MINORITIESTREATMENTS IN ASIAAND EUROPETHE CASE OFTHE BASQUE AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITY (BAC) ANDXINJIANG UYGHUR AUTONOMOUS REGIO...
OUTLINE• Historical and Political Background• Cultural:  Education Policies -Language• Globalization and Nationalism• Conc...
BASQUES COUNTRIESOR BASQUE COUNTRY ?21,000km² (8,100 square miles)   7,234 km2 / 2,155,000 inhabitants in                 ...
A SHORT HISTORY OFTHE BASQUE COUNTRY•   Since the end of the 19th century: Regionalist movement    1895: Sabino Arana- the...
A SHORT HISTORY OF THEBASQUE COUNTRY (2)• 20th October 2011 : ETA says its violent independence  campaign is over. Still t...
XINJIANG UYGHUR AUTONOMOUSREGION: SOME STATISTICS1,646,800 km² / 21,813,334 inhabitantsUyghur 45%, Han 41%62% of Muslims
A SHORT HISTORY OF XINJIANG,"THE NEW BOARDER" (1)• Buffer region• Many different influences -Mongol, Ottoman Empire,  Russ...
SHORT HISTORY OF XINJIANG,"THE NEW BOARDER" (2)•   A focal point of ethnic tensions in China•   2007: Xinjiang raid•   200...
NEWS• Different organizations (e.g. WUC) participate in  the East Turkestan Independence Movement• Beijing’s repression: n...
HISTORICAL AND POLITICALBACKGROUND: DONE• Nowadays, can we consider those  two regions have specific cultural  rights ?• I...
CULTURAL:  LINGUISTIC POLICY  Language  IdentityBasque people:• Euskaldun• Euskal Herria                  ‘I AM WHAT I S...
• 25%-30% of the        population      • Official Language• 8-11 million speakers• Official Language
The Basque Autonomous           Xinjiang UyghurBILINGUALISM         Community (BAC)                 Autonomous Region     ...
MODEL AMODEL BMODEL DIKASTOLAK            Basque   Spanish
XINJIANG UYGHURAUTONOMOUS REGION“The Xinjiang Class”  新疆內地高中班
EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATIONGlobalization and NationalismHow has Globalization influenced the strengthand vitality of National...
FORCES AND DYNAMISM                Interest        Value                    Politics
BASQUE MOVEMENT• Anti-globalization & anti-capitalist stance• Campaign against Spain’s entry to NATO&EU• Active role in sh...
GUGGENISATION:GLOBAL STRATEGYGlobal Project : Source of RevenueRetain unique cultural identityExpand the influence in Euro...
XINJIANG:EAST TURKESTAN INDEPENDENCEMOVEMENTThe Pivot or the PawnOpen door Policy: ‘Great International Circle’Petrochemic...
INTERNATIONALIZATION OFDOMESTIC CONFLICTSShanghai cooperation OrganizationCombat incursions by MuslimsConnection with Al-Q...
THE UNITED STATES:AMBIVALENT ATTITUDECondemn China: Abuse of human rightsWarn against using crackdowns on XinjiangRabiya K...
CONCLUSIONS               Basque Movement         Xinjiang’s ETIM  Scope         Larger                   Smaller  Nature ...
CONCLUSION• Historical and Political Background• Cultural: Linguistic Policies• Globalization and Nationalism
BIBLIOGRAPHYClarke, M. E. (2011). Xinjiang and chinas rise in central asia : A history. London: Routledge.Clarke, M. E., &...
MInorities' Treatments in Asia and Europe: The Case of the Basque Autonomous Community and Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
MInorities' Treatments in Asia and Europe: The Case of the Basque Autonomous Community and Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
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MInorities' Treatments in Asia and Europe: The Case of the Basque Autonomous Community and Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region

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MInorities' Treatments in Asia and Europe: The Case of the Basque Autonomous Community and Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region

  1. 1. MINORITIESTREATMENTS IN ASIAAND EUROPETHE CASE OFTHE BASQUE AUTONOMOUS COMMUNITY (BAC) ANDXINJIANG UYGHUR AUTONOMOUS REGION (XUAR)ADAM THOMAS 12502073XIE WENYE MARIS 11051299HUANG YEUK TSZ VENETIA 11012730
  2. 2. OUTLINE• Historical and Political Background• Cultural: Education Policies -Language• Globalization and Nationalism• Conclusion
  3. 3. BASQUES COUNTRIESOR BASQUE COUNTRY ?21,000km² (8,100 square miles) 7,234 km2 / 2,155,000 inhabitants in Basque CountryPopulation: about 3,000,000 Focus: the Basque Autonomous Community (BAC) in Spain
  4. 4. A SHORT HISTORY OFTHE BASQUE COUNTRY• Since the end of the 19th century: Regionalist movement 1895: Sabino Arana- the Basque Nationalist Party (BNP)• BNP supported Republicans against Spanish Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War(1936-1939)• 1959: "Basque Homeland and Freedom”  ETA• Strong opposition to Franco and his centralizing policies, 1973: assassination of Carrero Blanco• Since 1978: One of the 17 Autonomous Communities (Spanish Constitution) : Legislative and executive powers
  5. 5. A SHORT HISTORY OF THEBASQUE COUNTRY (2)• 20th October 2011 : ETA says its violent independence campaign is over. Still true.• Balance 825 dead people because of ETA since 1959• Neither independence nor self-determination• Huge repression against ETA, 700 members are currently prisoners• An Autonomy governed by the BNP• But still a strong political, economic and cultural nationalism
  6. 6. XINJIANG UYGHUR AUTONOMOUSREGION: SOME STATISTICS1,646,800 km² / 21,813,334 inhabitantsUyghur 45%, Han 41%62% of Muslims
  7. 7. A SHORT HISTORY OF XINJIANG,"THE NEW BOARDER" (1)• Buffer region• Many different influences -Mongol, Ottoman Empire, Russian, Turkish peoples, Chinese• 1949 : "Peaceful liberation" by communist troops. Beginning of a stricter control.• Collapse of the USSR, independence of Central Asia Republics : growing of a nationalist movements during the 90s
  8. 8. SHORT HISTORY OF XINJIANG,"THE NEW BOARDER" (2)• A focal point of ethnic tensions in China• 2007: Xinjiang raid• 2008: suicide bombing attempt on a China Southern Airlines flight• 2008: Xinjiang attack the death of sixteen police officers four days before the Beijing Olympics.• July 2009: Ürümqi riots More than 300 dead• September 2009: Xinjiang unrest• 2010 Aksu bombing trials of 376 people.• Since 2004, existence of the World Uyghur Congress• President: Rebiya Kadeer
  9. 9. NEWS• Different organizations (e.g. WUC) participate in the East Turkestan Independence Movement• Beijing’s repression: national security and the fight against "the separatism of minorities"• Increase of the percentage of Chinese Han  Han-oriented immigration policy
  10. 10. HISTORICAL AND POLITICALBACKGROUND: DONE• Nowadays, can we consider those two regions have specific cultural rights ?• Is there any impact of globalization on these movements ?
  11. 11. CULTURAL: LINGUISTIC POLICY Language  IdentityBasque people:• Euskaldun• Euskal Herria ‘I AM WHAT I SPEAK’
  12. 12. • 25%-30% of the population • Official Language• 8-11 million speakers• Official Language
  13. 13. The Basque Autonomous Xinjiang UyghurBILINGUALISM Community (BAC) Autonomous Region in Spain (XUAR)Official Languages Spanish & Basque Mandarin & UyghurStarted from… the Law for the Normalization 1982: the new constitution of the Use of the Basque Article 12 states: Language (1982) Schools or other educational institutions, 1983: which mainly consist of bilingual teaching models A, B students from minority and D nationalities, may use in education the language of the respecting nationality or the native language commonly adopted in that region. Uyghur-language Han-language OR Bilingual Teaching
  14. 14. MODEL AMODEL BMODEL DIKASTOLAK Basque Spanish
  15. 15. XINJIANG UYGHURAUTONOMOUS REGION“The Xinjiang Class” 新疆內地高中班
  16. 16. EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATIONGlobalization and NationalismHow has Globalization influenced the strengthand vitality of Nationalism?
  17. 17. FORCES AND DYNAMISM Interest Value Politics
  18. 18. BASQUE MOVEMENT• Anti-globalization & anti-capitalist stance• Campaign against Spain’s entry to NATO&EU• Active role in shaping the institutions• Neither Ethnocentric nor conservative
  19. 19. GUGGENISATION:GLOBAL STRATEGYGlobal Project : Source of RevenueRetain unique cultural identityExpand the influence in Europe & Latin America
  20. 20. XINJIANG:EAST TURKESTAN INDEPENDENCEMOVEMENTThe Pivot or the PawnOpen door Policy: ‘Great International Circle’Petrochemical plant in Dushanze OilfieldEurasian Continental Bridge
  21. 21. INTERNATIONALIZATION OFDOMESTIC CONFLICTSShanghai cooperation OrganizationCombat incursions by MuslimsConnection with Al-Qaeda?
  22. 22. THE UNITED STATES:AMBIVALENT ATTITUDECondemn China: Abuse of human rightsWarn against using crackdowns on XinjiangRabiya Kadeer: Entrepreneur & Political activist
  23. 23. CONCLUSIONS Basque Movement Xinjiang’s ETIM Scope Larger Smaller Nature Radical Less radical Influence Larger, affect the Smaller, along the mainstream periphery
  24. 24. CONCLUSION• Historical and Political Background• Cultural: Linguistic Policies• Globalization and Nationalism
  25. 25. BIBLIOGRAPHYClarke, M. E. (2011). Xinjiang and chinas rise in central asia : A history. London: Routledge.Clarke, M. E., & Mackerras, C. (2011). China, xinjiang and central asia : History, transition and crossborder interaction into the21st century. London; New York: Routledge.Crolley, L., & Hand, D. (2006). Football and european identity : Historical narratives through the press. London ; New York:Routledge.David, D. W. (1998). East turkestan movement in xinjing. Journal of Chinese Political Science, 4(1), 1-18. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02876846Foot, R. (2003). Bush, china and human rights. Survival, 45(2), 167-167. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/217601243?accountid=11440Grove, A. (2000). Militant nationalism: Between movement and party in ireland and the basque country. The AmericanPolitical Science Review, 94(2), 480-482. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/214421060?accountid=11440Irvin, C. L. (1999). Militant nationalism : Between movement and party in ireland and the basque country. Minneapolis:University Of Minnesota Press.Jan, M. B. (1999). The continuity of basque political violence: A geographical perspective on the legitimisation of violence.GeoJournal, 48(2), 109-121. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/223674885?accountid=11440Kurlantzick, J. (2003). The dragon still has teeth; how the west winks at chinese repression. World Policy Journal, 20(1), 49-49.Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/232587507?accountid=11440Manzano, C., Rua, D. L., Iriondo, M., Mazon, L. I., & al, e. (2002). Structuring the genetic heterogeneity of the basquepopulation: A view from classical polymorphisms. Human Biology, 74(1), 51-74. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/224536063?accountid=11440Regina, M. B. (2003). Delimiting culture: Implications for individual rights in the basque country today. Texas International LawJournal, 39(1), 143-161. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/213921719?accountid=11440

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