Mem 644 power

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Mem 644 power

  1. 1. MEM 644 ADMINISTRATION & SUPERVISION OF SCHOOLS<br />Administration & Supervision Schools<br />PUP QC-HALL MEM PROGRAM<br />MEM 644<br /> GROUP<br /> IV<br /> REPORTS<br />
  2. 2. SUPERVISION OF THE EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATION & STAFF<br />LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS & EFFICIENCY OF ADMINISTRATION AND OR SUPERVISORS<br />
  3. 3. SUPERVISION OF THE EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATION & STAFF<br />YULK’S CATEGORIES OF LEADER BEHAVIOR<br />Professor of the University of Albany, is leading writer on organizational leadership. <br />Personality and Motivational<br />
  4. 4. YULK’S CATEGORY<br /><ul><li>The personality traits are self-confidence, stress tolerance, emotional maturity, integrity, and extroversion. Task and interpersonal needs, achievement orientation, power needs, expectations, and self-efficacy are the motivational traits.
  5. 5. Individuals with self-confidence are more likely to set high goals; individuals who are stress-tolerance leaders are good decision makers and provide direction to subordinates; emotionally mature leaders have an awareness of their strengths and weaknesses and tend to be oriented toward self improvement; individuals with integrity are honest, ethical, and trustworthy; and individuals who exhibit extroversion are comfortable in groups. the emphases on relationship building of leaders with employees surface in Yulk’s trait descriptions- specifically, integrity and extroversion. Yulk suggested that integrity is essential for building and retaining loyalty as well as obtaining cooperation from others.</li></li></ul><li>COST FACTORS & QUALITY FAILURE<br />"4 Key Contributors to Leadership Failure" - By Duncan Brodie<br />Contributor 1: Unable to Adapt<br />Contributor 2: Unwilling to act on feedback<br />Contributor 3: Unable to listen<br />Contributor 4: Being critical of others<br />
  6. 6. SUPERVISOR & CONTROL<br />control is a term originating in military organization theory, but now used more commonly in business management, particularly human resource management. Span of control refers to the number of subordinates a supervisor has.<br />
  7. 7. INTSRUCTOR MOTIVATION & EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS<br />Shared governance, or participatory management, enhances teachers' professional status and their "ownership" in the planning and operation of the school. Thus, shared governance gives teachers a vested interest in school performance and also promotes harmony and trust among teachers and administrators. The results of such cooperation can be dramatic: in Salt Lake City, a shared governance policy enacted eight years ago enabled teachers and administrators jointly to develop a districtwide accountability plan, an evaluation/remediation process, a salary progression program, and a curriculum reform which emphasized basic skills.<br />
  8. 8. MASOW THEORY & NTSRUCTORS<br />Love & Belonging<br />teacher personality: empathetic, considerate & interested in the individual, patient, fair, able to self-disclose, positive attitude, good listener<br />develop new knowledge based on background knowledge so as to help ensure success (scaffolding)<br />develop a classroom environment where students are positive & nonjudgmental<br />
  9. 9. SIGNIFICANCE OF AUTONOMY<br />Some of the most well known definitions in present literature are:<br />'Autonomy is the ability to take charge of one's own learning' (Henri Holec<br />'Autonomy is essentially a matter of the learner's psychological relation to the process and content of learning' (David Little)<br />'Autonomy is a situation in which the learner is totally responsible for all the decisions concerned with his [or her] learning and the implementation of those decisions'. (Leslie Dickinson)<br />'Autonomy is a recognition of the rights of learners within educational systems'. (Phil Benson)<br />
  10. 10. EFFECTIVENESS IN ACHIEVMENTInstructor Motives<br />Education must build on the relationship between the instructor and student.<br /> Fenton and O'Leary (1) suggested that educators focus on mutual communication.<br /> For learning to take place, a dissemination of information from instructor to student and student to instructor must occur. This communication process is often where the learning breakdown occurs. <br />Communication occurs when a message is received and understood in the manner intended. <br />(2) Miscommunication results when the communication skills of the sender or receiver are lacking. Effective communication includes the ability to read and comprehend information, the ability to express ideas effectively in written and spoken form, and the ability to listen attentively. (3) An instructor's verbal, nonverbal and listening skills greatly influence student achievement and retention.<br />
  11. 11. MOTIVATION HYGIENE & EXPECTANCY THEORIES<br />The two-factor theory (also known as Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory) states that there are certain factors in the workplace that cause job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction. It was developed by Frederick Herzberg, a psychologist, who theorized that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction act independently of each other.<br />Two-factor theory distinguishes between:<br />Motivators (e.g., challenging work, recognition, responsibility) that give positive satisfaction, arising from intrinsic conditions of the job itself, such as recognition, achievement, or personal growthand<br />Hygiene factors (e.g. status, job security, salary and fringe benefits) that do not give positive satisfaction, though dissatisfaction results from their absence. These are extrinsic to the work itself, and include aspects such as company policies, supervisory practices, or wages/salary.<br />
  12. 12. JOB ENRICHMENT IN TEACHING<br />Job enrichment is the process of enhancing job satisfaction and fulfillment by reforming the roles and duties that an employee carries out on a day to day basis. Too many employees are trapped in unrewarding and monotonous jobs that offer little or no professional satisfaction. <br />It is particularly common among primary and secondary occupations that involve the repetition of tasks and little or no responsibility. The absence of job fulfillment and consequently enrichment, can often lead to anxiety and unhappiness among the workforce which ultimately affects employee performance<br />
  13. 13. STAFF DEVT. PROGRAM, GROUP MEETINGS & LEADERSHIP CONFERENCE<br />Support for beginning teachers is often uneven and inadequate. Even if well prepared, new teachers often are assigned to the most challenging schools and classes with little supervision and support. Nearly half of all teachers leave the profession in their first five years, so more attention must be paid to providing them with early and adequate support, especially if they are assigned to demanding school environments.<br />It is critical for veteran teachers to have ongoing and regular opportunities to learn from each other. Ongoing professional development keeps teachers up-to-date on new research on how children learn, emerging technology tools for the classroom, new curriculum resources, and more. The best professional development is ongoing, experiential, collaborative, and connected to and derived from working with students and understanding their culture.<br />
  14. 14. ORIENTATION IS A SHARED RESPONSIBILITY<br />The best teacher-preparation programs emphasize subject-matter mastery and provide many opportunities for student teachers to spend time in real classrooms under the supervision of an experienced mentor. Just as professionals in medicine, architecture, and law have opportunities to learn through examining case studies, learning best practices, and participating in internships, exemplary teacher-preparation programs allow teacher candidates the time to apply their learning of theory in the context of teaching in a real classroom.<br />
  15. 15. THE IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING<br />Mentoring and coaching from veteran colleagues is critical to the successful development of a new teacher. Great induction programs create opportunities for novice teachers to learn from best practices and analyze and reflect on their teaching. <br />
  16. 16. METHODS OF TRAINING<br />On The Job<br />Special Assignment<br />Vestibule Training<br />Apprenticeships<br />Schools<br />Programmed Instruction<br />Classroom<br />Role Playing<br />Case Study<br />Learning Principles<br />Job Rotation<br />Understudies<br />Readiness to Instruct<br />
  17. 17. HOW TO RUN A GROUP MEETING CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD MEETING<br />A necessity<br />Must have a clear Agenda<br />Invite the right people<br />
  18. 18. Responsibilities of a Conference Leader<br />Must be able to address the conference as it unfolds session<br />Must be able to take the lead in making all communications accessible for all participants<br />Must be able to manage all levels of operations as the conference unfolds<br />
  19. 19. Techniques in Running a Better Meeting<br />Establish a house rule prior to each session<br />Make all parties be heard accordingly in all sides of the issue<br />Establish a relax phase as the session moves forward and even in the heat of arguments<br />
  20. 20. Responsibilities of Participants<br />The need to be wary of the house rules & to follow it to the letter<br />The need to connect with the conference via inter-active participation<br />The need to be Pro-Active in all issues<br />
  21. 21. Benefits of a Good Meetings and Problems Arising From…<br />Increases Man Power Potentials<br />Increases the Morale of the organization<br />Develops harmony within the stakeholders of the organization<br />Negativity as a means to disrupt a healthy exchange of views<br />Decreases potentials or productivity<br />Invites for a destructive element leading to division<br />
  22. 22. Why Meetings Fail, Improving Meetings<br />The cloud of negativity and hostility among participants<br />Lack of Motivational Power of the meeting<br />Closure for others views<br />Establish a high degree of positivity<br />Encourage via powerful motivational tools for all participants<br />Openness must be always present<br />
  23. 23. Tips & Techniques Staff Development<br />Allow for the acceptance of new innovations and applications<br />Make aware that they are a part of a greater organizational structure<br />Utilize technologies to be at par with recent developments<br />Be in tuned with recent methodologies on areas such as stress management and crisis management<br />
  24. 24. Planning & Observing Teaching Learning Situations<br />Trend in Classroom Visitations Type & Length of Visit<br />To enhance the professional effectiveness of the teaching staff administrators must be skilled in these areas:<br />(a) what to evaluate, (b) how to observe and analyze classroom observation information and other data, and (c) how to translate the results of observations and the summary of data into meaningful conference feedback that guides and encourages teachers to improve instruction.<br />
  25. 25. Planning the Supervisory Observation<br />Through the effective supervision of instruction, administrators can reinforce and enhance teaching practices that will contribute to improved student learning. <br />By skillfully analyzing performance and appropriate data, administrators can provide meaningful feedback and direction to teachers that can have a profound effect on the learning that occurs in each classroom.<br />Supervision of instruction must be built on the observer's thorough understanding and in-depth knowledge of instructional theory, not on a check list of what should be in a lesson<br /> <br /> Conferences throughout the year provide a to communicate the evaluation of the teacher's performance. Decisions shared during the conference are based upon the data collected through observations, review of documents, and interviews that relate to the assessment and evaluation of the teacher's ability to meet the requirements as adopted by the local district governing board.<br />
  26. 26. Contents of the Supervisory Plan<br />A Supervision Visit Plan is a list of the activities that you will observe and all the information you will collect during a supervisory visit.<br />An effective and thorough supervisory visit requires planning. Because your time is limited, it is impossible to supervise everything all the time. The key to effective supervision is to supervise selectively. This means that you need to identify critical activities to supervise routinely, and other activities to supervise less often.<br />Core tasks: Activities that are so important that they should be observed during every supervisory session.<br />Selected tasks: Important activities that are covered less frequently or on a rotating basis.<br />Program support activities: Activities that you must perform during each visit, such as replenishment of supplies, checking records, collecting information,<br />
  27. 27. Observing The Teaching Learning Process<br />suggests that teachers need to start with an understanding of where the learner is in terms of their learning, the level they have reached, past experience, and understanding of learning needs and goals<br />As part of the overall planning process for a teaching session you will have defined the aims of the session, the learning outcomes or objectives and possibly an assessment (see the ‘Setting educational objectives’ module for more detail on these aspects).<br />
  28. 28. The Bases for Supervision<br />Knowledge to be valued as the most important power, <br />A vision which is shared with correct principles and basic values to be identified with a participatory understanding, <br />Decision and administrative processes to be organized with a democratic and participatory understanding, <br />Business success to be measured by objective measures and indicators, <br />Freedom based creativity to be supported, <br />An organizational culture education in which the successful people will be important and valuable,<br />
  29. 29. Child Growth Basis for Observation<br />Systematic classroom observation is a quantitative method of measuring classroom behaviors from direct observations that specifies both the events or behaviors that are to be observed and how they are to be recorded.<br />
  30. 30. Good Teaching & Learning the Basis for Observation<br /> Generally, the data that is collected from this procedure focuses on the frequency with which specific behaviors or types of behavior occurred in the classroom and measures their duration. There are several elements that are common to most observational systems.<br />
  31. 31. Democratic Classroom Procedure Basis for Observation<br />             Administrators and classroom teachers acknowledge that effective, successful teaching requires two dynamics: process and structure. By process, we mean the interpersonal relationship between the teacher and student as reflected in the educator’s verbal and non-verbal interactions with the student, within and outside the classroom. <br />Developmental and educational psychologists have described the dynamics most salient in teacher-student processes, such as attitudes of caring and concern, respect, empathy, effective communication skills, knowledge and understanding of adolescent emotional and cognitive dynamics as well as maturity of judgment. The structure of teaching relates to structural elements like particular curriculum goals and structure, didactic methods, classroom teaching strategies—both formal and informal—and classroom management policies. <br />
  32. 32. Contents Use of Supervisory Note<br />Contains all observations made academically these observations are made to have a rundown of the things observed while evaluation is considered.<br />A personal appraisal system of sorts for teachers and teacher trainees<br />A matter of protocol for all those engaged in the business of education<br />
  33. 33. Principles in Teaching-Learning Situations<br />Human Learning is Stratified and is not concentrated in one sphere only<br />A pyramid of repetition must be established<br />Must Have Opportunities for application<br />Reception and Decoding<br />
  34. 34. Responsibilities of a Teaching Personnel<br />to teach students effectively within the means provided by the institution and the state, to be fair and equitable to male and female students and treat those of all races and religions, as well as those with disabilities, equally, to encourage the free exchange of ideas between themselves and their students, and to be available to them for guidance in their studies. <br /> education teaching personnel should ensure, where necessary, that the minimum content defined in the syllabus for each subject is covered; <br />
  35. 35. Principles to Be Observed by in the Administration of Teaching Personnel<br />The principal is expected at various times and by various interests to play many roles. He must be nature of this position be:a) A teacher of teachers.b) A supervisor not only of teachers but of service personnel.c) A disciplinarian just but effective.d) A psychologist at least to the extent of discovering maladjustments, especially of teachers which hinder progress.e) A financier in organizing the school budget.<br />
  36. 36. Principles to Be Observed by in the Administration of Teaching Personnel<br />f) A sociologist to the extent of understanding the relationships of the school with social forces.<br />g) A lawyer to the extent of being able to know his own obligations, rights, legal abilities as well as of those of all school personnel.<br />h) A technical expert in educational measurement and evaluation.<br />i) An expert in group dynamics to the extent of working effectively with staff, pupils, public and the authorities.<br />
  37. 37. Strengthening School Community Relationships as Administrative & Supervisory Function<br />In biological terms, a community is a group of interacting organisms (or different species) sharing an environment. In human communities, intent, belief, resources, preferences, needs, risks, and a number of other conditions may be present and common, affecting the identity of the participants and their degree of cohesiveness.<br />In supervision and administration to a certain degree it forms as the act of involving all these elements for purposes of making the school function within these desired aims<br />
  38. 38. Community School Concept<br />The advocacy to teach non-Tagalog languages to save them from dying and extinction had to be founded on Filipino educational philosophy and practices. And one of the original thinkers in Philippine education is Pedro T. Orata. Pangasinan educator Dr. Pedro T. Orata on the teaching of the mother tongue in the classroom. <br />Against the background of Orata’s philosophy on education, it discusses Orata’s view on the community school and its implications towards multilingual education in the Philippines. <br />
  39. 39. The Need for Support of the Public Schools<br />Is now becoming a trend which caters to school’s ability for funds of other outside help that would best benefit the school and its programs<br />Sample agencies are the EU, WORLD BANK, ADB, ASEAN, APEC, and other such similar international cooperations<br />
  40. 40. Purposes of School Community Relations<br />An effective educational leader promotes the success of all students by communicating the learning community’s vision, policies, and successes to staff, students, parents, community, decision makers, legislators and media. <br />The leader understands, responds to, and influences the systems that support the educational process. Developing and maintaining partnerships and forging relationships with multiple constituent groups, understanding emerging issues and educational trends and communicating them effectively to stakeholders are all essential leadership competencies. <br />
  41. 41. Principles &Ways Of Developing Good School Community Relations, Teachers Perspective…<br />Identify your community-relations goals.<br />Research concrete, specific ways in which your community needs your help, support, involvement, or presence.<br />Identify the areas where the school will need community help<br />Learn how the channels of communication really work in your community.<br />Get to know community expectations, concerns, and sensibilities –<br />Ensure that each time you revisit your strategic plan, you also review your community-relations strategy<br />
  42. 42. Thank You Very Much…!We are Group 4!<br />ELEANOR DEUDOR<br />PERLA RABINO<br />ROSALINDA FORTIN<br />EDITHA DELA PENA<br />ROMELLA SALES<br />ADELITA SULARAN<br />MARICEL RUFO<br />ARCE ARIES MEDRANO<br />MARIO BARREDO<br />

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