“ The era of mass media is giving way to one of personal and participatory media. That will profoundly change both the media industry and society as a whole”, says Andreas Kluth, technology correspondent of The Economist.
This media landscape will look more and more like a stock exchange.
An exchange, that is, for users who offer (create) and bid for (search, navigate, share, enjoy) content. And a stock exchange for advertisers, who bid against one another to have their sponsored links placed in front of these users.
What follows is the description of five major consumer trends that are induced, driven and accelerated by digital technology.
Masters of the Youniverse
They are just examples since the wider implications for society will become visible gradually over a period of decades, as it was the case with past innovations like the book press (the starting point of the mass media era that achieved its zenith in 1958, more than 400 years after Gutenberg’s invention in 1455).
Collecting! Human beings (fueled by a need for self-worth,
validation, control, vanity, even immortality) love to collect
and store possessions, memories, experiences, in order to create personal histories,
mementoes of their lives, or just to keep track for practical reasons.
And with the experience economy still gaining ground -- with consumers more often favoring the intangible over the tangible -- collecting, storing and displaying experiences is ready.
Thanks to the onslaught of new technologies and tools, from blogging software to memory sticks to high definition camera phones with lots of storage space and other 'life capturing and storing devices', an almost biblical flood of
'personal content' is being collected, waiting to be stored to
The Generation C phenomenon captures the avalanche of consumer-generated content that is building on the web, adding tera-peta bytes of new text, images, audio and video. Consumers around the world pro-actively post, stream if not lead parts of their lives online. There are three main drivers for this trend:
(1) The creative urges each consumer undeniably possesses. We're all artists, but until now we neither had the guts nor the means to go all out.
(2) The manufacturers of content-creating tools, who relentlessly push us to unleash that creativity, using -- of course -- their ever cheaper, ever more powerful gadgets and gizmos.
(3) The proliferation of 'personal showrooms' helping GENERATION C to instantly display its creations to a global audience.
Generation C is much more cynical, savvy and uninfluenced by traditional advertising. They’re content creators, not watchers, and they have a lot more control over the media they consume. As a result, they have much higher expectations of brands and how they communicate. Engaging and entertaining is everything. Mass broadcasting of generic messages are nothing
Consumers don't just want online access anywhere/anytime, they absolutely crave it! From airports to living rooms to roof gardens to classrooms to city parks, people go to great lengths to get a dose of online oxygen. Online access becomes an absolute necessity, and there are no signs that the pace of integrating online access into daily life is slowing down. And we haven’t even touched upon the looming explosion of WIFI enabled PDAs and phones.
What Mr Semel, former chairman of Warner Brothers says about his daughters is exemplary: The 24 year old does a lot on the Internet, the 19 year old does everything on the Internet, and the 13 year old “lives online.”
Amount in USD you would have to pay to an American to abandon the Internet for 14 days
Der Yindie ist ebenfalls jung, berufstätig und Grossstädter. Im Unterschied zu den Vorgängern aber darauf bedacht, nicht so viel Wert auf Konsum zu legen, etwas Besonderes zu sein und unabhängig zu bleiben. Eine Mischung aus Yuppie und Independent also - ein Yindie.
Vertreter der neuen Generation sind in grossen Metropolen zu sehen. Zwischen 20 und 35 Jahre alt, häufig im Coffee-Shop anzutreffen, vor sich einen Caffe Latte sowie einen Computer mit drahtlosem Internet-Zugang. Wichtigstes Statussymbol für die neue Soio-Gruppe ist ein tragbarer MP3-Player, der iPod mit seinen weissen Ohrstöpseln. Zu den Erkennungsmerkmalen, die nicht sofort ersichtlich sind, gehört die Dauernutzung des Internets.
Human beings want to be in charge of their own destiny. Or at least have the illusion of being in charge. And because they can now get this control in entirely new ways, aided by an online, low cost, they exercise total control over creative collections, including their own creative assets, assume different identities in cyberspace, wallow in customization, personalization, co-creation to make companies deliver whatever and whenever on their own terms and so on.
Masters of the Youniverse seek for freedom, mobility and independence.
They love to create their own (virtual) Youniverse and to live multiple identities in cyberspace. Millions of them now 'live' in online communities, play multiplayer games, and chat with anyone and everyone.
Escapism to an alternate reality: Within this alternate reality, fundamental human desires are satisfied—the drive to explore, with the promise of reward.
The thrill of gaming - whether online, mobile or console-based - is that the player is part of the storyline, controls the own destiny and experiences a - self-created - alternate reality. This generates real emotions. I
In a video game, you decide where you are going... You can't do that with a TV show.
The Internet becomes a preferred place to cultivate existing friendships in the real world. With e-mail, Instant Message, Skype, and blog, people can keep in touch with their friends so easily. They don’t have to go out for a lunch or coffee to chat or discuss important matters.
But, as people spend more time on the virtual world of the Internet, they will have less time to establish friendship in the real world.
And, for emotional support, people increasingly seek consultancy rather from the Internet than their close friends. Talking to a stranger is more relaxed than talking to someone who knows you very well. And, consultancy of people who have the same problem or experience can easily be found on the Internet.
New technology links people over greater distances,
Social behavior changes with every new communication technology. Mobile phones have already changed the way we plan and behave in social contacts. Everything has become more noncommittal: we fix a date, but “we call before to see if it’s still ok and at what time”; we don’t know yet if we’ll come, but we’ll write you an SMS later”.
We don’t want to settle things; we rather leave it open and decide last minute amongst the options. This new trend goes in the same direction: we’d rather stay in contact with people we met on vacation over the Internet than meet the friends that are around the corner.
This does not have to do anything with the profoundness of the relationships, but we build in a noncommittal factor through the interface that is in-between.
Society is in the midst of a dramatic change process that transforms “analog” consumers into “digitally embraced” consumers with new mindsets, expectations, needs, living environments, reference groups and therefore new ways of living and behavior.
Each of the three main participatory elements in the digital market acts as a turbo in the digitalization process by speeding up the development
“ There will be more innovations in the next 10 years than in the last 5’000.” Dr. Canton
It is evident that with these big changes in society behavior of consumers changes as well. New private playgrounds for consumers pop up on the Internet in the form of virtual realities and exchange platforms for personal opinions, interests and memories. Real people’s lives get digitalized and shared though the Internet. People let others take part in their most personal thoughts and experiences, and live parallel lives in the virtual reality. They create their own content and spaces to share with peers.
These new playgrounds can be clustered in the following categories:
But, there is a very fine line between blogging and online (mass) media. There is Ohmy Media, the world’s most successful example to date of “citizen journalism” in action. Ohmy News is a sort of online newspaper in South Korea that gets an average of 700’000 visitors and 2 million page views a day, which puts it in the same league as large newspapers. But Ohmy has no reporters on its staff at all. Instead, it relies on amateurs to contribute the articles, which are then edited afterwards.
The innovation: The site has a “tip-jar” system that invites readers to reward good work with small donations. All they have to do is click a little tip-jar button to have their mobile phone or credit-card account debited. One particularly good article produced the equivalent of $30’000 in just five days.
The most successful vlog is youtube.com, a vlog platform with the slogan “broadcast yourself” that allows users to view and share videos. Millions of home videos uploaded by consumers around the globe are waiting to be discovered by the Internet community. 60’000 new pods (consumer generated piece of video) get uploaded every day and the best ones (top five) are watched by an average of 150’000 viewers within their first day of “shelf life”. The total number of video downloads adds up to 40 million a day with people having the possibility to rate, comment and send them via email.
YouTube was launched in May 2006 and has gone from 0 to 20 million (unique) visitors in less than one year. This means an impressive growth rate of 200% per month leading to the doubling of the audience every second month.
Besides quantity of YouTube users, the profile of them is surprising as well. Mature people with high income make up the biggest part of the YouTube -community. Almost 60% are older than 35 (comfort seeker)! Only 20% are children and teens under 25 years old (identity builder) and another 20% are young adults between 25 and 35 years old (positioning designer). Almost 2/3 earn more than USD 60’000 per year.
On social networking or online community websites people create their own private community. They are searching for acquaintances matching their profile and expectations in order to share photos, journals, and experiences and also to further develop their social network.
The concept of social networking is a powerful thing and the underlying concept
will influence the way advertising is done in all media, not just online.
People use social network sites to form connections with other people and bridge their online life with their offline life. Companies whose business is built on creating buzz need to tap into those connections in order to effectively market to tastemakers.
Social networking, by bringing together friends and strangers alike, enables instant communication and provides an easy way to share content (whether self-created or from another source) and offers a single source for viral marketing and word of mouth.
Virtual reality (VR) is a technology, which allows a user to interact with a computer-simulated environment. Most virtual reality environments are primarily visual experiences, displayed on a computer screen.
A Massively Multiplayer Online Game (MMOG or MMO) is a computer game that is capable of supporting hundreds or thousands of players simultaneously, and is played on the Internet - tipically, in a giant persistent world.
The most popular sub-genre that did much to pioneer the category is massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG), an online computer role-playing game (RPG) in which a large number of players interact with one another in a virtual world.
As in all RPGs, players assume the role of a fictional character (traditionally in a fantasy setting, other settings are related to sports or fighting) and take control over most of that character's actions
Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games
World of Warcraft (WoW), for example, has 6m subscribed online gamers worldwide with 50 – 70’000 people being online simultaneously around the clock. WoW is a fantasy game that is not only about fighting.
The aim of the game is – as for the majority of games – to earn credits in order to further develop one’s character. In order to advance in the game – as in real life – one has to learn, to practice and to earn money (through fighting or selling goods created).
Second Life represents an early view of the ultimate in creative youniversal branding thought: users creating truly an alternate world.
They truly live a second life with an alter ego in a metaverse, a parallel world only existing on the Internet.
The special thing about SL is that the majority of the content is residential-created. SL gives it users tools to add to and edit its world and participate in its economy. This means that the entire virtual world is built and managed by its residents.
Second Life brings to reality what the science fiction author Neal Stephenson 1992 described in his book, “Metaverse”. The Metaverse was a parallel world that only existed on the Internet and whose avatars interacted virtually with each other.
What happens in the virtual world impacts real world and vice versa. Second Life inventor Philipp Rodedal is completely conscious of that. He means: “we don’t’ create a game, we create a new land. It’s a little bit like in the movie “The Matrix”.
General rules and mechanics of life in the virtual realities are very similar to the ones in real life:
Physical: materials react the same way as in real nature, day/nighttime correspond and events of the real world such as Christmas or Valentines Day take place in the virtual reality as well. Very sophisticated virtual worlds like the one of Oblivion (an offline-game) are not even constructed anymore, but grown according to the rules of nature with artificial intelligence (AI).
Legal Prisons exist, where one e is teleported as punishment for violation of rules. Or, one gets excluded from the game, which actually means the death penalty, and is also seen and feared as such by the player community since they worked hard and invested a huge amount of time and often money to build up their existence in the virtual world.
Social: There are people that stick to the rules and ones that don’t, there are people that represent the good or the bad or something in between. In WoW, for example, you can choose to be a character and live in the world of the good or in the world of the bad. What is different is that you can have multiple characters, entirely good ones and entirely bad ones for example.
MMORPs are very interesting from a social point of view:
First, people play a role different from the one they play in real life.
Different is that they can choose who they want to be, how they look and what attributes and skills they have. This means that they can slip into the skin of a new person and experience the reaction of others and interaction with their environment through the eyes of their second personality.
MMORPs are even used for therapy for physically disabled people in order to build up their self-esteem since in the virtual world nobody sees their disability and they can live “a normal life” through their avatar.
In Second Life there is even a “Virtual Hallucinations building” where people can experience how it feels to be schizophrenic. People identify with their second personality so much that they even create videos – spending hours to develop stories, direct the filming together with others in the virtual world, cutting and composing them – with their character and put them online on warcraftmovies.com for others to watch.
Second, one meets an avatar with a certain appearance in the virtual reality and takes him for what he represents, not knowing who really sits behind the computer, and if that person has similar or completely different attributes and skills.
Third, the behavior in some virtual worlds, like WoW is very social.
It happens regularly that one gets a present from somebody passing by for no obvious reason except for the generally social code of conduct in this world. People are also very open and get into contact with each other when they are interested in someone that passes by.
In other virtual worlds, like Second Life, the behavior is rather aggressive and ego-centered. Could be that in fantasy worlds people are more relaxed since they play for fun. In more economically focused worlds a lot of people invest money and hope to get rich. Therefore they play harder and are more focused on their own benefit.
The good thing is, on the Internet, you can choose the world with the social code of conduct that suits you most. In real life you can’t; the real world is not split into “good” and “bad” areas; it’s all mixed up.
Virtual life does become very real sometimes since it has become a lucrative industry
of its own that grows at a fast pace. Some examples:
Second Life is one of the only online games where you can legally buy things like land with real money. The current exchange rate (May 2006) is one dollar for 309 Linden (the virtual currency of Second Life). The economy of SL generates an average of USD 500’000 in economic activity each week.
The American Marc Bragg is accused of having cheated in an online auction in order to buy land under market value. He was not only excluded from the online game, but was cited before a real court that will handle the virtual matter in real life.
A Player on SL has built a disco that he sold to another one for EUR 100’000. The disco owner refinances himself through the entry of the virtual people in his virtual club
A Japanese woman is the big fish in the immobility market on SL: she buys the land, builds fancy houses with nice gardens and resells the land with the house
A German business man has hired five employees in China that spend the whole day gaming on different platforms and he then sells the gained trophies on eBay
Estimated industry turnover in 2006: EUR 1 billion
Mobile phones have long become more than just telephones; they are people’s personal connection to the world. They have become steady companion, lifestyle tool and pastime while on the road. And the significance of mobile devices will continue to gain importance with the following developments.
Mobile Games are already highly penetrated. In Germany, 85% of all age groups have already played a mobile game and one third does it on a regular basis. Every third person has already downloaded a game on his mobile phone. Consumers are also interested in free advergames and 20% have already downloaded one. But, it’s more a men’s thing. They represent around 70% of the mobile gamers. Surprisingly it’s not the youngsters segment that is the most engaged in mobile games, but young adults between 20 and 39 years old.
Forecast of mobile game sales volume in Europe in Mio. Euros (Jupiter Research)
Mobile information and entertainment consumption is another mobile application with huge development and success potential. Mobile content usage is not yet a mass market phenomena, but it’s already a nice segment: 60% have accessed mobile content within the last three months and 10% do it on a monthly basis. And the number is growing: In Switzerland 88% of the population has a mobile phone, and over 85% have pre-installed mobile Internet access. 500’000 customers buy mobile content, 200’000 of them on a monthly basis and 250’000 participate in mobile promotions every month.
People are most interested in content and services centering around music, photos and video clips as research, conducted in the UK revealed. Respondents showed increased interest in content applications such as music (34%), movies (22%) and photos (52%). The research found that 18-34s are most interested in content services: 67% are interested in sharing pictures with family and friends, 58% in downloading songs, 53% in video calling, and 39% in watching movie trailers or sporting highlight video clips.
Mobile TV, video or movie is one adaption form of content to mobile devices. The highly emotional audio-visual expression of the format has a high entertainment and fun factor and therefore big potential to become one of the mobile marketing tools with the biggest impact on image and brand shifting power. The customization to the small screen is only an issue for the 30 plus. For the sms-generation it’s no matter at all, they are used to the small playing screen. Now a lot of the contents get specially produced for the small size of the mobile phone screen (closer frames, less crowded pictures and no wide shoots).
Korea has – once again – been at the forefront of mobile television : it launched the world’s first commercial satellite digital media broadcasting service (S- DMB) in May 2005, and T-DMB in December 2005. There are queries over whether the satellite service in particular will be commercially viable – but about 600'000 customers have signed up for the terrestrial service and the Korean government predicts that one-third of the country’s 48m people will be watching television on their mobile phones by 2010 .
Digital Poster / Signage Custom images are digitally delivered to sign-like devices located throughout retail environ-ments, the enterprise or in the street. The advantages of digital signage include the rapid ability to update content, and the ability to deliver specific messages to specific target audiences in specific locations. Digital signage helps to merge the industries of advertising networks and point of purchase display merchandising.
RFID are very small chips that can hold, send and receive data and hereby communicate with other RFID devices. RFID devices can communicate up to 30 meters and contact between devices is established automatically.
RFID technology can be applied for location specific offers and services. For example, the consignment of information or coupons could be given to people corresponding to the target group when entering a shop. Or messages could be adjusted on displays at the POS to the person entering the door. Or commercials could be sent about a product promoted on a poster to the mobile phone of the person passing by. And so on.
RFID could also be used to customize billboards in the near future, according to John Mayo-Smith, vice president of technology at R/GA. For example, a digital billboard might be programmed to have a different image depending on whether a car or a motorcycle passed by. The potential of RFID is huge, especially for promotion and loyalty programs.
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Virtual realities and digital contents are more and more consumed throughout the whole day and on the go. With the private and individual consumption of digital contents in the midst of other people in the street, in public transport as well as in front of the computer at home or at work during the lunch break, people create their own “private world”.
Consumers can not only create their own world, but can choose many different worlds in which to live and navigate inbetween. Even though playgrounds and words overlap through the convergence of technologies, media and content; each one is expected to cover very specific aspects of their life.
Consumers know exactly what they want to get where, when and how:
Evaluation of Digital Situation
Consumer‘s Worlds In the virtual world , they aspire to explore their Youniverse and probe all facets of it. In the virtual playgrounds, they want to interact, exchange, try out, discover and experiment. It’s all about the experience of their own personality (through different identities), of relationships with others (through different stories and situations) and of life as a whole (through diff. environments and set ups). At home , when deliberately disconnected from the outside, consumers aim at enjoyment, and passively consume selected entertainment and information - fitting their current interests and momentary moods best. In the mobile world , consumers intend to connect with their peers as well as with information, services and entertainment. Mobile playgrounds should enhance their time while commuting and improve their quality of life.
They have new toys, but they don’t know how to play with them or they do not have the tools to apply to them yet. And, most importantly, marketers have not yet adjusted their game to the mindset of the new, digitally empowered consumer:
In the virtual world they focus on generating clicks, instead of engaging consumers and enabling experiences.
In the mobile world , they try to generate response rates instead of enabling connections and delivering services.
In the living rooms they strive for reaching the mass market instead of providing selective entertainment and information.
People spend more and more time in the virtual world. Not consuming what we serve them, but rather communicating with each other, exchanging content and interacting in peer-to-peer platforms such as blogs/vlogs and virtual reality or gaming platforms.
For a brand to be relevant, it needs to understand what’s going on and act accordingly. Meaning to be a part of and create value for the consumer, the brand needs to be a part of the exchange process and second reality.
Word-of-mouth becomes even more important for the formations of opinions since the huge increase in use of social networks allows information to spread more quickly. And 76% of people talk about at least one brand once a day.
Brands have to find out which blogs/vlogs are consulted by their target groups and find ways on how to involve relevant bloggers and vloggers.
Brands have to find ways to use the huge word-of-mouth potential of social networking platforms to their advantage.
Brands have to find out which virtual reality platforms are frequented by their target group to enhance their virtual experience in the virtual reality.
The fragmentation of media is soaring with the increasing number of available media and content – created by brands (e.g. telco/entertainmet companies) and consumers.
With fragmentation, the consumption of media becomes more individual since consumers have the choice between tons of content and service offers (information and entertainment) exactly matching their special interests. And with the increasing number of channels available to consume content – also on the go – the consumption gets more private, meaning independent of location, time and order.
The challenge for brands is to invade the private media consumption of consumers in an intelligent and value adding way
by finding out which content is relevant to consumers and providing them access to it;
by helping them to navigate the flood of options available in the digital world and find the best choice matching their interests and expectations;
by finding out, which services could be of interest for them and create offers accordingly.
In the age of digital technology, consumers are – more than ever – looking for brands that emotionally make the difference. They are engaging with brands that emotionally touch them more than others, that they associate positive experiences with, that they feel emotionally and spiritually understood by and that enhance their life quality through providing them moments of joy.
Today’s consumers want to be entertained and involved with brands, otherwise they ignore them. They are not receptive to uncreative one-way communication that treats them like part of a mass-audience, but demand more conversational, life-style matching ways of engagement and more experience-geared communication forms.
Brands have to tap the full potential – technologically and creatively – of the new possibilities, and find new, surprising, diverting and one-of-a-kind forms of how to approach consumers in order to remain relevant and successfully hold their ground in the consumer governed market.
Virtuality, mobility, and reality: Consumers today live in different worlds and use multiple medias naturally integrated in their daily life. They don’t consciously distinguish between worlds or access points, but rather see them together as a whole entity that makes up their life. They constantly switch between worlds as they go through the day. And they are getting used to decide for themselves exactly which experience they want at exactly what point in time.
Brands therefore have to develop storyboards for brand experiences that consist of multiple interaction/engagement options that embrace both the real and the virtual world.
The touch points need to be interlinked, taking into consideration the characteristics, the environment, the situation specific mindset and needs as well as the consumer behavior and journey as a whole in order to guide the consumer from one tough point to the other through the story. But the storyboards should – at the same time – be flexible and dynamic enough to allow the consumer to choose his own way through. The kind of engagement/interaction he wants though which touch point at what point in time and in which order should be left up to him.
The whole marketing and communication industry has to completely change the way of thinking and acting. New ways and forms of marketing and communication have to be developed in order to cope with a much more complex, fragmented and individualized environment.
Brands and marketers have to become more responsive to the individual consumer and not to a target group as a whole. And, marketing and communication strategies have to evolve with the digital lifestyle of the consumer.
The key words are:
Integration (virtual and real)
Engagement (brand and consumer)
Experience (stationary and mobile).
OPPORTUNITIES OPPORTUNITIES Key Issues Become part of the virtual youniverse Invade private content consumption Entertain, involve and engage consumers Create cross-world and –media experiences Opportunities Virtual reality enhancer Experience provider Engagement trigger Integration Engagement Experience
A general overall assessment of the efficientcy and effectiveness of the different approaches can be done by rating them according to a set of attributes:
“ Consumer relevance” indicates how important the content, service or experience is for the consumer. It represents the value added of the “offer” for the recipient.
“ Impact” indicates the intensity of the encounter the consumer has with your brand. It judges the quality of the brand experience and the degree of brand impression it leaves with the consumer.
“ Uniqueness” reveals the ownability of the activity. It indicates the degree to which the same approach can or cannot be taken by another brand.
“ Sustainability” indicates whether the approach has a lasting effect or not. It qualifies the impact the impression has on the consumer in the long run and indicates whether the consumer will keep the encounter in good memory, associate and connect the positive feelings of the experience with your brand.
“ Risk” indicates how safe your investments in this area are and shows you the probability of failure of the approach.
“ Cost” indicates the level of investment necessary to realize activities in this area. It takes into account direct and indirect costs associated with the approach and is indispensable for isuccess in the market.
Function of Media in the Communication Life Cycle Approach, content and form according to mind set and needs of consumers in the specific phase Mobile Mrkt. Online Mrkt. Guerilla PR Website POS Promotion DM Event Radio Print OOH TV Loyalty Action Consideration Awareness
Consumer Journey / Media Consumption Situations
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