- Todorov suggested that stories begin with an equilibrium (or normality).- This is disrupted by an event which causes a disequilibrium which then causes other chain of events to occur.- In the end the problem is solved and everything is restored back to its equilibrium.
Equilibrium (or normality). Disequilibrium (conflict/disruption of equilibrium by action or event). Recognition of Disequilibrium (disruption/conflict). Attempt to repair. New Equilibrium.
Task 2 An example of a film with these five stages is ‘The Hunger Games’.
In the beginning of the film everything is at equilibrium and its just introducingthe main protagonist. The main protagonist - Teenage girl Katniss has gone beyond her district to hunt in the forest. Her hunting in the woods represents her practice for the Hunger Games if she was ever to be chosen.
Then we have the disequilibrium/disruption caused by the event when Katniss’ sistergets chosen to be tribute. Katniss then volunteers as tribute. This is a sign of self-sacrifice. Her relationship with her sister is very strong. Katniss was willing to sacrifice her own life to save her sister.
Katniss then recognises what she has gotten herself into. Katniss knows that she probably might not be able to see her family again. The tragic part of this is that she doesn’t have much time to say goodbye. She promises her sister that will try and win the game for her.
Katniss attempts to live throughout the film.She is surrounded by difficulties.Examples:The game makers create a huge fire The death of little Rue, makes Katniss’to kill or lure Katniss to the centre of character seem to become more strongerthe game where the other district are. and more determined to win the game.
In the end, Katniss and her companion Peeta win the game together. Katniss thenreturns back home to her family and friends. This is the scene where Katniss and Peeta win the Hunger Games.
This is an example of what Levi-Strauss meant by the oppositions in film:
He believed that our world is described in BINARY OPPOSITES. When we look at themes within stories they consists of differences, contradictions and conflict or opposites. BINARY OPPOSITES night day Young old Good Bad light dark male female
Film: Opposite 1 Opposite 2 ExplanationPS: I Love You Husband who has Wife is alive, healthy. The husband had a brain tumour. died. He dies. The wife discovers many letters that the husband wrote to her before his death.
Film: Opposite 1 Opposite 2 ExplanationSpiderman Spiderman is seen as a Costumes presents the character as a It is conventional to see binary hero. He saves the victim. binary opposite to Spiderman. The opposites in Action films because there costumes mask shows that the green is always a hero and a villain. goblin is rebellious and evil. Sometimes it can be between the hero and his sidekick.
Film: Opposite 1 Opposite 2 ExplanationThe Ring
Barthes theory is similar to Todorov’s theory. The audiences experience ofthe narrative involves anticipation and expectation of a resolution todisruption/conflict
Barthes theory of codes encourage the audience to seek answers and clues to makethem anticipate the outcomes.These codes are identified as the:- Enigma code- Action code- Semantic code- Symbolic code- Cultural code
Key word: EnigmaEnigma means a question that is not immediately answered and thus draws anaudience into a text.An example of an enigma code would be from the film: SAW 3 Who is behind this? Who is responsible? Why is there chains attached to this characters body?
Codes of behaviour and actions that lead audiences to expect certain consequences.Romance Thriller/Mystery ActionAction: Action: Action:They are on the edge of the boat Killer/ villain tries to find victim. Hero (spiderman) and villain(greenimagining they are flying above the water. Girl is shown hiding from the killer. goblin)battle.Assumption: Assumption: Assumption:They gaze into each others eyes and kiss Villain will find the victim. One character always dies.passionately. Then fall in love. Villain will kill the victim. The villain is always destroyed by the hero.
Connotative meanings of characters, objects, locations. Example: COLOUR Red dress Blue lighting The colour red represents The colour blue in this sexuality, passion and scene connotes that it is love. sterile.Romance film (Pretty Woman) Horror/Mystery/Thriller film (The Ring)
Symbolic features often signify oppositions and antithesis. An example of the symbolic code would be the film ‘Texas Chainsaw Massacre’. FEMALE VICTIMS MALE VILLAINSFemale victims connote vulnerability.
Outside of text and knowledge we commonly share to bring understanding of themeaning in the text.It is often referred to things in popular culture or historical events.Example of a film that uses the cultural code is ‘Romeo & Juliet’.In the film ‘Romeo & Juliet’ there are a wide range of modern interpretations we knows as modern.Examples: the petrol stations, multicultural environment, locations, drugs, guns etc.
Propp studied folklore, fairy tales and legends in many countries.Propp noticed many similarities in them such as:- Similar character types and same problems.Propp formed 2 theories.1st – 7 distinctive character types called ‘Spheres of Action’.2nd – 31 functionsREMEMBER:These stories are often children’s tales which need to be simplistic.
These are the following 7 distinctive character types:1. Hero2. Villain3. Dispatcher4. Donor5. Helper6. Heroine7. False hero
The hero is on a quest.A hero is traditionally a male (not always) because they are the more dominantgender role.The heroes role is to repair the disequilibrium by defeating the villain(s). In the film ‘The Hunger Games’ Katniss Everdeen is represented as the hero
The villain(s) opposes the hero. The villain(s) is the cause of disruption/conflict. The villain(s) is commonly known as a threat to the heroines safety.These characters are portrayed as the villains. I believe this character is the main villain.They look more stronger and dominant. This character invented the game.They look at the fellow competitors as if they were a This character allows the people to die and doesn’tmeal(weaklings). show any sympathy.
The dispatcher starts the hero on its way to restore the disequlibrium.Usually the dispatcher is the father of the hero or the heroine.The dispatcher sends the hero off to show and prove their worth. In the film ‘The Hunger Games ‘ Cinna is Katniss’ impressionist designer. Cinna is represented as paternalistic (father figure). Cinna sends Katniss on her way to prove her strength and her might throughout the games.
The donor helps the hero by giving them some sort of gift to help them on their journey.This gift can be either advice, a skill or an object (like a weapon). In this scene, Haymitch is giving Katniss advice before she enters the game. Haymitch tells Katniss what she must do and what she must not do when the game begins.
The helper assists the hero in repairing the normality/ equilibrium.The helper is somewhat a sidekick to the hero.The helper is either with the hero all the time or someone the hero meets along the way.An example of a helper is the little girl ‘Rue’in the film ‘The Hunger Games’. In this scene, Katniss is stuck in a tree. The villains from the other districts are down below waiting for Kanitss to come down so they can kill her. Rue is in the tree next to Katniss and points Katniss to the bee nest and tells her to chop the branch down so the nest will fall on the ones below.
The heroine is commonly known as the reference to princess.The heroine is usually a female in the traditional narratives (but not always).The heroine is usually the vulnerable character who is under threat by the villain andseeks the rescuing from the hero.The heroine is known for being in love with the hero and ends up with the hero.
The false is initially on the same side as the hero but them deceives and betrays thehero.The false hero usually tempts the hero away from his/her quest.There is no false hero in the film ‘The Hunger Games’.Here is an example of a false hero from another film: Cinderella’s stepsisters are the false heroes. At the time of the ball, Cinderella is ready to go. The stepsisters prevent Cinderella from arriving at the ball by destroying her dress into shreds. This drags Cinderella away from her quest to meet the Prince.
This is Propp’s 2nd theory.Propp identified31 functions whichmotivate thestory andstructure of thenarrative.
The internal world created by the story that the characters themselves experience andencounter.To sum up, it means the world the characters live in, which is shown through TV or film. Avatar is a film that includes diegesis.
Unrestricted narration is a narrative which has nolimits to the information that is presented. It doesnot hide any pieces of information from theaudience.
Restricted narration only offers minimalinformation regarding the narrative. Itdoes hide some information from theaudience.Restricted narration hide someinformation to create an enigma ormystery.This is usually seen from thriller films.
Modular narratives express a sense of time which can be detachable and mayhave manipulation.The different types of modular narratives are:- Forking path- Episodic- Anachronic- Split screen
The forking path narrative introduces a number of plotlines that usuallycontradict one another. A film that has the modular narrative of a forking path is ‘Sliding Doors’.
Modular narratives involve the use of flashbacks and/or flash-forwards.There is no clear dominance between any of the narrative threads.These narratives often repeat the scene directly or through a different perspective.A great film example would be 4321 Person B Person C Person A Person D