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Unidad 15 <ul><li>Introduction to solar PV energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Dimensioning - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Albert...
The power of the sun - G <ul><li>Global Irradiation  0.29-0.4 um </li></ul><ul><li>Instantaneous value  (Power)  W/m 2 </l...
G <ul><li>Irradiance and irradiation values stand for area densities, i.e.no subscripts are used to indicate the surface a...
The figures <ul><li>A nearly constant 1.36 kilowatts per square meter (the solar constant) of solar radiant power impinges...
Type of systems <ul><li>Grid-Intertied solar-electric system: on grid </li></ul><ul><li>Grid-Intertied solar-electric syst...
Type of load <ul><li>AC load </li></ul><ul><li>DC load </li></ul><ul><li>Direct pump (no batteries) </li></ul>
Components (I) <ul><li>PV </li></ul><ul><li>PV Mounts </li></ul><ul><li>Array PV - DC Disconnect </li></ul><ul><li>Charge ...
Components (II) <ul><li>System Meter </li></ul><ul><li>Main DC Disconnect  </li></ul><ul><li>Inverter </li></ul><ul><li>AC...
PV Panel <ul><li>Isc </li></ul><ul><li>Voc </li></ul><ul><li>Ipmax, Vpmax (Maximum Power) </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage is enf...
PV Panel <ul><li>Performance: Pmax/Psun ~ 10%-13% </li></ul><ul><li>Normalized conditions  1kW/m 2  sea level 25 C </li></...
Testing the panels <ul><li>Testing the panels (annex) </li></ul>
PV Panel <ul><li>Operation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ipmax, Vmax  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficency Lost: Pmax – 5% </li><...
Battery <ul><li>Serial elements: 2 V </li></ul><ul><li>Models: 12 V,  24 V and 48 V </li></ul><ul><li>Car batteries vs Dee...
Deep Cycle Batteries <ul><li>Nickel-Cadmium (vs) Lead-Acid </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance vs Cost </li></ul>
Sun and Battery Cycles <ul><li>Daily </li></ul><ul><li>Seasons </li></ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul>
Battery Status <ul><li>Over charged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas, oxidation of positive eletrod </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re...
Battery Parameters <ul><li>Vn Nominal Voltage </li></ul><ul><li>Cn Nominal Capacity Ah, Wh </li></ul><ul><li>C100 </li></u...
Temp and Batteries <ul><li>Capacity 1%/C </li></ul><ul><li>Low temperatures – Battery charge to avoid freeze (reduce the m...
Loads <ul><li>Role of low power devices </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Demands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimation </li></ul></ul><...
Regulator <ul><li>Cuts at 2.45 V (battery state) </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum current (at least 20% more than the PV) </li></...
Regulator <ul><li>Serial (can disconnect) vs Shunt (NO!) </li></ul><ul><li>Charge Controller </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Senses ...
Inverter <ul><li>Converter DC/AC </li></ul><ul><li>DC/DC (pumps, to start them) </li></ul><ul><li>Sin wave vs modified sin...
Inverter Parameters <ul><li>Protection (against sc) </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency > 70% </li></ul>
Calculation <ul><li>Method: Worse month </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable: how many days without sun? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Auton...
Worse Month <ul><li>What is the worse month? </li></ul><ul><li>We need to know the energy demands (DC + AC) and the energy...
Orientation <ul><li>Towards the equator </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance of 20 degrees (alpha) </li></ul><ul><li>Angle (ß): </l...
G(ß,r,Lat) <ul><li>Daily or monthly average energy at angle B </li></ul><ul><li>G(B) = f(G(0)) </li></ul><ul><li>f (B) = A...
Imax (Loads) <ul><li>Et = E(AC) + E (DC) (Ah) (electric charge) </li></ul><ul><li>Ah/day  - Ah/period </li></ul><ul><li>G(...
Number of par. panels? <ul><li>Npp = Immax/Ipmax </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25 A/kw.m2 / 5 A/kw.m2 = ...
Capacity of Battery? <ul><li>Normally measure in Ah (electric charge)  </li></ul><ul><li>Serie vs Parallel </li></ul><ul><...
Regulator and Inverter Power <ul><li>Regulator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20% Imax x Npp </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inverter </li><...
Conclusion <ul><li>Multi-variable system </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation: Worst month </li></ul><ul><li>Set pre-conditions fi...
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Energy for telecommunications systems - Wimax Systems, Presentation - Introduction

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Transcript of "Energy for telecommunications systems - Wimax Systems, Presentation - Introduction"

  1. 1. Unidad 15 <ul><li>Introduction to solar PV energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Dimensioning - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alberto Escudero-Pascual, IT+46 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(cc) Creative Commons Share-Alike </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non Commercial Attribution 2.5 Sweden </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. The power of the sun - G <ul><li>Global Irradiation 0.29-0.4 um </li></ul><ul><li>Instantaneous value (Power) W/m 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy: Wh/m 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy: J/m 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Peak Hours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conversions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 wh =3600 J </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Irradiance (W) vs Irradiation (Wh) </li></ul>
  3. 3. G <ul><li>Irradiance and irradiation values stand for area densities, i.e.no subscripts are used to indicate the surface area. All symbols refer to horizontal planes; for a tilted plane, the slope ß and the plane azimuth (Alpha) are added in brackets. </li></ul><ul><li>Subscript 0 stands for extraterrestrial or astronomical. </li></ul><ul><li>Subscript h stands for hourly and subcript d for daily. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The figures <ul><li>A nearly constant 1.36 kilowatts per square meter (the solar constant) of solar radiant power impinges on the earth's outer atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 70% of this extraterrestrial radiation makes it through our atmosphere on a clear day. </li></ul><ul><li>Irradiance at ground level regularly exceeds 1,000 w/m2. In some mountain areas, readings over 1,200 w/m2 are often recorded. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Type of systems <ul><li>Grid-Intertied solar-electric system: on grid </li></ul><ul><li>Grid-Intertied solar-electric system with battery backup </li></ul><ul><li>Off-Grid solar-electric system with battery backup (Telcenter A) </li></ul><ul><li>Grid-Intertied solar-electric system with battery and generator backup (Telecenter B) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Type of load <ul><li>AC load </li></ul><ul><li>DC load </li></ul><ul><li>Direct pump (no batteries) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Components (I) <ul><li>PV </li></ul><ul><li>PV Mounts </li></ul><ul><li>Array PV - DC Disconnect </li></ul><ul><li>Charge Controller (Regulator) </li></ul><ul><li>Battery </li></ul>
  8. 8. Components (II) <ul><li>System Meter </li></ul><ul><li>Main DC Disconnect </li></ul><ul><li>Inverter </li></ul><ul><li>AC Breaker Panel (AC Disconnect) </li></ul><ul><li>Kwh meter (Utility Meter) </li></ul>
  9. 9. PV Panel <ul><li>Isc </li></ul><ul><li>Voc </li></ul><ul><li>Ipmax, Vpmax (Maximum Power) </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage is enforced by the battery </li></ul><ul><li>Form Factor (Pmax/Isc.Vsc) 0.7-0.8 </li></ul>
  10. 10. PV Panel <ul><li>Performance: Pmax/Psun ~ 10%-13% </li></ul><ul><li>Normalized conditions 1kW/m 2 sea level 25 C </li></ul><ul><li>Wp (Peak Power) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Testing the panels <ul><li>Testing the panels (annex) </li></ul>
  12. 12. PV Panel <ul><li>Operation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ipmax, Vmax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficency Lost: Pmax – 5% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Array </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same panels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serial = We add V </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel = We get more I </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Battery <ul><li>Serial elements: 2 V </li></ul><ul><li>Models: 12 V, 24 V and 48 V </li></ul><ul><li>Car batteries vs Deep Cycle Batteries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.2 to 1.28 (add water) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Deep Cycle Batteries <ul><li>Nickel-Cadmium (vs) Lead-Acid </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance vs Cost </li></ul>
  15. 15. Sun and Battery Cycles <ul><li>Daily </li></ul><ul><li>Seasons </li></ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul>
  16. 16. Battery Status <ul><li>Over charged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas, oxidation of positive eletrod </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces acid stratification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled 2.35 – 2.4 V </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of regulator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Over discharged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower limit 1.85 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PbSo4 Lead Sulfate </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Battery Parameters <ul><li>Vn Nominal Voltage </li></ul><ul><li>Cn Nominal Capacity Ah, Wh </li></ul><ul><li>C100 </li></ul><ul><li>SOC vs DOD </li></ul><ul><li>DOD 70% and life of the battery </li></ul><ul><li>Cusable = Cn * MDR (maximum discharge rate) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Temp and Batteries <ul><li>Capacity 1%/C </li></ul><ul><li>Low temperatures – Battery charge to avoid freeze (reduce the max. discharge rate) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Loads <ul><li>Role of low power devices </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Demands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forecasting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>User Habits </li></ul>
  20. 20. Regulator <ul><li>Cuts at 2.45 V (battery state) </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum current (at least 20% more than the PV) </li></ul><ul><li>Operating tension </li></ul>
  21. 21. Regulator <ul><li>Serial (can disconnect) vs Shunt (NO!) </li></ul><ul><li>Charge Controller </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Senses Temp of Batteries Battery Temperature Compensation (BTC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can lower the V of the panels to increase the I </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures and cuts (LVD) Low voltage disconnect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum Power Point Tracking </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Inverter <ul><li>Converter DC/AC </li></ul><ul><li>DC/DC (pumps, to start them) </li></ul><ul><li>Sin wave vs modified sin wave </li></ul><ul><li>Be Careful not all equipment can handle a modified sin wave inverter! </li></ul><ul><li>Protection (sc) </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul>
  23. 23. Inverter Parameters <ul><li>Protection (against sc) </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency > 70% </li></ul>
  24. 24. Calculation <ul><li>Method: Worse month </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable: how many days without sun? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy days (N) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nominal Voltage? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More than 3 KW = 48 V </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Worse Month <ul><li>What is the worse month? </li></ul><ul><li>We need to know the energy demands (DC + AC) and the energy available </li></ul><ul><li>What PV array angle is optimal? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Orientation <ul><li>Towards the equator </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance of 20 degrees (alpha) </li></ul><ul><li>Angle (ß): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>|L| + 10 = winter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>|L| = 0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>|L| - 10 = summer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Angle > 20 degrees (dust) </li></ul>
  27. 27. G(ß,r,Lat) <ul><li>Daily or monthly average energy at angle B </li></ul><ul><li>G(B) = f(G(0)) </li></ul><ul><li>f (B) = AG(0) + B(G(0)) 2 </li></ul><ul><li>A depends on r=0.2 and ß </li></ul><ul><li>B depends on Latitude and ß </li></ul><ul><li>We can always use a simulation tool to get the values! </li></ul>
  28. 28. Imax (Loads) <ul><li>Et = E(AC) + E (DC) (Ah) (electric charge) </li></ul><ul><li>Ah/day - Ah/period </li></ul><ul><li>G(B) = Kwh/m2 day </li></ul><ul><li>Imax = Et/G (ß) </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nigeria = 3.5 – 4 Kwh.m2 day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Et = 100 Ah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imax = 25 A/Kw * m2 </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Number of par. panels? <ul><li>Npp = Immax/Ipmax </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25 A/kw.m2 / 5 A/kw.m2 = 5 Units </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Capacity of Battery? <ul><li>Normally measure in Ah (electric charge) </li></ul><ul><li>Serie vs Parallel </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C100 = 200 Ah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usable = 200 Ah x discharge depth (70%) = 140 Ah </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dimensioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity = N. Et (Ah) * 1.2 </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Regulator and Inverter Power <ul><li>Regulator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20% Imax x Npp </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inverter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance at 70% of the load </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Conclusion <ul><li>Multi-variable system </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation: Worst month </li></ul><ul><li>Set pre-conditions first </li></ul><ul><li>Measure your load </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are they any possible energy savings? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be careful with the units! </li></ul>
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