal smoking and ADHD, hyper-aggressive behavior, anti-social behavior, conduct disorder, and delinquency in adolescence and criminality in adults. Evidence from animal studies show that nicotine is a neuroteratogen that can compromise the development of neural pathways in the developing brain. Studies have also indicated that maternal smoking is also associated with deficits in cognitive and auditory functions. There are also studies that show a higher rate of smoking in adolescents with ADHD that suggest that these individuals may be trying to self medicate to alleviate cognitive or attentive disorders. (Pauly & Slotkin 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube - How to Prevent ADHD 1 - Smoking, Tobacco, Nicotine </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers in the U.S. and Canada recently released a study indicating that developmental exposure to organophosphates (pesticides) might have an effect on multiple neural systems that may underlie ADHD behaviors. (Bouchard MF Pediatrics 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Some ADHD cases have also been linked to maternal use of alcohol resulting in children with FAS (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome). These children may also exhibit symptoms similar to those of ADHD. (Silverstein & Nunn 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>There may also be a link between other environmental toxins such as exposure to lead and PCB’s and ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>(Slverstein & Nunn 2008) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  8. 8. Treatment Options <ul><li>ADHD can be treated with medicine. Ritalin (methylphenidate hydrochloride), a stimulant, has been used since the 1960’s for treatment of ADHD. Ritalin makes dopamine more available to the brain cells, which helps with attention and concentration. (Silverstein & Nunn 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>There are now several non-stimulant drugs on the market such as Strattera (atomoxetine) which boosts the production of norepinephrine and Intuniv (guanfacine) which is primarily a blood pressure medication, that are also used to treat ADHD. (http://www.healthline.com/health/add-adhd-attention-deficit-drugs) </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube - ADHD Treatment: Drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior modification, counseling, brain gym exercises, ear training, diet and exercise are also important considerations in the treatment of ADHD. (Silverstein & Nunn 2008) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Bibliography (Books & Articles) <ul><li>Lipkin, MD, Paul H. &quot;Pesticide exposure implicated in ADHD.&quot; Editorial. Infectious Diseases in Children (2010): 49. EBSCO . Web. 5 Aug. 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Research from US and Canadian institutions indicates a relationship between pesticides and ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Neurology of ADHD.&quot; newideas.net . N.p., n.d. Web. 14 July 2010. <http://newideas.net/adhd/neurology?q+book/export/html/22>. </li></ul><ul><li>This article explores the affect of ADHD on the many regions of the brain. It also looks at various relationships between different neurotransmitters . Also included is information regarding the Reticular Activating System and more research into the impulsivity of the ADHD brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Pauly, James R., and Theodore A. Slotkin. &quot;Maternal tobacco smoking, nicotine replacement and neurobehavioral development.&quot; Acta Paediatrica (2008): 1331-37. EBSCO . Web. 5 Aug. 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>The adverse effects of prenatal maternal smoking and its possible link to ADHD and other behavior disorders are reviewed. A link between adolescent smokers and maternal smoking is also looked at. Animal studies point to nicotine as leading to compromises in critical neural pathway development. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Bibliography (Books & Articles) <ul><li>Silverstein, Alvin, Virgina Silverstein, and Laura Silverstein-Nunn. The ADHD Update: Understanding Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder . Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2008. N. pag. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>This book gives a well written overview of ADHD, its history as well as information about its diagnoses and treatment. The main types of ADHD are discussed and the book includes information about what it’s like to live with ADHD. Various types of alternative therapies are discussed other than medication for managing symptoms of the disease. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Bibliography (Web Resources) <ul><li>&quot;add - adhd attention-deficit-drugs.&quot; Healthline.com . N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Aug. 2010. </li></ul><ul><li><http://www.healthline.com/health/add-adhd-attention-deficit-drugs>. </li></ul><ul><li>Common drugs used to treat ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;ADHD.&quot; Y ouTube.com . N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Aug. 2010. </li></ul><ul><li><http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A82YDBKJYC4&feature=related </li></ul><ul><li>Personal account of what its like to have ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;ADHD and the Brain.&quot; YouTube.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Aug. 2010. </li></ul><ul><li> <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZJHT5XROrBA>. </li></ul><ul><li> General overview of ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;ADHD online test screening.&quot; newideas.net . N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Aug. 2010. </li></ul><ul><li> <http://newideas.net/adhd-online-test-screening >. </li></ul><ul><li> Online ADHD screening tool. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Bibliography (Web Resources) <ul><li>ADHD Treatments . AnswersTV, n.d. Web. 6 Aug. 2010. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WZAybsiNmAg&feature=channel>. </li></ul><ul><li>Drug treatments for ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Brain imaging gives new insight into underlying causes of ADHD.“ </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube.com . JAMA, n.d. Web. 4 Aug. 2010. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BxXknZjJj8o>. </li></ul><ul><li> Brain imaging and ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Causes of ADHD in children.&quot; YouTube.com . N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Aug. 2010. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=910Sp2b71dA> </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>“ How to prevent ADHD - Smoking, Tobacco, Nicotine.&quot; YouTube.com . N.p., n.d. Web. </li></ul><ul><li> 3 Aug. 2010. </li></ul><ul><li><http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jFl6cIoqPVI>. </li></ul><ul><li> Smoking and ADHD. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; </li></ul>
  13. 13. Bibliography (Web Resources) <ul><li>&quot; What is ADHD?.&quot; about.com . N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Aug. 2010. </li></ul><ul><li> <http://video.about.com/add/ADHD.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li> Overview of ADHD. </li></ul>
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