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  1. 1. Chapter 21 The Third Republic (1946-1969)
  2. 2. The Third Republic ●The First Republic (the Malolos Republic) and the Second Republic (during the Japanese period). ●The birth of the Third Republic in 1946 was no less turbulent. ●Among the conditions tied American aid to the Philippines were; 1. The parity rights to Americans to exploit the country’s natural resources; 2. U.S military and naval bases on Philippine territory: 3. A number of defense and trade arrangements favorable to the Americans.
  3. 3.  Graft and corruption, rural and urban unrest, crimes and violent elections characterized every presidency.  For many months there was no production. There was widespread unemployment. Food was scarce and thousands died of various diseases.
  4. 4. The American Aid  The American Army in the Philippines created an agency to extend immediate aid to the Filipinos.  The Philippine Civil Affairs Unit (PCAU) was set up to help the military commanders in extending relief to the suffering people.  The American Government gave money to the Philippine Government for the purchase of foodstuff, medicine, and clothing for the Filipinos.  Distributing centers in Manila and provinces were established rice, corn, sardines, salmon and other American goods were distributed to the people.
  5. 5. The Government Reorganized  In order to make the government responsive to the immediate needs of the people, President Osmena, in March 1945, reorganized the government.  After his oath taking Osmena spoke of what lay ahead. He said in part: in which government officials and employees are not the masters of the people but their servants… We stand for individual liberties, guaranteed by our constitution, for the right of every man and woman to enjoy life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. We stand for a new world free from want and fear, provided with greater safeguards for lasting peace… We are ready to take part, in a close association with the United States, in…the organization and preservation of peace in the world.
  6. 6. American Financial Aid  The recently concluded war was an American war, but the Filipinos suffered much more than the Americans.  After conducting a survey of the damage done by the Japanese and by the Americans themselves, the congress of the U.S appropriated one hundred million dollars to be used by the Philippine Government for its operating expences and for the redemption of guerrilla notes issued during the war.  Moreover, American Army surplus materials with a sale value of one hundred million pesos were given to the Philippine Government.  The Philippines was given a loan of sixty million dollars for purposes of reconstruction.
  7. 7. Parity Rights to American  Moreover on October 1945, the American Congress passed a bill into law, known as Bell Trade Relation Act, which provided that the free trade relations between the Philippines and the U.S should continue beyond the Commonwealth period or up to 1954.  The law, however, had a questionable provision that required the Filipinos to amend the Constitution in order to grant the Americans parity rights in the Philippines.  This meant that the Americans, like the Filipinos, would be given the right to dispose, exploit, developed and utilized “all agricultural, timber, and mineral lands in the Philippines.
  8. 8. The Third Republic Proclaimed  In the election of April 23, 1946, Roxas was elected President of the Commonwealth and, at the same time, the first President of the Third Republic. On July 4, 1946 a date chosen by the American Government the proclamation of the Philippine independence by the U.S.  President Truman said that the U.S was withdrawing and surrending “all rights of possession, supervision, jurisdiction, control, or sovereignty now existing and exercised by the U.S.A in and over the territory and the people of the Philippines.”  At the same time, Truman also said that the U.S, through him, was recognizing the” independence of the Philippines as a separate and self governing nation.”
  9. 9. The Hukbalahap Problem  The Hukbalahap (short for Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon) was founded early in 1942 as an anti-Japanese organization of peasants in Central Luzon.  Their Supremo was Luis Taruc, a peasants leader.  The Huks (short for members of the Hukbalahap) won many skirmishes with the enemy and made Central Luzon practically independent of the Japanese.  The Huks succeeded in getting many firearms from Bataan
  10. 10.  In March 1948, ne declared the Hukbalahap and its peasants organization, the Pambansang Kaisahan ng mga Kagbubukid (PRM) as illegal.  In the talks, Taruc asked for the following: 1.screpping of the Bell Trade Act; 2.no trade with Japan; 3.redistribution of large estates to the peasants/tenants; 4.release of all Huk prisoners 5.industrialization; and 6.removal of U.S bases in the Country.
  11. 11. Magsaysay and the Huks  Because of the peace and order problem, the high prices commodities, and graft and corruption an and outside the government, the people became disillutioned with the administration of Peasident Quirino.  Magsaysay, besides his successful campaign against the Huks, is remembered for his policy of Honest Government.  He also created extensive irrigation systems, introduced modern agricultural methods, and approved the Agricultural Tenancy Act.
  12. 12. Garcia and the “Filipino First Policy”  President Magsaysay died in Cebu in an airplane     accident on March 17,1957. He was succeeded by his vice president, Carlos P. Garcia. In the election of November of the same year, Garcia was elected President. He anchored his program of government on austerity. He said in a speech;
  13. 13. Austerity as a policy means temperate spending. It signifies work, more thrift, more productive investment, and more efficiency. It means less imports and less extravagant consumption. It is a challenge to our resiliency as a people to change our past habits and make thrift and economy our everyday way of living. Imposes on us by harsh realities, the exercise of austerity in our everyday life is a desirable end in itself.
  14. 14.  Garcia also proclaimed the “Filipino first” policy.  It means that the Filipinos would be masters in their own land.  While not anti-alien, the “ Filipino first” policy was pro-Filipino first and above all.  His national policies included, for the first time, the revival of Philippine culture through the arts and historical researches.
  15. 15. Macapagal and land Reform  President Macapagal promised to solved the problem of unemployment and promote self-sufficiency in food production.  Macapagal presidency was known for two things: the land reform code and the change of Independence day celebration from July 4 to June 12.  Consequently, he asked Congress to approved his Agriculture Land Reform Code whose main provision were:  1.to establish and encourage the formation of familysized farms as the basis Philippine Agriculture;
  16. 16.  2.to improve the status of the poor farmers by freezing     them from pernicious practices such as exorbitant rates of interest for loans; 3.to encourage bigger productivity to increase the income of small farmers; 4.to apply all labors laws to all irrespective of their status in life; 5.to provide a land settlement program and distribution of land; and 6.to make poor farmers independent, self-reliant and responsible citizens in order to strengthen the Philippine democratic society.
  17. 17.  Macapagal declared 12 towns in Central Luzon as land     reform areas. In this areas, the old kasama system was substituted by the leasehold system. In this system, the tenant farmer now leaseholder, will pay 25% of the harvest to owner of the land. Since 1962 , therefore, Philippine Independence Day has been celebrated on June 12. The fourth of July was change to Philippine-American Friendship Day.
  18. 18.  Macapagal also proposed an organization uniting Malay-based countries through MAPHILINDO (Malaysia, Philippines, and Indonesia).  This considered as a precursor of the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nation).  Ferdinand E. Marcos wanted to run for Presidency in 1961.  Marcos agreed provided that Macapagal would serve only for one term. But when Macapagal’s term was over and he refused to keep the agreement, Marcos left the Liberal Party and run under Nacionalista Party.
  19. 19.  In the election of 1965, Senator Ferdinand E. Marcos a      Liberal, was endorsed as the Presidential candidate for the Nacionalista. His program of government included; 1.production of more rice and the diversification of crops to attain self sufficiency in food; 2.implementation of a land reform program; and 3.community development to “strengthen further our social, economic, political base.” Basic needs ( education, health, social welfare, defense, and infrastructure).
  20. 20.  He increase Agricultural production through new strain of cereal called “miracle rice” and through modern irrigation systems.  In Asia and Southeast Asia, in particular, the communist in fierce fighting drawing mass support from students, workers and peasants.  The SEATO (Southeast Asia Treaty Organization.  The killing in cold blood of 30 members of Lapiang Malaya in Manila, the killing of Muslim trainees in the infamous Jabidah massacre in Corregidor Island, sent shock waves across the population.