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Sound is described by frequency or pitch measured in hertz as shown at the top of the graph increasing from left to right and intensity or loudness measured in decibels shown along the left hand side of the graph increasing as we go down
The ear is more sensitive to sound waves with frequencies ranging from 1000 to 4000 hertz
Speech banana– this is the area of intensity and frequency where most speech occurs
Notice that most consonants have a higher frequency than vowels
Most words have low, middle, and high frequency sounds within them
Let’s take a look at the word MOOSE
s- high freq
-example: see moderate hearing loss, you may miss hearing the ‘s’ sound and only hearing ‘moo’
most individuals with hearing loss have some amount of usable hearing and that is also referred to as residual hearing
Student’s with hearing loss may identify themselves in one of four ways:
Deaf – with a capital D – refers to individuals who communicate using sign language and have a strong sense of community within the Deaf Culture
Individuals who share similar social beliefs, behaviours, art, theatre, folklore, literary traditions, history, and have a strong sense of community – many social groups, activities, and athletic clubs,
They see deafness as a difference and not a disability
deaf – with a lower case d – refers to individuals who do not have a strong connection to the deaf community and Deaf culture and may use some speech and residual hearing to help them communicate
deafened – individuals who were born with normal hearing and learned spoken language, but lost their hearing later in life
hard of hearing -- individuals who use speech as their primary form of communication
As educators it is important to remember to always put the individual first: we say “students who are hard of hearing,” and “students who are deaf” NOT “deaf student”
If you don’t know what is appropriate, you can also ask your student how he or she would prefer to be addressed.
Some students will be offended if you refer to them this way (see Deaf Culture)
Be aware as with all students in your class dependant on their school history, social and emotional needs, your student who is deaf or hard of hearing may need a modified curriculum or Individual Education Plan
This will be based on:
educational implications of the student’s hearing loss
ASL tutor, occupational therapist [OT], physiotherapist [PT])
student’s values and goals
parents’ values and goals for the student
instructional time and available resource
Be ready to adapt to the needs of your students – this may mean such things as making sure classroom rules are clearly understood, or adding extra pictorial visual cues to written instructions/problems, communicating with the interpreter/EA what the student should be focusing on.
Many researchers argue that sign language is superior to speech for expressing emotions especially with early years students and that it can have benefits for a diverse group of students, not just those that are deaf or hard of hearing.
Many children do not have enough vocabulary to express their intended meaning when something excites, angers, frustrates, or embarrasses them. Sign language can be a good tool to help them communicate this.
If all the students in the class learn to sign, it becomes easier for the student who is hard of hearing to communicate with his or her classmates and vice versa
Manitoba Education. (n.d.). Student services: Guidelines for level II and III support . Retrieved September 29, 2011 from http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/specedu/funding/level2-3.html
Manitoba Education, Citizenship and Youth. (2011). Educator's resource guide: Supporting students who are deaf and/or hard of hearing . Retrieved September 19, 2011, from http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/docs/support/dhh_resource/index.html
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. (2011). Cochlear implants. Retrieved September 19, 2011, from http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/hearing/coch.asp
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. (2010). Hearing aids . Retrieved September 19, 2011, from http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/hearing/hearingaid.htm
The Hearing Loss Clinic. (n.d.a.). Hearing aids for kids . Retrieved September 19, 2011, from http://www.hearingloss.ca/hearing-loss-for-kids-hearingaids.html
The Hearing Loss Clinic. (n.d.b.). FM systems . Retrieved September 19, 2011, from http://www.hearingloss.ca/hearing-loss-for-kids-fmsystems.html
Brereton, A. (2008). Sign language use and the appreciation of diversity in hearing classrooms. Early Years Journal of International Research and Development. 28(3) 311-324.
Marschark, Marc; Lang, Harry G.; Albertini, John A. (2001). Educating deaf students: From research to practice . Oxford University Press USA. Retrieved 25 September 2011, from < http://lib.myilibrary.com.libproxy.uwinnipeg.ca?ID=47068 >.
Schick, Brenda; Marschark, Marc; Spencer, Patricia Elizabeth. (2006). Advances in the sign language development of deaf children . Oxford University Press USA. Retrieved 24 September 2011, from < http://lib.myilibrary.com.libproxy.uwinnipeg.ca?ID=42848 >.
Carbin, C & Smith, D. (2011). The Canadian encyclopedia : Deaf culture . Retrieved 29 September 2011, from <http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA001117>.
Deafness Research UK. May 2009. http://www.deafnessressearch.org.uk