Scenarios storyboards


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  • Let’s first tell what we’re going to talk about
  • The “general use” of the term, and the use in our domain I think we can first cover the scenarios as a whole, and talk about the relationships to story boards and other concepts later.
  • Removed some of Anssi’s descriptions, as I believe they were much closer to properties of use cases! Namely: System state at the beginning of the scenario Normal flow of events in the scenario What can go wrong and how this is handled Other concurrent activities System state on completion of the scenario Scenarios usually don’t have that kind of information. This is closer to implementation, not requirements!
  • As mentioned, I feel it will be more clear if we first talk about the scenarios and then go on to talk about the story boards and how they both map to other parts of the equirements engineering and implementation, and to other concepts
  • Finalize this part with some conclusions
  • Now, let’s move to the second part. Again, the “general use” of the term, and then the use in our domain
  • OK, now we need to tell how these two are related to each other and to other parts of the process, and how do they all are positioned chronologically in the requirements engineering process
  • This overlaps heavily with the Tips & Tricks, so I combined the two Could someone elaborate a bit on the differences between an active and a passive storyboard? Experiences The rougher the story board looks, the more it is clear to the user that the product is in ”alpha” state Results in wilder, more radical feedback It’s beneficial to be able to modify the ”user interface” on the fly It is important to lead the user well into the situation What is this all about Tips & traps If you don’t change anything, you do not learn anything Keep storyboard modifiable. You should be able to quickly change something Don’t make the storyboard too good. If you make the storyboard too good, customers will want to ship it. Keep the storyboard sketchy When possible make the storyboard interactive Active storyboard will elicit more new requirements that a passive will.
  • A summary slide for the second part as well
  • And let’s provoke some discussion on the topics
  • Scenarios storyboards

    1. 1. Scenarios & Storyboards Requirements Engineering University of Tampere, Fall 2007. Anssi Koskela, Tung Doan, Juuso Mäkinen, Mikael Rinnetmäki.
    2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Scenarios </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed descriptions or ”short stories” of imaginary situations where the system would be used </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storyboards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early prototypes helping to gather requirements for the user interface of a system </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Scenario (Definition) <ul><li>Scenario (Merriam Webster) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an outline or synopsis of a play; especially : a plot outline used by actors of the commedia dell'arte </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the libretto of an opera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a sequence of events especially when imagined; especially : an account or synopsis of a possible course of action or events <his scenario for a settlement envisages...reunification> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scenario (in computer systems design) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A scenario is an ordered set of interactions between partners, usually between a system and a set of actors external to the system. It may comprise a concrete sequence of interaction steps (instance scenario) or a set of possible interaction steps (type scenario). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scenarios are sequences of actions used to illustrate system behavior. While a use case is intended to represent system functions for the general case, scenarios represent operational instances of system use. In practice, however, the distinction between the two is less clear and the terms are often used interchangeably. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. What are Scenarios? <ul><li>Where do scenarios come from? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually as a result of focus group studies or social observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May combine information from several sources and different observed use cases, imagined or from real life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What type of information a scenario contains? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes how (a part of) the system would be used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes detailed information about the actors, their actions, and possibly also underlying motivations, goals, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The description of a scenario may also include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background information of the actors, usage situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This can be shared by many individual scenarios </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Scenario example 1 <ul><li>A lecturer is creating some materials for an online course on &quot;Selection interviewing in the social sciences&quot; delivered via the University’s learning environment. Some video examples of bad interviewing techniques and some in-depth case studies are required. The lecturer initiates a search,… and retrieves 27 hits that include some good case study texts. The lecturer [selects] the best case study … and constructs learning objectives for the students together with some key issues to consider. The lecturer then creates multiple choice questions about the case study in the self-assessment section. The lecturer then adds a link to the video … and makes an online note to search a favourite e-journal site for supporting articles.… </li></ul><ul><li>Modified from </li></ul>
    6. 6. Scenario example 2 (Background) <ul><li>Martha, 48, is an English teacher from London. She has always been interested in languages, mainly because of her life experiences. After a degree in English and French in Bristol, UK, she spent three years living in Quebec, where her hydro-engineer husband’s job had sent him. She kept up her French there via reading and conversation but also by watching popular soap operas, which also gave her some conversational material when chatting to neighbours. </li></ul><ul><li>She and the family spend many holidays in France - a good reason for keeping her French up to scratch. She has a subscription to a monthly CD magazine in French which she listens to in the car. She likes the songs and poetry that are included and tries to learn them by heart, talking and singing along to herself in the privacy of the car. She also has her car radio tuned to a local French radio station. </li></ul><ul><li>Her Quebec experience has taught her just how effective television can be for getting used to other languages and learning about foreign cultures, and this was at the back of her mind when she took out a subscription to satellite TV. She knew that French TV channels were available and harbours a hope of interesting her son Tom (13) and daughter Emma (15) in French. Tom shows no interest in languages: for him French means boring weeks in the French countryside. Emma, however, is keen on French and is hoping to shine in her GCSE exam next term. </li></ul><ul><li>Martha has discovered a French TV station that broadcasts with subtitles (in French), which she finds give just the right level of help to allow her to understand the news and dramas without too much concentration. It’s useful, as it enables her to see word spelling and also increases word and phrase recognition. </li></ul><ul><li>However, she finds it difficult to keep up with the speed of subtitles, especially as she’s typically doing something else as she watches, whether preparing a meal or talking to the children. The subtitles are usually displayed very fast and it would be helpful if she could adjust them according to her own pace. She can also manage some types of programme without subtitles, but finds it hard to ignore them if they’re on the screen. She often reads the subtitles rather than trying to make out the speech. </li></ul><ul><li>Watching television with her children represents precious “quality time” for Martha, and she certainly doesn’t want to make it a chore by insisting they watch educational programmes together. However, she’d like to watch with them while learning some extra odd French words or phrases. She has just read that a new service has become available via cable and satellite, enabling viewers to watch subtitles in the language of their choice and to learn new vocabulary via a personal vocabulary service displayable on the television screen or mobile phone. Viewers can also use their mobile phone to interact with the TV set and learn individually while watching in company. Martha is not a fan of mobile phones, though. She has one just for emergencies, unlike the children who are constant SMS users. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Scenario example 2 (Scenario) <ul><li>Martha has managed to persuade Tom and Emma that an episode of the police drama Maigret on French TV will be fun to watch. There are English subtitles available on the screen for Tom and Emma. Tom enjoys Maigret, and even recognises a few French words, but the prospect of the news in French is too much for him and he disappears to his room. </li></ul><ul><li>Martha is happy to watch the news and understands almost everything. Emma is keen to try, with her exams looming, but less confident, so she tries the new service by clicking the red button. The service is on its default setting, which displays numbers and proper names. As the news item is broadcast, the newscaster tells viewers about the tense new situation between Havana and Washington. On the semi-transparent overlay on the screen, the name “La Havane” and its translation, “Havana,” are displayed, allowing Emma to grasp this unknown term. Emma’s quite impressed, especially since the vocabulary she’s just seen will also be sent to her mobile, where it will be accessible in her individual learning area. She can also change the settings to deliver filtered vocabulary on one of several other themes, e.g. social language, travel and so on. Emma could also use her mobile phone to review the programme sound track on the way to school. </li></ul><ul><li>After the news, Martha spots that a classic Truffaut film is on the following evening. Some time during the day she’ll make some time to read through the synopsis on the interactive pages so that she won’t need to use the subtitles at all. If Emma wants to join in, she can access the synopsis beforehand on her phone, and receive subtitles on the phone as she watches. She normally has her mobile with her on the sofa anyway, to text her friends. The unobtrusiveness of the mobile phone approach enables both to enjoy watching the TV as well as giving the sense that they have achieved something worthwhile. </li></ul><ul><li>Modified from Sanaz Fallahkhair, Lyn Pemberton & Judith Masthoff. 2004. A dual device scenario for informal language learning: interactive television meets the mobile phone (doc) In Proceedings of ICALT 2004, Joensuu, Finland. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Scenario example 3 <ul><li>Download and install the software </li></ul><ul><li>Start the application </li></ul><ul><li>Scan available mobile TV services </li></ul><ul><li>Select a TV channel </li></ul><ul><li>See program information of services and programs </li></ul><ul><li>Start interactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Exit the application </li></ul><ul><li>Uninstall the software </li></ul>
    9. 9. Experiences with Scenarios (1) <ul><li>Big project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 companies / institutes involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complicated end-to-end system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The idea of scenarios presented poorly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only ”end-user” scenarios presented, available in the template </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only end-user scenarios implemented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No help at all for other areas of work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant need for ”business models” in other areas of the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertainty of outcomes of implementation (products) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scenarios being invented (!) during implementation -- no link to commercial requirements (there are none elicited) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The scenarios as such worked, but were nowhere near to being sufficient for gathering full requirements for the system </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Experiences with Scenarios (2) <ul><li>A demonstration for an exhibition </li></ul><ul><li>Simple but thorough use case, with all steps defined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must-have, nice-to-have </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Helped to yield shared understanding of goals </li></ul><ul><li>Helped the development and especially testing </li></ul>
    11. 11. Scenarios: Pros & Cons <ul><li>Pros: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared understanding of how the system will be used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combining individual requirements into more tangible, practical, or concrete set of ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justifying requirements, manifesting their origin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revealing and capturing hidden requirements and assumptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good when (some) stakeholders haven’t been used to working with requirements? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps in grouping requirements when building use cases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May yield no results, if the usage of the system is already clear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not capture all aspects of the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually used only for the human-to-machine interface </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Storyboard (Definition) <ul><li>Storyboard (Merriam Webster) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>panels on which a set of sketches is arranged depicting consecutively the important changes of scene and action in a series of shots </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storyboard (in computer systems design) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storyboards are screen prototypes produced on paper to enable users to specify the sequencing and look of their GUIs. A storyboard is a logical and conceptual description of system functionality for a specific scenario, including the interaction required between the system users and the system. A storyboard &quot;tells a specific story&quot;. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Another Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use cases are like the general plot of a film, whereas storyboards are the script. In contrast to use cases, these storyboards now make use of very real and concrete concepts. That includes examples of user interfaces and verbiage about using hardware. This approach can go even further by personalizing stories (giving actor names) or adding cartoon-like elements to use cases. The creativity of the author is the only limit for the content, because no standard for storyboards exists. Storyboards can be put together by one person in electronic format, or they can be crafted by a team on whiteboards using markers, sticky notes, or other media. The workshop outcomes can be scanned or photographed to preserve and share the results. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because storyboards exist independently of the software system they describe, they have many advantages over regular prototypes. They cannot crash, are very easy to share with large groups, and do not give the false impression that the system is already developed. Additionally, feedback is easier to accommodate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, one of the biggest problems with storyboards is that they can become outdated very quickly. User interfaces originally defined often change over time, and that creates a maintenance burden. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. What are Storyboards? <ul><li>Prototypes covering parts of the system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually paper prototypes of the screens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A walk-trough of a scenario or a use case </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First phase(s) in iterative development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refine the scenarios, verify that the essential pieces are in place in the intended system (especially user interface) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A more concrete implementation of the system, still a scetch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yield requirements for the user interface and workflow </li></ul>
    14. 14. Storyboards, Prototyping, Use Case, Scenarios - The difference <ul><li>Scenario is a human like story, describing how the system will be used from user perspective, ideally describing one use case. </li></ul><ul><li>Storyboard s show how a scenario would be executed with the system, helping to design the user interface </li></ul><ul><li>Use Case s can be derived from scenarios. Usually contain more technical details (pre and post conditions, exceptions, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Prototype applications are usually more complete implementations, whereas storyboards cover a limited set of (usually static) screens </li></ul>
    15. 15. Example of RE process <ul><li>Focus group workshop is held. Approximated duration of a single workshop is about 1 day. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One way of requirements elicitation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on output from the workshop ~40 scenarios are created. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The scenarios are created based on the information gathered with different requirement elicitation methods. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Roughly main 5 scenarios is selected and the rest are used as background information. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritizing and sorting the information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For each scenario roughly 5 storyboards are created. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>this is the detailed description of the requirement and the flow for a part of a use case. </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Experiences of Storyboards <ul><li>It is important to lead the user well into the situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is this all about </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t make the storyboard too good. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The rougher the storyboard looks, the more it is clear to the user that the product is in ”alpha” state, results in wilder, more radical feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you make the storyboard too good, customers will want to ship it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep the storyboard sketchy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Select the right tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It must be easy to modify the storyboard, even on the fly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you don’t change anything, you do not learn anything </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When possible, make the storyboard interactive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active storyboard will elicit more new requirements that a passive will. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Storyboards: Pros & Cons <ul><li>Pros: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help to refine the use logic of the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get user feedback really early </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validates the user interface design in an early phase, inexpensively </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover only some of the use cases, you still might miss something in the GUI </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. References <ul><li>Software Requirements, Second Edition by Karl E.Wiegers © 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Scenarios, Stories, Use Cases: Through the Systems Development Life-Cycle by Ian Alexander and Neil Maiden (eds) © 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Form feeds function: The role of storyboards in requirements elicitation, [] </li></ul><ul><li>Dean Leffingwell and Don Widrig, “Managing software requirements: A Use Case Approach”, Addison-Wesley, 2003 </li></ul>
    19. 19. Discussion <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences? </li></ul>