Chinese Revolution

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  • 1. Slide 1 Revolution in China and Communist China (How does this compare with the Russian Revolution and Stalin’s Soviet Union)
  • 2. Slide 2 Background • The Qing Dynasty maintained limited power despite forced concessions to western nations and Japan at the beginning of the 20th century. • Rural & urban workers, nationalists, communists, and intellectuals challenged the government. • The dynasty fell in 1911 and a weak provisional government took its place.
  • 3. Slide 3 Background • Between 1925 – 1937 the NATIONALISTS led by Chiang Kai-shek and the COMMUNISTS led by Mao Zedong fought for control of China with regional warlords.
  • 4. Slide 4 Nationalists vs Communists • Chiang used brutal tactics against his rivals and violently attacked communists leaders and worker groups. • Organized crime and Western powers supported Chiang.
  • 5. Slide 5
  • 6. Slide 6 Chiang Kai-shek • Encouraged continued western investment in China and worked closely with foreign investors. • He failed to consolidate power, improve the economy (especially the peasants), or modernize China
  • 7. Slide 7 The Long March • In 1934 Chiang Kai-shek attacked the communist strong-hold in Hunan province.
  • 8. Slide 8 The Long March • 100,000 men retreated 6000 miles over 370 days to a new communist base in Northern China. • 30,000 soldiers remained
  • 9. Slide 9 Mao Zedong became the leader of the communists. • Mao was more concerned with the plight of the Chinese peasant than Chinese urban workers.
  • 10. Slide 10 Mao Zedong • Led the army in developing guerilla warfare tactics to fight the Nationalists and then Japanese • Brazilian Araguaia guerrilla
  • 11. Slide 11 Civil War / Japanese Invasion • 1937 – Japan invaded China proper • Communists and Nationalists fought the Japanese “separately together”. • Communists were more effective in their guerilla war against the Japanese than the Nationalist army.
  • 12. Slide 12 Civil War & Cold War • After WWII ended, civil war continued. • The US began sending military and tactical help to Chiang Kai-shek and the USSR provided minimal help to Mao Zedong
  • 13. Slide 13 Communist Victory 1949 • Chiang Kai-shek & the Nationalists were driven out of mainland China to Taiwan, the Communists founded the People’s Republic of China.
  • 14. Slide 14 Power Base of Mao • The Red Army was built. • PEASANT support grew with redistribution of land by the government. • OTHERS supported the government because of propaganda and education.
  • 15. Slide 15 Mao consolidated power • Many who were nationalists, upper class, or dissidents were imprisoned in forced labor camps or killed.
  • 16. Slide 16 Economic Development • Foreign economic influence was eliminated – most foreigners were kicked out of China • A Soviet style five year plan was implemented to encourage collectivization of agriculture and rapid industrialization. • (These efforts had limited success.)
  • 17. Slide 17 Women’s Status Improved “Women hold up half the sky.” • Foot-binding ended and arranged marriages were limited • Women could hold professions, join the army, and serve in the government. • “Legal equality” with men.
  • 18. Slide 18 Women’s Status Improved? • Women were working outside of the home AND still responsible for the home and childcare.
  • 19. Slide 19 The Hundred Flowers Policy 1957 • Goverment loosened control of people • People were allowed to question government policies • Significant rise in anti- government rhetoric caused Mao to end the policy and arrest top critics
  • 20. Slide 20 Great Leap Forward 1958 - Mao attempted to reinvent Chinese economy • Wished to industrialize outside the western model as quickly as possible – Eliminated private enterprise – Forced people out of the cities and into communes – “Backyard steel mills” – small industrial centers scattered throughout China
  • 21. Slide 21 Great Leap Forward = Great Leap Backward
  • 22. Slide 22 Great Leap Forward • The plan failed miserably – famine caused 20 + million to die, steel production dropped drastically, the program ended early, and Mao’s power was reduced
  • 23. Slide 23 Cultural Revolution 1960s • Mao wished to regain power he lost in the Great Leap Forward and create another revolutionary movement. • Created The Red Guard from the Chinese youth – students, peasants, & soldiers
  • 24. Slide 24
  • 25. Slide 25
  • 26. Slide 26 Cultural Revolution • Red Guard attacked people in positions of power or privilege who publicly disagreed with Mao. • Any “suspects” were imprisoned or forced into labor in rural areas.
  • 27. Slide 27 Cultural Revolution • Traditional culture and education were destroyed. • Cult of personality formed around Mao • Eventually military leaders supported ending cultural revolution in fear that it would get out of control.
  • 28. Slide 28 China after Mao • New communist leadership allowed some private business and farm ownership and created a stock exchange. Manufacturing increased drastically as trade boomed.
  • 29. Slide 29 China after Mao • Overall, redistribution of wealth, education, healthcare, and living standards improved to higher levels.
  • 30. Slide 30 China after Mao • Government control and lack of individual freedom along with a variety of economic and social problems still make China one of the least “free” places on the planet. • Working conditions remain terrible.
  • 31. Slide 31
  • 32. Slide 32 China after Mao • Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 --student and labor protesters were killed by government forces
  • 33. Slide 33