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Offshore exploration geologyrocks_final_small
 

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  • Welcome to OilSim, Exploration and Production Our simulation today is being used to give you a general overview and an Oil and Gas Exploration and Production company and how the parts within it function together. The simulation is a very simplified version of the whole Upstream value chain, since we only have one day to show you the whole process. Also, TOTAL might do things a little differently in certain areas, but the intention is for you to appreciate the complexities of each area and to understand a little of what your colleagues do in departments outside your own. For those of you who are geologists – you might find our 3d seismic to be very simplified compared with the analysis you do on a daily basis For Construction or production engineers – the simplified process of determining the field development does not cover all the steps necessary HOWEVER, the aim is NOT to make you all experts in every part of the Upstream industry but for you to see how all your individual jobs contribute to a larger process and just to give you an insight into the dynamics TOTAL faces each day
  • This is how the screen looks like when you browse to the www.oilsim.com web site. To enter the system, you need to enter your user name and your password, and then press the Return key on the keyboard. You will get the user name and password from your teacher/facilitator.
  • Challenge 1 - Hydrocarbons – surveys to help find them Challenge 2 - Licensing rounds Challenge 3 - Farm-in and Partnerships, Drilling rigs and Sub-contractors Challenge 4 - Well planning – transportation capacities Challenge 5 - Facilities – Platforms, flowlines and pipelines Challenge 6 - Construction – activities and timeline Challenge 7 - Operations – Issues, maintenance and OPEX
  • Throughout OilSim we look at how environmental issues are addressed, Discover how team working and collaboration between teams can add value Encourage the teams to study their surveys with great attention to detail, and to consider time management so that all challenges are completed. By tackling modules 2 and 3 a few times, the teams will learn through experience, which will speed up the process and give enhanced results We need to stress that testing and appraisal wells reduce uncertainty, and finally the whole concept of economically viable volumes, to find out when do you move beyond exploration and start producing the oil or gas.
  • In order for your team to be able to start exploring, the headquarters have provided you with 200 million US dollars in virtual money. You can spend this money on acquiring surveys, bidding for licences, investing in other team ’ s licences, and drilling wells. If you run out of money, it is possible to apply for more money from the headquarters. You have to be careful, however, that you do not accept too much money, because, as mentioned, you are being measured on the Return On Investment, or ROI. The ROI is calculated as the value divided by the funds that you receive from the headquarters, so the more money you get, the harder it is to have a high ROI. The value is calculated as the net present value of all the oil and gas fields that your team owns a share of – minus everything you spend.
  • The long and bumpy road for oil from the underground to your tank, is called the oil and gas industry value chain. The value chain is divided further into these parts: Upstream is about getting the hydrocarbons up from the ground, and comprises of activities related to exploration, field development, construction, production and abandonment. By its nature, the exploration phase is common for both oil and gas, but soon afterwards, the oil and gas value chain will segregate into two parallel value chains. Midstream is about transportation and storage, as well as oil refining and gas processing. Downstream is about distribution and retail sales of gas, fuels and lubricants, plastics and other hydrocarbon derivatives to industrial and consumer markets. OilSim Exploration is all about the exploration part of the oil and gas industry. Exploration is about finding the hydrocarbons and proving that they are in sufficient quantities to start producing. OilSim Production is about actually taking the oil or gas out of the subsurface.
  • Main screen overview In the middle you can see the map again with a legend below. Later in the simulation the blocks in the map will have different colour codes depending on for example whether it is currently on offer or whether there has been found oil or gas there. You can click on any block on the map and get more information about that block. There is not much information in these ” block pages ” early in the simulation session, but these pages that describe each of the blocks become increasingly complex and comprehensive towards the end of the simulation. In the middle of this page you can see a description of the current Challenge with six fields to fill out before the deadline passes. In the left hand side there is first a summary of the current standings. This includes your total value, the capital you have received from headquarters, the cash you have left, your return on investment, your rank among all the players in this simulation reality, and the knowledge points that you have accumulated. Knowledge points are awarded based on how well you solve the Challenges within OilSim, and can be used when you ask for more money from the headquarters. By clicking More you can review the accounts with all financial transactions. Below the summary is a brief status, including the deadline for this Challenge. Below the status are a number of simulation options, of which the first one (Home) is the most frequently used. In the Mailbox you can read and send messages from and to your rivals, as well your headquarters and the ministry who awards the licences. When you click Home you get back to the first page of OilSim, and it is a good advice to go back to the home page frequently. You can also send applications to the headquarters for new funds for your exploration, but be prepared to answer some questions before you can get them to release the funds. By clicking Teams you can see how the other teams are doing, and by clicking Knowledge you can get a list of the times you have gained or lost knowledge points. Below this there are a number of helpful texts for you, including a brief description of the simulation concept, the geology, partnerships, and a glossary. The general structure of this page remains the same throughout the simulation.
  • Your first task is to identify the three basins that are in the area. A basin is an region in the deep subsurface with a high accumulation of sedimentary rocks. These sediments in general contain dead plants and animals – also known as organic material – that were deposited million of years ago. Some of the organic material has been put under enough pressure and been exposed to high enough temperatures to be converted into hydrocarbons, including oil and gas. This oil and gas has since migrated from the basins, but we will get back to that later. For the time being, you are being asked to identify the basins in the area, so that you know where the oil and gas came from. The way you do it is through buying and studying of magnetic and gravimetric surveys. When you think you have identified where the three basins are, you enter three different coordinates – one column and row for each basin centre – on the form on the home page. It should be noted that you shall enter coordinates – and not blocks – and that the coordinates you enter here are only the basin centres – and not the place you will search for oil and gas in.
  • Here is a real example of a gravimetric survey from a Finnish field in Europe. Gravimetric surveys show how the gravitational pull of the Earth differs over the area. , and are – as the magnetic surveys – carried out by aeroplanes with sensitive measuring devices. The reason gravity is not the same all over is that the rocks in the subsurface are not the same. Different types of rocks give different gravity pulls, and more specifically the sedimentary rocks in basins are not so dense as the surrounding crystalline rocks. Therefore, the lower the gravity pull, the higher the probability that there is a basin below, and vice versa. The red areas have the lowest gravitational pull. Thus the probability of finding hydrocarbons here is relatively high. The yellow areas have low-to-medium gravitational pull. Thus the probability of finding hydrocarbons here is relatively high. The green areas have medium gravitational pull. Thus the probability of finding hydrocarbons here is relatively medium. The light blue areas have medium-to-high gravitational pull. Thus the probability of finding hydrocarbons here is relatively low. The dark blue areas have highest gravitational pull. Thus the probability of finding hydrocarbons here is relatively low.
  • An example of a gravimetric quadrant survey The red areas have the lowest gravitational pull. Thus the probability of finding hydrocarbons here is relatively high. The yellow areas have low-to-medium gravitational pull. Thus the probability of finding hydrocarbons here is relatively high. The green areas have medium gravitational pull. Thus the probability of finding hydrocarbons here is relatively medium. The light blue areas have medium-to-high gravitational pull. Thus the probability of finding hydrocarbons here is relatively low. The dark blue areas have highest gravitational pull. Thus the probability of finding hydrocarbons here is relatively low. All in all, the basin areas are to be found around the Vilmikno areas. Thus our main focus will be in these areas in terms of oil and gas exploration.
  • Magnetic surveys show similar information as gravimetric surveys, and are carried out the same way. The sedimentary rocks in the basins have a lower concentration of magnetic materials than the surrounding crystalline rocks. Thus the sedimentary basins are the areas with the lowest magnetic field.
  • An example of a magnetic survey quadrant map. The purple areas have the lowest magnetic pull. Thus the probability of finding hydrocarbons here is relatively high. The yellow areas have medium magnetic pull. Thus the probability of finding hydrocarbons here is relatively medium. The light blue areas have highest magnetic pull. Thus the probability of finding hydrocarbons here is relatively low. All in all, the basin areas are to be found around the Pikku Rahkaneva areas. Thus our main focus will be in these areas in terms of oil and gas exploration.
  • Due to the natural variation between the magnetic and gravimetric characteristics of the structure, the centre location may vary. The task is then to identify the average centre, by interpolation of the different centres. Calculate the average centre, as the average centre between the gravimetric and magnetic centre: Average Row no = Row no of magnetic + Row no of gravimetric, divided by 2 Average Column no = Column no of magnetic + Column no of gravimetric, divided by 2 The average centre will then show in the middle.
  • When you have found out where you think the basin centres are, you enter your centre coordinates into the form on the home page. When you press Submit, the simulation receives your guesses. If there is a green line across the right hand side of the page when you have submitted, the coordinates have been registered in the system. You can change your mind as long as the deadline has not passed and enter altered coordinates and press the Update button below the form.
  • Once the simulation has been unpaused, you will receive a Notification in your mailbox, on the left-handside of the homepage. In the notification, you can see the basin coordinates chosen by each team and the number of knowledge points awarded to each team, based upon their submitted answers. If you look at the cell coordinates of one of the teams that was awarded close to 100 points, then you can see what the correct answers were.
  • Oil and gas is likely to be found close to these identified sedimentary basins. The next step is the First licensing round, where exploration licences for blocks situated in one of these basins are being offered by the Government. Each team will be able to make bids for particular blocks. A block is a geographically two-dimensionally delimited area of the earths surface, assigned by the government. Your task now is to identify three blocks that your team believes to have the best prospects and submit licence bids to the Government for them. To evaluate the blocks potential, you must identify if it has any pockets of hydrocarbons, and determine if there are any circumstances that would prohibit or limit the possibilities of exploration of the blocks resources. For cash bidding Your offer for the block must be wise. If it is too low, someone else may get it. If too high, you waste valuable cash, compared to the potential yield from the block. For well commitment The government will award the blocks to the team who bids the highest number of wells (but not more wells than prospects) and has the highest credibility points.
  • Spawning grounds are fish breeding grounds, and therefore very sensitive to any pollution, derived from oil and gas exploration and production. In the real world, licences are still offered where spawning grounds exist, but exploration and production activities are limited to times of the year when the fish are not breeding. However, in the OilSim simulation the Spawning Ground Survey covers the whole map and the red areas are spawning grounds and licences WILL NOT be awarded for blocks that contain a red area. Even if a block contains only a very small red area the licence will not be awarded. So looking at this map, if you submitted blocks 88 and 102 as 2 of your choices, neither of this blocks would be awarded licences.
  • This slide illustrates the relationship between the sedimentary basins you identified in the first task and the prospects which you will encounter in the second task. Oil and gas form as the result of a precise sequence of environmental conditions: The presence of organic material – like plants, algae and bacteria Organic remains being trapped and preserved in sediment The material is buried deeply and then slowly "cooked" by increased temperature and pressure. Rocks containing sufficient organic substances to generate oil and gas in this way are known as source rocks . Once it has formed, oil and gas moves away (migrates) from the source rock. This movement happens for two reasons. First the oil and gas expand to take up more room than the original organic matter therefore their pressure on the rock increases and they try to escape. Second, being less dense than the surrounding rock and water, they tend to rise upwards. The oil is held in pores of the rock and continue to rise upwards until it reaches the surface or a layer of impermeable rock (cap rock) and is trapped. A prospect is a subsurface structure that is likely to contain hydrocarbons, where There is a source rock , where the original oil or gas was generated. Porous migration rock allowing the hydrocarbons to move into the prospect A porous reservoir rock in which the oil and gas is held and An impermeable cap rock that traps the oil and gas in place
  • Since the CRS show the probabilities of prospects in only one particular horizon or layer, it is necessary to purchase the CRS for all 3 layers so that you can determine which area within the licensing area contains the highest probability of containing oil and gas. So on the CRS maps shown here the area circled in black on the OilSim map and each of the CRS shows that the area in question is within the licensing area and is green on all three CRS layers, indicating high probability of oil and gas on all 3 layers within the same area or blocks. Potentially an area that requires further investigation for individual prospects.
  • There are many types of traps formed by rock formations: The most common type of trap and the ones found in OilSim are Four-Way Closure Trap, a type of anticline trap that occur within the same layer which has been pushed up into an arch but where the hydrocarbons are stopped from migrating further upwards due to the cap rock. Fault traps are created where layers of rock slide up against each other and contain permeable and impermeable rock. The oil migrating through the impermeable rock is cut off by an impermeable layer and trapped against the fault. Stratigraphic traps kee p hydrocarbons in place due to changes in the rock type or sedimentary features of the area and an uneven distribution of formations. Salt Dome traps enable hydrocarbons to aggregate into pockets on both sides of the dome as stratigraphic traps, as well as above the dome as an anticline s trap.
  • Geophysicists use the physical characteristics of rocks, their magnetic and gravitational properties and how sound waves travel through different kinds of rocks to help understand the structures below the Earth's surface. Survey ships and aircraft collect data and produce gravimetric, magnetic and 2d seismic surveys. Using different techniques allows scientists to locate particular rock formations that might contain trapped oil, including the 2d seismics which can help locate the traps. 2d seismic surveys in real life are available in rows and columns within a geographical area, following the path travelled by the ship or aircraft collecting the data. In OilSim the seismic information also follows the rows and columns, but is only available for every second row and column.
  • There are 3 types of data available when you order Seismic surveys in OilSim. Unprocessed data, is the raw data that is available fairly soon after the seismic providors have done the surveys Processed data gives you more information about the geological layers in the ground Interpreted date has been interpreted by geologists. These surveys identify the sealing and reservoir rocks, and possible fault lines in the geological structure. The traps in OilSim are either: anticlinal fault traps
  • To buy surveys, click on survey tab and then order the Seismic surveys from the survey shop. After you ’ ve clicked “ buy ” this screen will appear. The yellow box over the map allows you to buy all the seismic data for those particular blocks. So click and hold and move the box to the area you wish to purchase. Choose what area you want to buy. Decide if you want columns or rows Choose if you want processed or unprocessed surveys. Processed data takes more of your time, but you get better data Choose interpreted or uninterpreted data. Intrpretede data takes more of your time, but you get better data. Then order batch, The price of the order will change depending upon your requests and the data type you want.
  • When the “ batch process ” has reached 100% the process is finished. You ’ ll then be able to view the batch you bought in the centre of the page. The red circles on this slide are navigation buttons and allow you to see all your 2D seismic in small icons. To focus on one specific 2D seismic, click on that icon.
  • However, you must remember that you are looking for the ” four-way trap ” , so you need to ensure that the peaks or bumps line up on both the column and row, where they intersect. In this slide you can see that a 2D seismic survey for a Column and also one for a Row. Now where they cross, or intersect there needs to be peaks, it is only then that there is likely to be a trap.
  • Once intiated, you will immediately be informed whether the project was a “Success” or “Failure” as the project moves to the top of the CSR page, under Completed CSR projects. Also, on the “Credibility” page, you are able to see all the Credibility points that a team has been awarded and the reasons why, throughout all the challenges in OilSim, including the CSR projects.
  • So lets recap on the things you need to do to solve this task wisely and give you the highest probability finding prospects. First – buy and review the ESA map to check which blocks you should completely avoid Secondly - buy all three CRS surveys ato study these closely to find out which blocks have the highest probability of prospects Thirdly – Buy and assess lots of 2D seismic surveys in order to identify particular blocks where there appear to be four-way traps and therefore the highest number of prospects. Finally – consider your preferences and reviewing the water depths of the blocks, since those with shallow water will be cheaper to drill in and therefore more economically viable in the long run from a production point of view.
  • When the deadline has passed each team has been allocated one block by the government. You can see a summary of the licensing round in a message in the Mailbox. There you can see who got which blocks for what amount, which blocks all the teams bid for, and how many credibility points each team got
  • Gentlemen, hold your horses! Exploration Drilling is not about going drilling into the ground. It is about careful planning the drilling operation , and foremost to spread the costs and risks involved upon many shoulders. Thus farm-outs are imperative activities before drilling itself can be conducted.
  • You need to buy and study 3D seismic interpretation in order to find out where to drill. Each 3D seismic interpretation shows the geological structure for one horizon of one of the licence blocks. What you should look out for is four-way closure structural traps, as these are the only traps in OilSim.
  • Your primary target is to find the limits of each prospects, not just plounge the drill string into the middle of each reservoir. Thus you shall drill into the periphery of each prospect, not in the middle.
  • Farm-in and out is about spreading the risk, thus basic risk management must be applied: Risk Sharing.
  • When reviewing a farm-out offer you can either accept the amount or % the licence owner requests, or amend the amounts to your own offer. Add a message to the seller explaining why they should choose your team and press “ Send offer ” This negotiation can be done face to face, and when concluded the farming in team should send a message to the licence holder to confirm their bid
  • Financing – Is where a team is able to accept offers, and therefore receive money or “ finance ” for a % of their own blocks When a team receives a Farm-In offer it appears under financing on the right hand side of the homepage
  • By clicking on this offer the team can then accept or reject the offer. A partnership is established every time a licence owner accepts an offer. You can farm in and farm out at any time from now on, but you need to sell at least 20% to be allowed to start drilling in the block that you operate. Note, that you on the licence tab can get an overview of the licences that you operate, the licences that you have invested in, and all the other licences. You are not allowed to drill before at least 20% of your licence has been farmed out.
  • All your farm-in offers to other teams are shown under “ Investing ” on the right-hand side of the homepage . This is where a team offers investments to other teams for a % of their blocks Remember you must have farmed-out 20% of your own block before you can drill.
  • When you have entered a partnership, you will pay your share of all future costs in the licence. This includes your share of all exploration wells that are drilled. On the other hand, you will receive your share of the net value of any oil or gas that is found in the licence. If you own 20% of a licence you pay 20% of all costs, and you receive 20% of all licence values. Even if there are other owners, it is the operator team that takes all decisions regarding acquirement of 3D seismic, drilling of wells, and testing of wells. When you are a partner in a licence block, you get all information about the discovered oil and gas fields A team can farm-out up to 70% of each licence, but must keep 30%.
  • Before you begin to drill you need to know the water depth so that you choose the right type of rig. You can find this information by clicking on your block and scrolling to the bottom of the screen where a map of the whole block ’ s water depths are shown. By scrolling over each cell you can see the water depth for each particular cell.
  • The next task is to choose which rig to use to drill the exploration well, but you will need to know how deep the water is in the area you wish to drill, so check out the water depths under your block information. There are three types of rigs: jack-up rigs for shallow waters 100m deep, semi-submersible rigs for middle waters (600m deep) and drillships for the deepest waters. The rigs have different costs per day, and the drilling days depend on how deep you drill into the subsurface and which service providers you choose
  • To determine how long it will probably take to complete drilling, check out the “ drilling Information ” tab.
  • In most cases there are fewer rigs than teams, so you need to be fast to get good and cheap rigs for your wells. When you order a rig you need to start using it within 20 minutes. If you do not use it within the 20 minutes, you will pay for 20 days of use. You can release a rig that you have ordered on the home page. The rig rates are dynamic, so that popular rigs tend to have increasing prices, while less popular rigs become cheaper.
  • Rig service providers are needed to operate the rig properly. Analysis, Shore base, Vessels, Well Services, Airways High-star-providers are expensive, but you may be more sure that the operation wil be smooth. Avoid though to use expensive providers everytime, as you will run out of money too soon. Medium-star-providers are medium-priced, as the risk involved are a bit higher than with the expensive ones. Few-star-providers are low-priced, and may be a good choice when you shall drill many and non-critical wells.
  • Place your drill string on a green cell. Red cells must be avoided.
  • Service Providers are as good and bad as any providers in the real world. You may end up paying a higher bill, than originally anticipated. You must watch out for “ red cells ” in the EIA, as you will be fined if you drill into protected cells.
  • As this figure illustrates, you can drill through all three horizons in one well. You can even drill a deviated well, so that the position is not exactly the same in all horizons. The deviation can be 1 cell for each horizon.
  • Inputting estimated cost of drilling gives you credibility points. You need to add all the costs of the rig and the service providers together and multiply this by the number of days you think it will take you to drill. The oil spill control is voluntary but costs 5% of the drilling amount per day but will earn you more knowledge points and cost you less to clear an oil spill if it happens. The oil spill control acts as a gas blow-out preventer too.
  • Drilling is instantaneous in OilSim and this is an example of how the drilling results might look like: In this particular case the well was drilled through all three layers (horizons). One prospect has been found in the Cretaceous layer Most interested in the Volume range as a measurement of the amount of oil and gas there Here we can see that we have found 8MBOE of PROVEN reserves but think that there is a POSSIBLE 1433. To prove up those proven reserves, we can test the well, by clicking on ” Do you want to test this prospect ”
  • Cost $100000
  • However, if you can get the proven volume up, the block might become economically viable. This is done through production testing, and appraisal wells When you have drilled the first well, you only have a small sample of the new-found oil or gas field. This is evident by the wide ranges of the area, thickness, quality, and volume variables. These wide ranges tell you that you actually do not know much about the field. After drilling and testing, your next step therefore is to drill another well – and test it. This is called an appraisal well. Normally it takes at least three or four wells into a field before the licence block becomes economically viable. Sometimes it takes much more, and therefore you should not give up if the first wells into a field do not give any licence value. However, you should give up if the upper boundaries of the field become so low that there is no chance that it becomes economically viable. This is often the case in deep-water blocks, where the CAPEX are very high.
  • Here you can see an example of how the volume range narrows for each test and each well
  • So looking at another example of a different block. Here we can see 4 prospects that have had many appraisal wells drilled. Now the proven volumes are nearly the same as the possible volumes on 3 of the prospects.
  • So for the 4 prospects we have a Sales value of $1.473 billion , achieved through much higher proven reserves. We can deduct the expenses and have a positive value of our licence
  • If you run out of cash, you can apply for more money from the headquarters. This is done through Apply for more funds on the menu to the left.

Offshore exploration geologyrocks_final_small Offshore exploration geologyrocks_final_small Presentation Transcript

  • OilSim Geology Rocks! Geology for Non-Geologists Stavanger 31 st Jan – 2 nd Feb 2012
    • www.oilsim.com
    Login
  • Learning Cycle
  • Three Challenges
    • Environmental issues
    • Team work and negotiation
    • Critical decision making , analytical skills, multi-tasking
    • Learn through experience
    • Economically viable volumes- reducing uncertainty
    • Return on Investment
    • Function appreciation
    Additional Knowledge/Skills
    • You start with $200 million You can apply for more money later.
    • Create value Measured by the net value of the oil and gas fields discovered MINUS all costs involved.
    • Correct answers and sensible decisions are awarded with CPs
    Money and Credibility
  • Complete Value Chain Upstream Oil and Gas Value Chain
  • Upstream Process
  • Decision Gates
  • Blocks are divided into smaller cells e g. R1C1 Columns e.g C1 and C54 Rows e.g R15 and R97 Home Page
  • Where and How to Find Hydrocarbons
    • Challenge: Find three sedimentary basins in the area. Basins are sedimentary rocks in the deep subsurface where oil and gas has been generated.
    • Procedure: Buy and study magnetic and gravimetric surveys; and to submit the coordinates, column and row number for each basin geographic midpoint .
    Challenge 1- Find basins
  • Gravimetric Surveys
    • Gravimetric surveys indicate changes in the gravitational pull of the Earth in different areas of the sub-surface.
    • Lower gravitational fields indicates likelihood of low density rocks –Sedimentary rocks, porous and hopefully containing hydrocarbons
    Low gravity are basins. High gravity are crystalline rocks
    • Gravimetric survey: South-east quadrant
    Gravimetric Surveys in OilSim
    • Magnetic surveys show similar information as gravimetric surveys. The sedimentary rocks in the basins have a lower concentration of magnetic materials than the surrounding crystalline rocks.
    • Sedimentary basins are the areas with the lowest magnetic field.
    • Sedimentary basins have low magnetic field
    • Non-basins have high magnetic fields.
    Magnetic Surveys
    • Magnetic survey: North-west quadrant
    Magnetic Surveys
  • Finding the Midpoint
    • Example:
    • Top basin on both maps
    • Calculate the midpoint between the gravimetric and magnetic centres found
    • = C55 and R105
    Midpoint May Not be the Same C50 R100 C60 R110
  • Enter Decision
    • 3 basins – one midpoint for each basin
    • Example: C55, R105
    • Solve before deadline. All submissions are evaluated after the deadline (and not before).
    • You may get 0-100 CPs. All three midpoints must be located to get full CPs.
    Basin Midpoint Calculation
    • All teams have submitted their answers. Basin midpoints are located.
    • Message in mailbox. All teams have answers and CPs awarded.
    Challenge 1- Solved
  • Get The Best Block
    • Sedimentary basins may contain oil and gas
    • The government has decided to put the blocks around one of the basins on offer
    • Challenge : Identify the 3 most promising blocks and submit a bid to the Government for these blocks
    Challenge 2 - Licence Round
  • Process in a Licence Round
    • Invitation / announcement
    • Qualification ( Pre-qualification )
    • Preparation , data acquisition , evaluation
    • Establishment of partnerships
    • Priority , recommendation for bidding
    • Application , documentation , bid
    • Announcement of bidding results
    • License negotiation
    • Award , work programme, start-up
    • Success or failure-> discovery/ development/ production/ abandonment or relinquishment
  • Spawning Grounds Red areas You will not be awarded blocks that contain any red spots Blue areas Blocks in area may be awarded
  • Basic Petroleum Geology Prospecting Reservoir Trap and seal Sorce rock and migration/charge Basin Petroleum system Play Prospect Basin Screening
  • Source and Migration 1. SOURCE ROCK where organic material is put under sufficient pressure and temperature 2. MIGRATION ROCK where hydrocarbons are driven through 4. CAP ROCK Impermeable rock that stops migration of hydrocarbons PROSPECT 3. RESERVOIR ROCK Rock with porosity and permeability 5.STRUCTURAL OR STRATIGRAPHIC TRAP
  • Play Elements Mapping Reservoir Source Seal
    • Presence
    • Quality
    Presence Quality Maturation Migration Timing Presence Capasity Play elements are converted to risk segment maps Highest probability Moderate probability Lowest probability Risk maps for each element are combined into total Common Risk Segment map - CRS
  • Common Risk Segment Layer 3 Eocene 1500m below the seabed Layer 2 Paleocene 2500m below the seabed Layer 1 Cretaceous 3500m below the seabed CRS - Common Risk Segment maps tell you about the probability of a prospect in the block containing oil or gas Surface
  • Traps (c) OLF Anticline trap Fault trap Stratigraphic trap Salt dome trap
    • Geological “pockets” , that might contain hydrocarbons .
    • Traps can be found with use of seismic data
    • A 2D seismic survey consists of cross- sections of the geological layers along either a column or a row
    • 2D seismic surveys are used for locating prospects
    2 D Seismic Surveys
  • 2 D Seismic in OilSim Unprocessed Processed Interpreted Red is top of the sealing rock Green is top of the reservoir rock PROSPECT
  • Order 2D Seismic
    • Which type of data do you want?
    • Columns or Rows
    • Unprocessed or processed data
    • Interpreted or not
    You can only buy maximum of 4 blocks of data at a time to speed up processing The yellow hatched area on map can be clicked on and dragged to blocks of interest
  • 2D Seismic in OilSim Red is top of the sealing rock Green is top of the reservoir rock PROSPECT
  • Acquired 2D Seismic 532 533 534 546 547 548
  • R17 R19 R21 R23 R17 R19 R21 R23 Prospect Counting How Rows Work 532
  • Prospect Counting
    • How many prospects can you see in each block?
    1 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 5 6
  • Text Anticline and Fault Traps Leakage
  • View the Seismic
    • Black arrows in red circles – navigate through the 2D seismic
    • Line data in yellow square – Row 1 from Column 1-56
  • Cross-Sections Column Row Prospect, Reservoir Basin,Source
    • Activities that oil and gas companies do to serve the communities they operate in
    • CSR projects usually to develop the local communities in education, social welfare, and business
    • In OilSim teams are rewarded with CPs when choosing their CSR projects
    • CPs a company has is considered by the Government when deciding upon licence awards
    Corporate Social Responsibility
  • CSR Tab
    • Some are greyed out, because the team does not have enough CP, enough CSR budget, or enough cash to do them
    • Each has a cost, and a number of possible outcomes
    • Each outcome has a probability and either negative or positive CP
    • In the CSR tab you can see the minimum and maximum CP you can get, as well as the probability for getting the maximum CP
    CSR Projects
    • This project costs $8M
    • If it goes well, the team gets 40 CP
      • The likelihood of this is 60%
    • If it goes badly, the team gets zero CP
    • Minimum required CP is zero
    Project Example
  • Confirmation Box
  • CSR Project Result Completed projects Credibility Point page
  • Review Credibility Points
    • Lots of different types of Projects to choose from
    • You only have $30M budget for CSR in each licensing round
      • CSR funds that you don ’t spend in one round are transferred to the next
    • You cannot initiate a project if it has the potential to make your CP ’s go into negative
    • You cannot initiate a project if you don ’t have the cash for it
    • Each project can only be run once per team
    Limitations
    • CSR is about caring for the local society – and making a difference for the people living where you operate
    • Not all projects are sound
      • Bribery does not pay
    • Some projects cost a lot, but do not give so much return
    • Some projects are riskier than others
    Learning Points
    • Environmentally sensitive areas – blocks to avoid
    • Common Risk Segment surveys – areas of higher probability of prospects
    • 2D seismic – blocks with most structures
    • Bid for 3 blocks - you will only be awarded 1
    Recap on Challenge 2 Final Tip – Check water depth and go for shallow water blocks if possible
    • Choose which blocks you want to bid for
    • For each block, say how many exploration wells you are committing to drill
    • Do NOT promise to drill more wells than there are prospects
    • An estimated cost is shown
    • You will initially only be awarded one block
    Bidding Form
    • Message sent to all teams with the results- see mailbox
    • Credibility Points are given for prosperity of the blocks you bid for
    • Every team has got one exploration license
    Challenge 2 Solved
  • Reduce Risk and Start Drilling
    • HQ is happy with the license awarded.
    • Challenge : Farm-out minimum 20% from your license – and farm-in as much as you can, in other good licenses.
    • Acquire 3D Seismic interpretations for the block you operate, and study the results from the licensing round
    • Get others to invest 20% or more in your license – you can show/send 3D seismic
    Challenge 3 - Exploration Drilling
    • Shows the subsurface structure in a cube.
    Real 3D Seismic
  • 3D Seismic in OilSim Layer 1 Cretaceous Layer 2 Paleocene Layer 3 Eocene Prospects are no guarantee of oil or gas
    • Spread the risk: e.g Investing in other blocks divides the risks amongst all partners, much more preferable than keeping 100% of one field and all the risk.
    • Increase probability of profit: investment in only one prospect which could be a dry is possible, whereas the likelihood of investing in 5 prospects which are all dry, is less likely.
    Partnerships
  • Licences
  • Farm-In
    • Enter the percentage and total amount for have agreed to offer
    • Minimum $100,000 per %
    • Add a message to the seller
    • Press “ Send offer ”
  • Farm-In When a team receives a Farm-In offer to appears under Financing . This is where a team can receive finance or money for a % of their own blocks
    • licence OWNER decides whether to ACCEPT or REJECT the offer
    • Partnerships established every time a licence owner accepts an offer.
    • Overview: On the main page, you can see all licences. 1) licences you operate, 2) licences you have invested in, and other licences.
    Farm-In
  • Farm-In All your farm-in offers to other teams are shown under “ Investing ” on the right-hand side of the homepage . This is where a team offers investments to other teams for a % of their blocks
    • Partners pay a proportional share of all future costs
    • Partners receive a proportional share of the net proceeds from oil and gas
    • The operator team makes all decisions regarding drilling
    • Teams can farm-out up to 70% of licence
    • Operators must keep 30% of licence
    Parnerships
  • Water Depth Before choosing a rig, you need to check your water depth . Find this at the bottom of the BLOCK page
  • Choose Rig
    • Choose the right rigs for your water depths
      • Jack-up rigs for shallow waters
      • Up to 100m
      • Semi-submersible rigs for middle waters
      • Up to 600m
      • Drill ships for the deepest waters
      • Over 600m
    • Rig cost = drilling days * day rate
  • Drilling Days
  • Rigs
    • Limited number of rigs
    • 20 minutes to use
    • Queues
    • Prices can change
    • Up to 9 Star quality-
    • Good : normally costs more
    • Bad : cheaper,
    • but reliability is low, so you risk extra drilling time and extra costs
    Service Providers
  • Drill Position
    • EIA: Enviromental Impact Assessment shows where not to drill .
    • Place your mouse where to drill
  • Penalties & Fines
    • Certain problems can occur if Service Provider Selection is poor quality
    • Other penalties can occur if you drill in areas indicated as problematic in the Environmental Impact Assessment
    • As in real life, problems can occur randomly and these are also applied with fines levied accordingly.
  • Drilling Position Layer 1 Cretaceous Layer 2 Paleocene Layer 3 Eocene
  • Estimated Cost Oil spill or Gas Blowout control Estimated cost
  • Drilling Results
    • Proven volume (MBOE) counts
    • Test may increase proven volume
    • Remember to tick the boxes!
  • After Testing Proven Upside potential
  • Reinterpretation of Seismic
  • Value
  • Discovered Prospects
  • Assumptions
  • Value Calculation 25% of 8 MBOE @ $50 12% $39.9M Expected costs if you developed the field (capex) and produced the oil (opex) If total expenses are higher than the sales value, the value of the licence is zero
  • Appraisal
    • From Probable volume to proven reserves
  • Narrowing Ranges-Example
    • Exploration well:
      • 0 to 1572 MBOE (after drilling)
      • 11 to 1266 MBOE (after testing)
    • First appraisal well:
      • 25 to 1033 MBOE (after drilling)
      • 34 to 910 MBOE (after testing)
    • Second appraisal well:
      • 65 to 850 MBOE (after drilling)
      • 101 to 752 MBOE (after testing)
    • Only proven MBOE counts
  • Increasing Proven Volumes
    • Appraisal wells - proven reserves increase
    • Range between proven and possible is decreased
  • Effect on Calculation of Licence 397 MBOE @ $50 including 25% recovery factor, 0.8 production factor, 10% discount factor) 12% $39.9M $6 of $50 = 12% tax) Expected costs if you developed the field (CAPEX) and produced the oil (OPEX) Now total expenses are lower than the sales value and so we have a positive licence value
    • After your first drill in each well, test and reinterpret seismic
    • Decide which discoveries to drill, how many appraisal wells into
    • Ultimately, you should either:
      • Get a positive net present value,
      • Or a conclusion that additional appraisal wells will not result in a net present value
    Drilling Summary
    • Click on Apply for More Funds Tab.
    • 1 CP for each $100,000 applied for.
    • Answer three questions:
    • Expensive money if less than 10 credibility points: Apply for cash and be fined $5million for each $20million requested.
    Apply for More Funds