The Third Republic
●The First Republic (the Malolos Republic) and the Second
Republic (during the Japanese period).
●The birth of the Third Republic in 1946 was no less
●Among the conditions tied American aid to the
1. The parity rights to Americans to exploit the country’s
2. U.S military and naval bases on Philippine territory:
3. A number of defense and trade arrangements favorable
to the Americans.
Graft and corruption, rural and urban unrest, crimes
and violent elections characterized every presidency.
For many months there was no production. There was
widespread unemployment. Food was scarce and
thousands died of various diseases.
The American Aid
The American Army in the Philippines created an
agency to extend immediate aid to the Filipinos.
The Philippine Civil Affairs Unit (PCAU) was set up to
help the military commanders in extending relief to
the suffering people.
The American Government gave money to the
Philippine Government for the purchase of foodstuff,
medicine, and clothing for the Filipinos.
Distributing centers in Manila and provinces were
established rice, corn, sardines, salmon and other
American goods were distributed to the people.
The Government Reorganized
In order to make the government responsive to the immediate
needs of the people, President Osmena, in March 1945,
reorganized the government.
After his oath taking Osmena spoke of what lay ahead. He said in
in which government officials and employees are not the masters of
the people but their servants…
We stand for individual liberties, guaranteed by our constitution, for
the right of every man and woman to enjoy life, liberty, and the pursuit
We stand for a new world free from want and fear, provided with
greater safeguards for lasting peace…
We are ready to take part, in a close association with the United
States, in…the organization and preservation of peace in the world.
American Financial Aid
The recently concluded war was an American war, but the
Filipinos suffered much more than the Americans.
After conducting a survey of the damage done by the
Japanese and by the Americans themselves, the congress of
the U.S appropriated one hundred million dollars to be
used by the Philippine Government for its operating
expences and for the redemption of guerrilla notes issued
during the war.
Moreover, American Army surplus materials with a sale
value of one hundred million pesos were given to the
The Philippines was given a loan of sixty million dollars for
purposes of reconstruction.
Parity Rights to American
Moreover on October 1945, the American Congress passed
a bill into law, known as Bell Trade Relation Act, which
provided that the free trade relations between the
Philippines and the U.S should continue beyond the
Commonwealth period or up to 1954.
The law, however, had a questionable provision that
required the Filipinos to amend the Constitution in order
to grant the Americans parity rights in the Philippines.
This meant that the Americans, like the Filipinos, would be
given the right to dispose, exploit, developed and utilized
“all agricultural, timber, and mineral lands in the
The Third Republic Proclaimed
In the election of April 23, 1946, Roxas was elected
President of the Commonwealth and, at the same time, the
first President of the Third Republic. On July 4, 1946 a date
chosen by the American Government the proclamation of
the Philippine independence by the U.S.
President Truman said that the U.S was withdrawing and
surrending “all rights of possession, supervision,
jurisdiction, control, or sovereignty now existing and
exercised by the U.S.A in and over the territory and the
people of the Philippines.”
At the same time, Truman also said that the U.S, through
him, was recognizing the” independence of the Philippines
as a separate and self governing nation.”
The Hukbalahap Problem
The Hukbalahap (short for Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa
Hapon) was founded early in 1942 as an anti-Japanese
organization of peasants in Central Luzon.
Their Supremo was Luis Taruc, a peasants leader.
The Huks (short for members of the Hukbalahap) won
many skirmishes with the enemy and made Central
Luzon practically independent of the Japanese.
The Huks succeeded in getting many firearms from
In March 1948, ne declared the Hukbalahap and its
peasants organization, the Pambansang Kaisahan ng mga
Kagbubukid (PRM) as illegal.
In the talks, Taruc asked for the following:
1.screpping of the Bell Trade Act;
2.no trade with Japan;
3.redistribution of large estates to the peasants/tenants;
4.release of all Huk prisoners
6.removal of U.S bases in the Country.
Magsaysay and the Huks
Because of the peace and order problem, the high
prices commodities, and graft and corruption an and
outside the government, the people became
disillutioned with the administration of Peasident
Magsaysay, besides his successful campaign against the
Huks, is remembered for his policy of Honest
He also created extensive irrigation systems,
introduced modern agricultural methods, and
approved the Agricultural Tenancy Act.
Garcia and the “Filipino First
President Magsaysay died in Cebu in an airplane
accident on March 17,1957.
He was succeeded by his vice president, Carlos P.
In the election of November of the same year, Garcia
was elected President.
He anchored his program of government on austerity.
He said in a speech;
Austerity as a policy means temperate spending. It
signifies work, more thrift, more productive investment,
and more efficiency. It means less imports and less
extravagant consumption. It is a challenge to our resiliency
as a people to change our past habits and make thrift and
economy our everyday way of living. Imposes on us by
harsh realities, the exercise of austerity in our everyday
life is a desirable end in itself.
Garcia also proclaimed the “Filipino first” policy.
It means that the Filipinos would be masters in
their own land.
While not anti-alien, the “ Filipino first” policy was
pro-Filipino first and above all.
His national policies included, for the first time,
the revival of Philippine culture through the arts
and historical researches.
Macapagal and land Reform
President Macapagal promised to solved the problem
of unemployment and promote self-sufficiency in food
Macapagal presidency was known for two things: the
land reform code and the change of Independence day
celebration from July 4 to June 12.
Consequently, he asked Congress to approved his
Agriculture Land Reform Code whose main provision
1.to establish and encourage the formation of familysized farms as the basis Philippine Agriculture;
2.to improve the status of the poor farmers by freezing
them from pernicious practices such as exorbitant rates of
interest for loans;
3.to encourage bigger productivity to increase the income
of small farmers;
4.to apply all labors laws to all irrespective of their status in
5.to provide a land settlement program and distribution of
6.to make poor farmers independent, self-reliant and
responsible citizens in order to strengthen the Philippine
Macapagal declared 12 towns in Central Luzon as land
In this areas, the old kasama system was substituted
by the leasehold system.
In this system, the tenant farmer now leaseholder, will
pay 25% of the harvest to owner of the land.
Since 1962 , therefore, Philippine Independence Day
has been celebrated on June 12.
The fourth of July was change to Philippine-American
Macapagal also proposed an organization uniting
Malay-based countries through MAPHILINDO
(Malaysia, Philippines, and Indonesia).
This considered as a precursor of the ASEAN
(Association of Southeast Asian Nation).
Ferdinand E. Marcos wanted to run for Presidency in
Marcos agreed provided that Macapagal would serve
only for one term. But when Macapagal’s term was over
and he refused to keep the agreement, Marcos left the
Liberal Party and run under Nacionalista Party.
In the election of 1965, Senator Ferdinand E. Marcos a
Liberal, was endorsed as the Presidential candidate for the
His program of government included;
1.production of more rice and the diversification of crops to
attain self sufficiency in food;
2.implementation of a land reform program; and
3.community development to “strengthen further our
social, economic, political base.”
Basic needs ( education, health, social welfare, defense,
He increase Agricultural production through new
strain of cereal called “miracle rice” and through
modern irrigation systems.
In Asia and Southeast Asia, in particular, the
communist in fierce fighting drawing mass support
from students, workers and peasants.
The SEATO (Southeast Asia Treaty Organization.
The killing in cold blood of 30 members of Lapiang
Malaya in Manila, the killing of Muslim trainees in the
infamous Jabidah massacre in Corregidor Island, sent
shock waves across the population.