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The British culture of 19 century th Romanticism and Victorian period Made by Rogacheva Marina
The British culture of 19th century is characterized by two movements: the Romantic movement at the beginning of thecentury and the Victorian movement during reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901).
Painting Painting was influenced by the new mood of change. Mainly urban middle class had bought paintingsand paid artists and, to please them, artists painted different subjects, such as sentimental scenes of the countryside and paintings, which told a moral story.
James Ward (1769 – 1859) painted horses within landscapes, very large- scale landscapes earned money by painting wealthy gentry, their favorite horses, their favorite hunting dogs or their children the Levett family
The Reverend Thomas Levett and his favourite dogs, cock-shooting
Group Portrait ofJohn, Theophilus and Frances Levett
John Linnell (1792 – 1882) firstly painted miniature portraits is mainly known in connection with paintings of pure landscapes some scene of typical uneventful English landscape works are full of true poetic feeling and are rich and glowing in color.
Samuel Palmer (1805 – 1881) a key figure in Romanticism in Britain produced visionary pastoral paintings his greatest works thought to be produced in 1820-1840 years, when he was influenced by William Blake
William Blake (1757-1827) One of the first Romantic poets most famous book of poems «Songs of Innocence» «Songs of Experience» his work is religious or mystical in expression and romantic in spirit. It is full of movement, flickering or glaring light, medieval symbols, and mannerist musculature and arrangement
The Lake Poets Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834)William Wordsworth Robert Southey (1770-1850) (1774-1843)
George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) the perfect image of the romantic poet- hero. «Childe Harolds Pilgrimage» in 1812 narrative poem «Don Juan»
Walter Scott (1771 – 1832) one of the most popular novelist of the period master of grand historical romances first historical novel was «Waverley» formed the modern stereotype of Scottish culture contributed to the image of a Scottish patriot
Charles Dickens (1812 – 1870) the greatest novelist of the Victorian period the creator of some of the worlds most memorable fictional characters
Thomas Hardy (1840 – 1928) an English novelist and poet, was highly critical of much in Victorian society focused more on a declining rural society. «Far from the Madding Crowd» «The Mayor of Casterbridge», «Jude the Obscure»
William Thackeray (1811 – 1863) an English novelist famous for his satirical works «Vanity Fair»
The Brontës Anne (The Tenant of Wildfell Hall) Emily (Wuthering Heights) Charlotte (Jane Eyre)
Music19th century was the period when classical music began to be recognized as an important element of culture. In 1813 the London Philharmonic Society was established. In 1822 of the Royal Academy of Music was created.A royal charter was established in 1830, which attemptedto train British musicians to the same standards as those of the continent.
William Sterndale Bennett (1816 – 1875) an English composer, pianist, conductor and music educator piano music orchestral music vocal music
John Field (1782 – 1837) the greatest Irish musical figure of the Romantic period developed a highly influential keyboard style wrote music that calls for characteristically expressive and sensitive performance rather than virtuosic bravura is best-known primarily for his nocturnes
Charles Parry (1848 – 1918) an English composer, teacher and historian of music the choral song "Jerusalem" the coronation anthem "I was glad" hymn tune "Repton"
With the Industrial Revolution the themes of the music of the laboring classes began to change from rural and agrarian life to include industrial work songs. Awarenessthat older kinds of song were being abandoned interest in collecting folk songs during the 1830s and 1840s was renewed. There were works of William B. Sandys «Christmas Carols Ancient and Modern», William Chappell «A Collection of National English Airs» and Robert Bells «Ancient Poems, Ballads and Songs of the Peasantry of England».
Architecture In the 19th century it was a fragmentation of English architecture. Classical forms were used widely, but were challenged by a series of distinctively English revivals of other styles,drawing chiefly on Gothic, Renaissance, vernacular traditions and other elements.
Changes in thinkingThe most important idea of the nineteenth century was that everyone had the right to personal freedom, which was the basis of capitalism. Many of the first socialists in Britain were writersor artists. Some of these belonged to the "Arts and Crafts Movement", whose members turned away from the new middle-class values, and looked to pre-industrial handcraft and to nature for inspiration.
Above all, Victorian society was self-confident.This had been shown in the Great Exhibition in185I. British self-confidence was built not only upon power but also upon the rapid scientific advances being made at the time.