VetWords

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VetWords

  1. 1. 1 VetWordsVetWords is the official newsletter ofthe VetwardBoundProgram. Publishedeachsemester, thenewsletter is a sharedcommunication medium for students, staff andparents. Suggestions are welcome andshouldbe directedtoVetWords, F113VeterinaryMedical Center, MichiganStateUniversity, East Lansing, MI 48824- 1316, or e-mail: yangstep@cvm.msu.eduor call (517)355-6521. October 2010 Fall Semester 2010 Vol. 3 SAVE THE DATES!!! 10/20 -Middle of Semester -Last Day to drop a course with no grade 10/31 -HALLOWEEN 11/25 – 11/26 -Thanksgiving Holiday Vetward Bound Events: OCTOBER Sundance’s Horseback Riding/Haunted Hayride and Ice Cream Social – Thursday, October 21, 6:00 p.m. Join the Vetward Bound staff and fellow pre-vet students for a night of fun! We will be doing a one-hour trail ride at the stables followed by a haunted hayride and end the night with an Ice Cream Social! No riding experience is necessary and transportation is provided! Check emails for an eVite from the PALs office. Don’t be the one to miss out! Lenses of Diversity – Monday, November 8, 3:00-4:00 p.m. A213 Vet MedCenter What does diversity mean to you? Is it just a word or does it have a meaningful purpose? Vetward Bound and Director Patricia Lowrie would like to encourage all students to come and interactively engage in this consequential opportunity to learn the many aspects of diversity. Inside the October Newsletter  Learn about the diverse opportunities and professions of what the veterinary field has to offer!  Check out what the students saw during the Dairy Handling Workshop!  Read more on veterinary school facts on pgs. 3 and 10!  Also, remember to check out times and dates of events in MSU Happenings
  2. 2. 2 OverseasOpportunities: Veterinarians Going Abroad By: Laura Petroski Veterinarians have a very unique position in the world. Not only do they examine and treat animals, but they are equally as involved in maintaining the health of people. Many of the diseases and ailments that people contract are initially from animals; thus veterinarians have a close relationship with public health and research. The demand for such help with health control is even more extreme overseas. This is just one of numerous issues, however, that entice veterinarians to relocate overseas. One career option for veterinarians that are abroad is to work with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Due to the global increase of human diseases, many originating from animals and insects, veterinarians have options to work in critical areas, like China and Zimbabwe, focusing on issues such as bioterrorism, environmental health, food safety and viral/ bacterial diseases. SARS, monkey pox, West Nile, and the avian flu are some diseases you may be familiar with that require a considerable amount of help from veterinarians to identify the source of disease. Veterinarians can also work for the Federation of Veterinarians of Europe. According to the foundations website, they represent 46 national veterinary organizations across 38 countries. This website provides information about veterinarians working in different areas of the field as veterinary state officers, veterinarians in education, research and industry, and even veterinary hygienists! There are many different volunteer options available to those that aren’t fully interested in living abroad for an extended period of time. This way, veterinarians can still gain overseas experience and learn more about the world they live in. There are volunteer options ranging from horse rehabilitation in South Africa to research regarding marine life in Swaziland. Pretty much any country of interest has options for veterinarians to help and get involved in something they really love. It can be said that the only hard part is deciding what to do first! What is a Vet Tech? By: Jennifer Cooke Veterinary Technicians are trained professional support-staff who provide assistance to not only veterinarians but also biomedical and laboratory researchers. They learn the necessary animal handling skills and the knowledge of how to work with and take care of animals by either attending veterinary technical school or by learning the skills on the job. Some of the things that you might see a CVT perform include administration of medicines or treatments, run lab diagnostics, provide animal restraint, surgical and dental assistance, and also provide patient monitoring among other veterinary clinical tasks. To become a certified veterinary technician, many have attended schools that will offer either a two-or four-year degree in the science of veterinary technology. After graduation from the program or by completing a state administered certification test, you can become a credentialed veterinary technician. Becoming certified will provide more jobs with higher income opportunities, but can vary depending on the person’s work experience and location. *Photo from: http://www.spcollege.edu/hec/vt/images/vetec h5.jpg
  3. 3. 3 Veterinary Research By: Samer Hariri Veterinary research is crucial in today’s society, especially in the last four decades as it has played a vital role in public health and food safety. From domestic animals to wild ones, veterinary research has evolved to address our societal changes with the main focus on human health. Interdisciplinary research in veterinary science links three major areas of concern: - Domestic Animal Health - Wildlife and Ecosystem Health - Human Health Research in domestic animal health minimizes the risks of disease spread between companion animals and humans. It also provides safer and healthier food for human consumption through,for the most part, regulating the health of farm animals. The health of wildlife and ecosystems is also of special importance since our urban society is affecting the country sides, where most of the farming takes place. Wildlife is also affected by urban development and industrial agriculture. This raises concerns about preserving our wildlife and saving endangered species. The loss of wild life to urbanization for example changes the health of the environment we live in and thus introduces new diseases. Research fields in each area vary, but the focus of veterinary research lies in the following five major fields: - Animal Production, performance and welfare - Infectious animal diseases and how they affect public health and bio-security - Biomedical Technology, cell biology and morphology - Animal biotechnology - Advances in biomedical instruments for disease detection and therapy These five fields of course have multiple sub-areas within them that focus in more depth on a specific area of research. These include clinical research, emergency and critical care medicine, internal medicine, and any medical category one could think of such as oncology, ophthalmology. Furthermore, specific research fields in veterinary science can include comparative medicine, environmental and toxicological sciences, food safety, large animal science, small and domestic animal science, radiology, pathobiology and diagnostics, physiology, and finally pharmacology. Veterinary research helps us control animal diseases and their threat to human health. The contributions vary from providing healthy farm animals and preventing the spread of zoonotic diseases to improving the health of pet animals which of course play an important role in the psychosocial health of humans. Furthermore, it plays an important role in the advancement of biomedicine while improving and enhancing biotechnology. Source: Critical needs for research in veterinary science National Academy of Sciences (U.S.).Committee on the National Needs for Research in Veterinary Science. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, c2005. http://cvm.msu.edu/research
  4. 4. 4 Veterinary Schools & Veterinarians True or false: 1) There are 32 veterinary schools in the United States. 2) There is only 1 veterinary school in Michigan (Michigan State). 3) There is a Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Veterinary Oncology Center, and Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health at MSU CVM. 4) Michigan State’s CVM does many interviews during the application process. 5) The number of women going into veterinary medicine has doubled since 1991. Answer: F (28); T; T; F (The interview Process was cut out); T Strength and Outlook of Veterinarian Careers By: Stephanie Yang Whether it is visiting a farm to treat wounds on a mare, or traveling on the road tending the birth of the newest addition to the zoo, or simply diagnosing and administering medications for man’s best friend at the local animal hospital - look out, because veterinarians are on the rise in the professional world. According to a report by U.S. News, not only are veterinarians considered one of the top 50 best careers for 2010, but also the outlook of the profession will remain strong for the next decades to come (U.S. News 2009). With today’s struggling economy, it is safe to say that finding a job will be just as hard ten years down the road, if not more difficult. However, this is not the case for veterinarians. As the demand for veterinarians continue to soar, employment in the field is expected to see a 33 percent growth within the next decade (U.S. News 2009). Keep in mind also that the outlook for those pursuing a career in the animal field may be solid, but with a progressing career like a veterinarian will come intense competition and the admittance into veterinary school that will result in the success of the profession. As a veterinarian, a person must have graduated with a doctorate of veterinary medicine (DVM) from one of the 28 programs in the U.S., in addition to passing state exams in order to receive a state license U.S. News (2009). Like any other career, earnings depend on the amount of experience and specialty within the field. U.S. News (2009) has reported that the average starting salaries for veterinarians range from $41,000 to mid-$60,000 and in 2008, median earnings were more than $79,000.Like most doctors and nurses, veterinarians must work on a demanding schedule. Regardless on the setting of indoor or outdoor, veterinarians learn to work long hours to unpredictable cases. Many may think that becoming a veterinarian will be a long and difficult road ahead. This is true. But do not let “long” and “difficult” keep you from pursuing a career. Always remember to never let anything in the way of becoming something you ultimately want to achieve. The sky’s the limit. Source: U.S. News Staff. “Veterinarian: As one of the 50 best careers of 2010, this should have strong growth over the next decade.” U.S. New& World Report December 2009. U.S. News & World Report LP. April 2010.
  5. 5. 5 What Makes Up MSU’s College of Veterinary Medicine? By: Ji Won Park When we think about College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM), our immediate thought is the Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH). VTH is a crucial part of CVM; however, diagnostics and animal research facilities are also important in animal treatment. Below are the few facilities that run within the CVM and you will see why each component is important. Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH) VTH is a site for the clinical instruction of veterinary medicine and veterinary technology students. It is a primary referral center in the state, accepting challenging cases from veterinary practitioners throughout Michigan, nearby states and Canada. About 23,000 patients visit and get 113,000 field service calls annually. Within the hospital, there are different units – anesthesiology, cardiology, dentistry, dermatology, emergency medicine/critical care, internal medicine, nutrition, oncology, ophthalmology, orthopedics, radiology, etc. Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health (DCPAH) DCPAH was established in response to an unprecedented number of cattle deaths on farms throughout Michigan in 1973 and 1974. This facility assisted the state in the management of toxic polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), a fire- retardant chemical that had been mixed with cattle feed. The human PBB exposure from contaminated dairy products emphasized the central role of a state-of-the-art veterinary diagnostic laboratory in the protection of animal and human health. Now, the DCPAH is full-service veterinary diagnostic laboratory which offers more than 800 tests in 11 service sections. This facility handles more than 220,000 cases involving approximately 1.5 million tests annually. University Laboratory Animal Resources (ULAR) ULAR provides proper care for laboratory animals for investigators in various departments in MSU - Colleges of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Engineering, Human Medicine, Natural Science, Osteopathic Medicine, Social Sciences, and Veterinary Medicine. It manages eight facilities on the MSU campus. Advances in Veterinary Medicine: Cementless Elbow Prosthesis and Canine Rehabilitation By: Katelyn Schermerhorn There are always new advances in veterinary medicine. As the relationship between humans and animals grows stronger, people may be willing to do more for their pets in terms of treatments. One significant advancement that has emerged at MSU CVM is the use of cementless prosthesises. In 2008, MSU CVM was one of the first four institutions in the country to offer new cementless elbow prosthesis for the treatment of intractable canine elbow arthritis. The implant was developed with a minimally invasive surgery in mind.
  6. 6. 6 Important innovations of this surgery include a medial approach via small incision, preservation of the collateral ligaments, removal of only the articular surfaces without disarticulation,and cementless implant insertion as a pre-assembled cartridge. These have many advantages over the current cement prosthesises used, including reduced chance of infection and reduced rate of implant wear. The first patient at MSU to receive this new elbow prosthesis was Jake, an 11-year-old yellow Labrador retriever, who was suffering from chronic lameness, secondary to severe elbow arthritis. He was the first dog in the Midwest and the 11th in the world to receive it. After the operation, Jake went through extensive physical rehabilitation but has now returned to his normal activity and is running around like he did when he was younger. Another advancement rising now in veterinary medicine is the use of canine rehabilitation, which was utilized post-op for Jake. However, some veterinarians suggest canine rehabilitation instead of costly and invasive surgeries in cases where the dog is older or too sick to undergo surgery, or if the owners lack the necessary funds for surgery. The main procedure Certified Canine Rehabilitation Practitioners (CCRP’s) see dogs for are aquatic treatments. This can consist of swimming or walking on an underwater treadmill. As seen in human rehabilitation, these practices take pressure of the painful joints, along with providing the benefits of cardiovascular exercise, muscle toning, and joint motion. Other therapeutic practices, such as heat therapy, passive range of motion, stretching, and cryotherapy (cold therapy),are also used. More recent practices, such as neuromuscular electrical stimulation and ultrasound are also being used more and more. Clearly, along with research, many advancements are arising in veterinary medicine, such as the use of prosthesises and utilizing rehabilitation, both of which continue to narrow the gap between veterinary medicine and human medicine. Sources: http://cvm.msu.edu/about-the-college/news- events/news/new-elbow-prosthesis-available-at- vth?searchterm=cementless+ http://veterinarynews.dvm360.com/dvm/Medici ne/Canine-rehabilitation-evolving-to-aid-arthritic- po/ArticleStandard/Article/detail/622213?context CategoryId=40534 http://cvm.msu.edu/hospital/special- facilities/advanced-rehabilitation-center-for- animals/advanced-rehabilitation-center-for- animals/?searchterm=water%20treadmill World News: Veterinary Service Investment Act By: Jennifer Sexton Veterinarian medicine is a small profession, and the numbers seem to be at a standstill right now. At the same time, there is an increasing amount of veterinarians going into small animal medicine, and the livestock veterinarians are dwindling.
  7. 7. 7 To compensate for this problem, the USDA has stepped in. Large animal veterinarians are vital for food and public safety. Right now, there are many countries that have at least 5,000 farm animals, with no veterinarian living near them. An even great number of countries have only one farm veterinarian per 25,000 animals. These veterinarians are the first line of defense when it comes to disease surveillance and food safety. The USDA has created a fund that will assist those going into large animal veterinary medicine. The following is a small, non-extensive list of what these funds can be used for:  Recruiting, placing and retaining veterinarians, technicians, and students  Financial assistance for veterinary students, interns, externs, fellows and technician students attending training for food safety or food medicine  Support for continuing education and extension programs for practicing veterinarians, technicians and otherhealth professionals  Support for faculty recruitment and retention at accredited colleges of veterinary medicine  Establishing or expanding of accredited education program in coordination with accredited colleges of veterinary medicine With this incentive, hopefully more students will look into becoming large animal veterinarians, and fulfill the need to keep our livestock, food and public safe. Source: http://www.avma.org/advocacy/federal/legislati ve/issue_briefs/veterinarian_services_investment_ act.asp For those who were not able to attend the MSU Dairy Handling workshop, here’s a brief highlight of what we did. -Learned how to work in a herd of cattle. THEY ARE NOT SCARY! - Watched some cattle being milked and learned the mechanism of how the milk pumps work (Picture shown below) - Saw baby calves and learned how they grow up -Learned how to properly check the heart rate and listen to the rumen Thanks for all those that came out for a great workshop!
  8. 8. 8 Veterinary Positions in the Government By: Jessica Lam Did you know about 25% of all veterinarians in the United States work in government or corporate practices? With 27% of current government-hired veterinarians being able to retire by 2012, the government is in serious need of more veterinarians. Lack of government-hired veterinarians represents a huge threat to the nation in case of a public health emergency. Veterinarians are very important to public health; they collaborate with physicians and scientists to conquer various human health issues. For example, veterinarians were the key factor in winning the battle against malaria and yellow fever, as well as unveiling the mystery about botulism. “Veterinarians are used in all parts of the government; they research unknown diseases, train and deploy service animals for the military, and maintain and protect the integrity of the food supply.” Everyday the need for government veterinarians grows larger; perhaps one day… that spot will be filled by you. List of some veterinary job prospects in the government: -US Food and Drug Administration-Centerfor Veterinary Medicine -USDA: Animal PlantHealth Inspection Service -The United States Animal Health Association -USDA: Food Safety and Inspection Service -U.S. Environmental Protection Agency -Centers for Disease Control -National Institute of Health -US Air Force -US Army For more information about veterinary positions in the government please visit: http://www.cvmbs.colostate.edu/cvmbs/GovVet CareerSites.htm *Sources: http://www.govexec.com/dailyfed/0209/021709a r1.htm http://virtuavet.wordpress.com/novelveterinaryc areers/veterinariansgovernmentindustryzoomedici ne/ Veterinary Specialists By: Jennifer Yee Did you know that there was more BEYOND veterinary school? The amount of diversity within the veterinary world is one of the great things about the profession. There are so many different paths you can take to find your perfect career niche and this is a perfect time for you to start discovering if a specialty is right for you! Here’s a list of the different specialties within veterinary medicine:  Anesthesiology  Behavior  Birds  Bovine  Canine  Cardiology  Clinical pathology  Clinical pharmacology  Dentistry  Dermatology  Diagnostic imaging  Equine  Emergency and critical care  Feline  Internal medicine  Laboratory animal medicine  Microbiology  Neurology  Nutrition  Oncology  Ophthalmology  Parasitology
  9. 9. 9  Pathology  Poultry  Preventive medicine  Theriogenology  Radiology  State veterinary medicine  Surgery  Toxicology  Zoo animals and wildlife In order to be a veterinary specialist, you must have post-graduate training (commonly an internship and residency), experience within the specialty, be published in a journal about a clinical case or research findings and pass a credential review and examinations given by a veterinary specialty organization recognizedby the AVMA. Although length of time varies, it is usually an average of 3-4 years to become a specialist—a year internship and 2-3 years of residency. Becoming a specialist is not an easy task; it takes an individual with a high level of motivation, dedication and passion. You must keep up your education, as any veterinarian should, and you must renew your certification via the board exam every 10 years. As a specialist, you are a true expert in your field and in many cases will have a higher salary than general practitioners. You could have a hand in expanding the profession to new heights! For more information about different veterinary specialties, visit the AVMA website. http://www.avma.org/press/profession/specialti es.asp MSU HAPPENINGS Campus Center Cinemas, October14 – 17 *Note: Due to construction at Wells Hall, movie locations have moved. Twilight/The Twilight Saga: New Moon Double Feature Twilight, Friday, 109 Kedzie, 7:00 p.m. The Twilight Saga: New Moon, Friday, 109 Kedzie, 9:10 p.m. Twilight, Saturday, Conrad Auditorium, 7:00 p.m. The Twilight Saga: New Moon, Saturday, Conrad Auditorium, 9:10 p.m. Dinner for Schmucks Thursday, Wilson Auditorium, 7:00 & 9:15 p.m. Friday, Conrad Auditorium, 7:10 & 9:15 p.m. Saturday, 109 Kedzie, 7:10 & 9:15 p.m. Saturday, Wilson Auditorium, 7:00 & 9:00 p.m. Sunday, Conrad Auditorium,7:00 & 9:15 p.m. Despicable Me Thursday, Conrad Auditorium, 9:30 p.m. Friday, Wilson Auditorium, 7:15 & 9:15 p.m. Friday, 105 Kedzie, 7:20 & 9:20 p.m. Saturday, 105 Kedzie, 7:20 & 9:20 p.m. Sunday, Wilson Auditorium, 7:15 & 9:15 p.m. Monday, October 18 Stretch Away Your Stress! 6:00 p.m., Parlors ABC,MSU Union Midterms got you down? Feelin’ that Freshmen fifteen? Come to UAB's Stretch Away Your Stress Exercise Series. Free Yoga will be provided in the MSU Union to students with an MSU ID. Tuesday, October 19 General Board Meeting 6 p.m., Parlor A&B, 2nd floor, MSU Union Joining is free and you can help plan student events on campus.
  10. 10. 10 Wednesday, October20 Craft Night, Pumpkin Patch Painting 7 - 9 p.m., One Union Square Food Court, MSU Union Paint or decorate a pumpkin, free while supplies last. Thursday, October 21 Take Your Path to Beauty sponsored by Mary Kay and Seventeen 11 a.m. to 7 p.m., MSU Union, Main Lounge Receive a free makeover, enjoy free samples and talk to a Mary Kay Independent Beauty Consultant. Cosmic Bowling & Billiards, FREE 8 p.m. – midnight, Spartan Lanes & U-Cue, MSU Union. Bring your floor or bring a friend and get your game on! Friday, October 22 Rocky Horror Picture Show Doors at 8:30 p.m.; show starts at 9:00 p.m., International Center You won’t want to miss this…come to the interactive movie event of the year! UAB will provide complete prop bags to the first 500 people through the doors. Drawings for prizes at the end of the movie; come dressed up for the movie and receive extra tickets for a chance to win a Blu-Ray player, copies of the movie, and more! MSU student with ID plus one guest with valid ID. Only MSU Students can win prizes. Saturday, October23 Derek Hughes, Comedian/Magician 9 p.m., Main Lounge, MSU Union The New York Times has called him, “Thoroughly Entertaining” and was named “Critics Choice” by the Chicago Reader. When not performing theatre, comedy, or acting in TV or advertising, Derek Hughes travels the country performing his magic at colleges, and here he is now at Michigan State University. Come out and enjoy a night of laughs for free! MSU student with ID plus one guest with valid ID. Find out more at www.derekhughes.net Campus Center Cinemas, October21-24 *Note: Due to construction at Wells Hall, movie locations have moved. The Twilight Saga: Eclipse Thursday, Wilson Auditorium, 7:00 & 9:20 p.m. Friday, Conrad Auditorium, 7:00 & 9:20 p.m. Saturday, Wilson Auditorium, 7:00 & 9:20 p.m. Sunday, Conrad Auditorium,9:15 p.m. Sunday, 109 Kedzie, 7:00 & 9:20 p.m. Salt Thursday, Conrad Auditorium, 9:30 p.m. Friday, Wilson Auditorium, 7:00 & 9:15 p.m. Friday, 105 Kedzie, 7:00 P.M. & 9:15 P.M. Sunday, Wilson Auditorium, 7:00 & 9:15 p.m. Sunday, 105 Kedzie, 7:10 & 9:20 p.m. The Sorcerer’s Apprentice Friday, 109 Kedzie, 7:00 & 9:20 p.m. Sunday, Conrad Auditorium,7:00 p.m. Vet Schools, Vet Schools, Vet Schools: Facts and Application Processes Michigan State University:  Applicants who are applying in 2010 (entrance 2011) must complete all prerequisites prior to August 1, 2011.  Applicants who are applying in 2011 or after (entrance 2012 or later) must complete all prerequisites by the end of Spring term in the year of matriculation.  Require 2.8 GPA to apply  Scholastic Indicator Score (SIS) score is calculated in the application process which is composed of the followings:  Cumulative GPA for ALL college coursework attempted and/or completed at all accredited institutions - 27%
  11. 11. 11 1. GPA for science prerequisite courses completed at the time the VMCAS application is submitted - 32% 2. GPA for all courses which you completed in your last three semesters at an accredited institution - 20% 3. GRE scores - 21% Tuskegee University:  One of the Veterinary schools that does not participate in VMCAS  Application Website: http://www.onemedicine.tuskegee.edu/O nline_Admission.htm Cornell University:  Successful applicants typically bring 400 or more hours of veterinary experience.  At least one letter should be from a veterinarian who is able to assess your understanding of the profession.  Cornell’s DVM Admissions Formula 1. 25% Overall GPA 2. 25% GRE (verbal and quantitative) or MCAT 3. 5% Quality of Academic Program 4. 20% Animal/Veterinary/Biomedical Experience (supported with letters of evaluation) 5. 10% Non-Cognitive Skills 6. 10% All Other Achievements and Letters of Evaluation 7. 5% Personal Statement GRE Practice 1. Early______ of hearing loss is ______ by the fact that the other senses are able to compensate for moderate amounts of loss, so that people frequently do not know that their hearing is imperfect. A. discovery . . indicated B. development . . prevented C. detection . . complicated D. treatment . . facilitated E. incidence . . corrected 2. The ______ science of seismology has grown just enough so that the first overly bold theories have been ______ . A. magnetic . . accepted B. fledgling . . refuted C. tentative . . analyzed D. predictive . . protected E. exploratory . . recalled 3. Nonviolent demonstrations often create such tensions that a community that has constantly refused to ______ its injustices is forced to correct them: the injustices can no longer be ______. A. acknowledge..ignored B. decrease..verified C. tolerate..accepted D. address..eliminated E. explain..discussed 4. Since 1813 reaction to Jane Austen's novels has oscillated between ______ and condescension; but in general later writers have esteemed her works more highly than did most of her literary ______. A. dismissal..admirers B. adoration..contemporaries C. disapproval..readers D. indifference..followers E. approbation..precursors
  12. 12. 12 5. There are, as yet, no vegetation types or ecosystems whose study has been ______ to the extent that they no longer ______ ecologists. A. perfected..hinder B. exhausted..interest C. prolonged..require D. prevented..challenge E. delayed..benefit Answers: C, B, A, B, B From the MSU Dairy Farm. . . GO GREEN! GO WHITE! LET’S GO STATE!
  13. 13. 13 Vetward Bound Program F113 Veterinary Medical College Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824-1316 Monday – Friday 8 a.m. – 12 noon 1 p.m. – 5 p.m. (517) 355-6521 (Voice mail available 24/7) The Vetward BoundProgram is fundedby a grant from the State of Michigan, Department of Career Development, King-Chavez-Parks Initiative, Select Student Support Services (4S) Program

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