First aids 3


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introducción a los riesgos laborales para alumnos de la ESO. Versión en inglés.

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  • First aids 3

    1. 1. FIRST AIDS
    2. 2. Introduction:Introduction:First aid is the provision of initial care foran illness or injury which is accomplished in thevery place until trained or expert people arrive.
    3. 3. General guidelines performance ofGeneral guidelines performance ofthe “PAS” initial action stepsthe “PAS” initial action stepsPROTECTPROTECT:: The aider mustensure the place fromdanger and The sick orinjured person must not bemoved.PHONE: The emergencynumber 112.HELP:HELP: The injured or sickperson applying the firstaids procedures.
    4. 4. First evaluationFirst evaluation::ConsciousnessConsciousness: Gently move the sicked orinjured person by the arms and ask him or hera question. If there is no answer, he or she isunconscious. Then, move him or her onto theLATERAL RECOVERY POSITION.LATERAL RECOVERY POSITION.
    5. 5. Second evaluation:Second evaluation:Breathing:Breathing:If the sick or injured personis breathing, he must bemoved to LRP to avoidobstructions by flood orvomit.If there is no breathing,If there is no breathing,airway must be openedairway must be openedandand CardiopulmonaryCardiopulmonaryresuscitationresuscitation has to beapplied.Pulse:Pulse:When the injured has pulse,Cardiopulmonaryresuscitation (CPR) still mustbe applied.If the victim has no pulseand is not breathing bothcardiac massage andcardiopulmonaryresuscitation will have to beadministered.If the victim is breathing butunconscious, move him/ herinto LRP.
    6. 6. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
    7. 7. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation:Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation:Airway opening by using the head-tilt, chin-lift manoeuvre:Airway opening by using the head-tilt, chin-lift manoeuvre:Put the person on his or her back following the head-body line ona firm surface. Unfasten belts, untie buttons and loosen any tightclothing to avoid shortness of breathing.Put your palm on the persons forehead and gently tilt the headback. Then with the other hand, gently lift the chin forward toopen the airway.Check breathingCheck breathing:: Feel for the persons breath on your cheek andear.Begin mouth-to-mouth breathing accordingBegin mouth-to-mouth breathing accordingUsing the head-tilt, chin-lift manoeuvre, pinch the nostrils.Give from 12 to 16 rescue breath per minute, watching if thechest rises.
    8. 8. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation:Cardiopulmonary resuscitation:Check pulseCheck pulse:: On the carotid artery or at the wrist.Heart massage technique:Heart massage technique:Kneel at the right arm of the victim.Open airway using the head-tilt, chin-lift manoeuvre.Place the heel of one hand on the breastbone -- right between thenipples. Later, place the heel of your other hand on top of the firsthand.Give 30 chest compressions at a rate of 100/minute (almost 2compressions per second). Each time, press down about 3 or 4centimetres into the chest. These compressions should be fast andhard with no pausing.
    10. 10. Chocking.Chocking.Blackouts.Blackouts.Injuries.Injuries.Convulsions.Convulsions.Bleedings.Bleedings.Burns.Burns.Bone fractures and fissures.Bone fractures and fissures.Eye injury.Eye injury.Bites and stings.Bites and stings.
    11. 11. ChockingChocking::Heimlich manoeuvre
    12. 12. ChockingChocking::Choking often happens when food is swallowed too fast without the correctchewing or if someone speaks or laughs when eating.Chocking can be:Chocking can be:Partial: Encourage the person to cough to help him or her to remove theobject that causes obstruction. Do not use back blows.Total:Total: If the victim does not breathe, Take the bottom part (heel) ofyour hand and deliver five separate forceful strikes between the person’sshoulder blades. Keep the black blows separate. If the blows fail,perform five abdominal thrusts (also known as the Heimlichmanoeuvre). Get behind the victim and wrap your arms around hiswaist. Take the underside of one fist and place it near the middleperson’s abdomen, with the thumb-side against the abdomen, justabove the navel and below the breastbone. Grasp that fist in your otherhand. Give up to five separate, inward and upward thrusts. Continueuntil the obstruction is dislodged.
    13. 13. Blackouts:Blackouts:A partial or complete loss of consciousness with interruption ofawareness of oneself.SSymptomsymptoms:: fainting, weakness, cold sweating, dizziness,trembling, nausea or ringing in the ears.These are the common first procedures:These are the common first procedures:Lay the casualty flat with his legs raised or put the victim inthe recovery position with his head between his legs.Loosen clothing. If the victim does not recover consciousness,he must be positioned in Lateral Recovery Position andphone for medical help.
    14. 14. Convulsions :Convulsions :Convulsions take place when a person’s body shakes rapidlyand uncontrollably. There is often a loss of consciousness andloss of bladder or bowel control. Another symptom is amnesia.First aids procedures:First aids procedures:Lay the person on the ground and do not move him.Make the place safe clearing the area of furniture or othersharp objects.Do not try to make the person stop convulsing.Avoid the victim bites his tongue by placing a soft objectbetween teeth.Turn the victim in Lateral Recovery Position.
    15. 15. Injuries
    16. 16. Injuries:Injuries:Cuts slice the skin open. This causes bleeding and pain.First aids procedures:First aids procedures:Sterilize scissors and tweezers with a clean bandage.Wash your hands with soap and water.Uncover the wound if necessary and cut the surrounding hair.Clean the wound with soap and water from inside to outside.If the wound has dirt or small stones, remove them rinsing it withwater.Dry the wound with sterile bandage.Apply an antibiotic cream.What we MUST NOT DOWhat we MUST NOT DO::Clean the injury with clothing or tissues as they can leave smallpieces that can produce infection.Use hydrogen peroxide or alcohol.Remove objects from punctures.
    17. 17. Bleedings:Bleedings:Bleeding is a loss of blood from the blood vesselsBleeding may be:Bleeding may be:External:External: bleeding that comes out the body.Internas:Internas: bleeding occurs when damage to an artery or veinallows blood to escape the circulatory system and collect insidethe bodyBleeding from body cavitiesBleeding from body cavities
    18. 18. First aids procedures:First aids procedures:External:External:Place a clean dressing over the wound.Press for 10 minutes on the wound and elevatewound higher than level of heart.If direct pressure and elevation do not sufficientlyslow the blood flow from the artery, apply pressureon the nearest bone and over the wound, that is, theclosest pressure point.Apply a tourniquet which must not be removed andwrite on a paper the time of its application.
    19. 19. Internal:Internal:They are difficult to detect and needurgent medical treatment.SymptomsSymptoms: cold sweating, deepbreathing, weak pulse or evenintense thirstiness.We must apply the first aidsprocedures and call for medicalemergency services.
    20. 20. Burns:Burns:Dry heat, acid substances and friction causeburns. They can also be caused by extremecold and heat.Classification of severity:Classification of severity: burns areclassified according to their depth.First degree burnFirst degree burn he epidermal layeris reddened.Second degree burnSecond degree burn: burn ischaracterized by epidermal blisters,mottled appearance, and a red base.Damage extends into¾but notthrough¾the dermis.Third degre burn:Third degre burn: is a full-thicknessinjury penetrating into muscle and fattyconnective tissues, or even down tothe bone. Tissues and nerves aredestroyed.First aids procedures:First aids procedures:Soak the burn with abundant coldwater for 10 minutes.Cover the injury with a sterile burnssheet. It should be soaked in wateror serum.Hold the bandage. It must not bepressed on the burn.Place the victim in the lateralrecovery position and seek medicalattention immediately.Do not give the victim water norfood.
    21. 21. Bone fractures and fissures:Bone fractures and fissures:A fracture is a broken bone. When thebone is not completely broken, it iscalled fissures.Types of fractures:Types of fractures:Closed fracture:Closed fracture: the skin remainsintact and there is little damage tosurrounding tissue.Opened fracture:Opened fracture: the broken boneprotrudes through the skin or there is awound that leads to the fracture site.The risk of infection is high.• Symptoms:Symptoms: Intense pain in the injuredarea, deformity, loss of movement ofthe affected bone, swelling andbruising.First aids procedures:First aids procedures:Do not move the victim.Do not realign anycomplicated break.Fractures of the body suchas skull should be managedby paramedics. Thereforethe victim must not bemoved.
    22. 22. Eye injury:Eye injury:The main causes of eye injuryare flying objects. This mightinclude balls used in sportsgames, small pieces of debrissuch as fragments of metal, glassor wood, or sharp penetratingobjects. Other common causesof damage to the eyes includeexposure to chemicals.Procedures:Procedures:Blow to the eye:Blow to the eye:Do not manipulate the injuredeye nor apply anything.Cover the injured eye withsterile gauze and tape it with abandage.Take the casualty to hospital.Particle in the eye:Particle in the eye:Do not rub the eye.Tell the casualty to open theaffected eye to locate the foreignbody.Rinse the eye with great amountof a saline solution or tap water ordistilled water.If washing out your eye is notsuccessful, the object canusually be removed with the tip ofa tissue or a cotton swab.If the foreign body has penetratedthe eyeball, it must not beremoved. Cover the affected eyewith sterile gauze and bandage itslightly.
    23. 23. Bites and stings:Bites and stings:Procedures:Procedures:The casualty must keep still.Wash area gently with soap andwater.Apply ice pack wrapped in cleancloth.The first aiderThe first aider must not:must not:Apply mud or saliva.Rub or scratch the affected area.Make any cut.Suck the venom.If an insect has stung the victim inhim or her mouth, the first aider cangive the casualty some ice as swellingcould cause stop breathing.