Independence of Latin America

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  • 1. Independence of Latin America
  • 2. Important Concepts Plantation Large farms Only planting one thing Slave work Encomienda The Spanish crown granted a person a specified number of natives for whom theywere to take responsibility. The Spanish were supposed to instruct in the natives in Spanish language and inCatholicism. They simply enslaved the natives Colonial Pact Cabildo A council of land owners on every provinces
  • 3. Important Concepts Peninsulares Born in Spain Criollo - Creole European descendents born in the colonies Mulattos Caudillo Political and military leader of one region Like the colonels in Brazil
  • 4. Haiti Revolution Saint Domingue 1791-1804 Influenced by the French Revolution A Plantation Island 500,000 slaves lived there To keep this man obedient mas ter would use verybrutal methods to punish and terrorize those man 100,000 enslaved africans rose inrebelion 1791
  • 5. Haiti Toussaint L’ouverture A self-educated former domestic slave was very intelligent, organized and articulate By 1801 had taken control of the entire island andfreed all the slaves Santo Domingo he led an invasion of neighboring Santo Domingo December 1800 and freed the slaves there on January 3, 1801. Constitution Dictator for life Tricked by the French In peace negotiations L’ouverture agreed to enter aFrench ship He was sent to prison in french Alpes
  • 6.  The island again under french power After the imprisonement of L’ouverture Napoleon seized power again The french tried to restabilish slavery The rebelled 1802 Napoleon is weak Due to the wars against England he withdrew a majority of the French forces in Haiti tocounter the possibility of an invasion from Prussia, Britain,and Spain on a weakened France Jean-Jacques Dessalines The Liutenant of L’ouverture Took over the legacy of his mentor Independence in 1804 Destruction of the country State of semi-serfdom Destruction of the the natural resources
  • 7. Simón Bolivar Simón José Antonio de la Santísima TrinidadBolívar y Palacios Ponte y Blanco Born in Caracas, Venezuela 1783 Rich Family Plantation Silver, gold and copper mines Purchising a title of nobility
  • 8. Simón Bolivar Rough childhood His father died when he was 2 years old His mother when he was almost 9 He was them raised by a very stricted tutor Don Simón Rodríguez ideas of liberty, enlightenment, and freedom accused of being involved in a conspiracy againstthe Spanish government in Caracas. Military academy of the Milicias deVeraguas There he developed his fervent passion forarmaments and military strategy
  • 9. Simón Bolivar Studying Abroad At age 16 Madrid – 1802 María Teresa Rodríguez Died 8 month later of yelow fever Return to France - 1804 Crowning of Napoleon America – 1807 England – 1810
  • 10. Simón Bolivar El Libertador Bolívar returned to Venezuela in 1807 In 1813 he was given the comand of troops in Tunja The Wars of independence for Venezuela begined in 1811 Mason Great leadership skills Contacts all over Decree of War to the Death A great euphemism permitted murder and any atrocities whatsoever tobe committed against civilians born in Spain
  • 11. Simón Bolivar Haiti 1815 Bolívar asks for military help and aid In the condition that he would abolish slavery Victory New Granada becomes independent in 1819 In the battle of Boyacá Battle in Andes Francisco de Paula Santander English soldiers
  • 12. Decisive Battles Battle of Carabobo - 1821 Independence of Venezuela Battle of Pichincha - 1822 Independece of Ecuado Battle of Junín - 1824 Peru Battle of Ayacucho – 1824 Peru Sucre O’Higgins
  • 13. Gran Colombia Colombia Venezuela Ecuador Panama Northern Peru Northwest Brazil
  • 14. The End of the Dream Dictator – 1826 to 1830 "all who served the Revolution have plowed the sea” Manuela Saenz
  • 15. Simón Bolivar Death 1830 Tuberculosis Santa Marta, Colombia
  • 16. Sucre Venezuela 1795 - 1830 2n President of Colombia Battle of Ayacucho
  • 17. San Martín Argentina 1778 – 1850 1st President of Peru
  • 18. Santander Colombia 1792 – 1840 4th president of New Granada 2nd vice-president ofColombia
  • 19. O’Higgins Chile 1778 - 1842 Son of a former Viceroy 2nd president of Chile
  • 20. Mexico Diferent characteristics The ethnicities are more freely mixed The Cry of Dolores 1810 Padre Miguel Hidalgo A simple but well educated man Called for rebellion in his city An army made out of indians and mestizos 80,000 man Padre José Maria Morelos Took over the legacy of Miguel Hidalgo Fought for 4 years Defeated by Agustín Ituribe Agustín Ituribe Proclaimed the Independence of Mexico 1821 Emperor of Mexico