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Programming language

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introduction to programming language

introduction to programming language

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  • 1. Programming Language Marisa Paryasto
  • 2. OBJECTIVESn  Explain the differences among the categories of programming languagesn  Identify programming languages commonly used todayn  Identify the uses of application generators, macros, and RAD toolsn  Describe various Web page development tools, including HTML, DHTML, and XML
  • 3. WHAT IS A COMPUTERPROGRAM?n  A set of instructions that directs a computer to perform the tasks necessary to process data into information
  • 4. PROGRAMMING LANGUAGESn  Programming language n  Set of words, symbols, and codes that enables a programmer to communicate a solution algorithm to the computer
  • 5. PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT TOOLSn  User-friendly software products designed to assist in the creation of information system solutions
  • 6. CATEGORIES OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGESn  Machine languagesn  Assembly languagesn  Third-generation languagesn  Fourth-generation languages (4GL)n  Natural languages
  • 7. Low Level Versus High Leveln  Low level n  is written to run on one particular computern  High level n  can run on many different types of computers
  • 8. Machine languagesn  Also known as first-generation languagen  Machine language is referred to as level languagesn  Instructions use a series of binary digits (1s and 0s)n  The only language that the computer directly understandn  Disadvantage n  Tedious to code program n  Time consuming n  Program is machine dependent
  • 9. Example of machine languages
  • 10. Assembly languagesn  instructions are written using abbreviations and codesn  Also referred as low-level languagesn  Writes codes such as A for addition, C for comparen  Programmer can refer to storage locations with symbolic addressesn  Machine dependentn  Source program n  Program containing the assembly language coden  Macros n  Generate more than one machine language instructionn  Needs translator (assembler) to convert program into machine codes
  • 11. Example of assemblylanguages
  • 12. Third-generation languagesn  Instructions, which use a series of English-like wordsn  Are procedural languages because the computer must be told what to accomplish and how to do it.n  Needs translator to convert program into machine codes n  Compilers n  Interpretersn  Object code or object program n  The machine language version that results from the compiling the 3GL
  • 13. Example of a Compiler
  • 14. Example of a Interpreter
  • 15. Fourth-GenerationLanguages (4GL)n  Which also uses English-like statementsn  Is a nonprocedural language because a programmer only specifies what the program should accomplish without explaining how.n  Syntax (rules of the language) are to be followedn  Machine independent
  • 16. Example of SQL
  • 17. Natural languagesn  Is a type of query language that allows the user to enter requests resembling human speech.
  • 18. OBJECT-ORIENTEDPROGRAM DEVELOPMENTn  Programmers create objectsn  Classesn  Subclassesn  Superclassesn  Inheritance
  • 19. OBJECT-ORIENTEDPROGRAM DEVELOPMENTn  Object-Oriented Programming n  Object-oriented programming (OOP) language n  Event-driven
  • 20. POPULAR PROGRAMMINGLANGUAGESn  BASICn  Visual Basic n  Design the graphical user interface n  Write code for program events n  Generate the applicationn  COBOL
  • 21. POPULAR PROGRAMMINGLANGUAGESn  Cn  C++n  FORTRANn  Pascaln  Adan  RPG (Report Program Generator)n  Other programming languages
  • 22. PROGRAM DEVELOPMENTTOOLSn  Application generators (program generators) n  Form builders (screen painters) n  Menu generator
  • 23. PROGRAM DEVELOPMENTTOOLSn  Macros n  Recording macros n  Writing macros n  Running macrosn  RAD Tools: Visual Basic, Delphi, and PowerBuilder n  Visual Basic n  Delphi n  PowerBuilder
  • 24. WEB PAGE PROGRAMDEVELOPMENTn  HTML n  Hypertext markup language (HTML) n  Tags (markups) n  Resulting Web pagen  Scripts, Applets, and Servlets n  Common gateway interface (CGI) n  Counter n  Image map n  Processing form
  • 25. WEB PAGE PROGRAMDEVELOPMENTn  Java, JavaScript, and Perl n  Java n  JavaScript n  Perln  Dynamic HTML (DHMTL) n  Allows more graphical interest and interactivity in Web pages n  Style sheetsn  XML n  eXtensible Markup Language n  May replace HTML
  • 26. MULTIMEDIA PROGRAMDEVELOPMENTn  Multimedia authoring softwaren  Used to display text, graphics, animation, audio, and video into an electronic interactive presentation
  • 27. SELECTING A PROGRAMMINGLANGUAGE OR PROGRAMDEVELOPMENT TOOLn  Standards of the organizationn  Interface with other programsn  Suitability of the language to the applicationn  Portability to other systems
  • 28. SUMMARY OF PROGRAMMINGLANGUAGESn  Categories of programming languagesn  Object-oriented program developmentn  Popular programming languagesn  Program development toolsn  Web page program developmentn  Multimedia program development