DO NOW:
 Get your reading notes
out to be checked.
On your “Do Now” sheet,
write down one thing you
learned from your
re...
Unit 1: History & Approaches
AP Psychology Ms. Desgrosellier 9.13.2010
ROOTS OF
PSYCHOLOGY
Dualism: the philosophy that
the mind and the body are
two different things that
interact.
e.g. Phys...
ROOTS OF
PSYCHOLOGY
 e.g. Philosopher Plato (~ 350
BC) also believed in dualism,
and used self-examination of
inner ideas...
ROOTS OF
PSYCHOLOGY
 Monism: the mind and body are
different aspects of the same thing.
 e.g. The philosopher Aristotle
...
ROOTS OF
PSYCHOLOGY
e.g. Empirical philosopher
John Locke believed that
mind and body interact
symmetrically, knowledge
c...
ROOTS OF
PSYCHOLOGY
The debate about whether
our behavior is inborn or
learned through experience
is called the nature-nu...
ROOTS OF
PSYCHOLOGY
Nature = inborn = genetic
Nuture =experience =
environmental
SCHOOLS OF
PSYCHOLOGY
 By the 1800s, psychology was
beginning to emerge as a
separate scientific discipline.
 Charles Da...
SCHOOLS OF
PSYCHOLOGY
Physiologists Ernst Weber
and Gustav Fechner
showed how physical
events are related to
sensation an...
Structuralism
 Wilhelm Wundt set up the first
psychological laboratory in
Germany in 1879.
 He was measuring the
differe...
Structuralism
 G. Stanley Hall set up a
psychology lab at Johns
Hopkins University employing
introspection, helped found ...
Structuralism
 Edward Titchener founded the
field of Structuralism.
 Used introspection to explore
the elemental structu...
Structuralism
 Margaret Floy Washburn was
Titchener’s first graduate
student and the first woman to
complete her Ph. D. i...
DO NOW:
 What are the two roots
of psychology?
 In your own words,
briefly summarize the
nature-nurture
controversy.
Functionalism
 William James, the “father” of
functionalism, was interested in
the function or purpose of
behavioral acts...
Functionalism
 The so-called School of
Functionalism studied mental
testing, child development, and
educational practices...
Functionalism
 Mary Whiton Calkins, who
studied psychology under
James at Harvard, was denied
her Ph. D.
 Became the fir...
Other Famous Firsts
 In 1920, Francis C. Sumner
became the first African-
American to receive a Ph. D. in
Psychology.
Other Famous Firsts
 In 1933, Inez Beverly Prosser
became the first African-American
woman to receive a Ph. D. in
Psychol...
Other Famous Firsts
 1953 – Carlos Albizu Miranda
became one of the first Latinos
to earn a Ph. D. in Psychology
in the U...
Other Famous Firsts
 1962 - Martha Bernal: First
Latina to earn a PhD in
psychology, in clinical
psychology from Indiana
...
PRINCIPAL APPROACHES TO
PSYCHOLOGY
Behavioral Approach
 behavioral approach: focuses
on measuring and recording
observable behavior in relation to
the envir...
Behavioral Approach
 They analyze the ABCs of behavior:
 A: Antecedent environmental
conditions that precede a behavior
...
Behavioral Approach
 Behaviorists reject the study of
consciousness/mental processes
because they cannot be observed
and ...
Behavioral Approach
 Ivan Pavlov: Russian physiologist
who trained dogs to salivate in
response to the sound of a tone,
d...
Behavioral Approach
 B. F. Skinner: worked mainly with
laboratory rats and pigeons,
demonstrating that organisms tend to
...
Psychodynamic/Psychoa
nalytic Approach
 Sigmund Freud: “father” of the
psychoanalytic theory.
 He focused on unconscious...
Psychodynamic/Psychoa
nalytic Approach
 Followers of Freud broke off and
formed a new branch of psychology,
called the ps...
Humanistic Approach
 Started in the middle of the 20th
century by Abraham Maslow
and Carl Rogers.
 They thought that the...
Humanistic Approach
 Humanists emphasize the
importance of people’s feelings
and view human nature as
naturally positive ...
DO NOW:
 In your own words, describe
ONE of the following fields of
psychology and list on major
theorist for each.
 str...
Biological Approach
 Also known as Neuroscience,
Behavioral Neuroscience, and
Biopsychology.
 Around the same time as
Hu...
Biological Approach
 Technological advances allowed
biologists to examine how
complex chemical and biological
processes w...
Evolutionary Approach
 An offshoot of the biological
approach.
 Based on Darwin’s Theory of
Natural Selection.
 Behavio...
Cognitive Approach
 the study of consciousness, or
thinking and memory.
 Cognition emphasizes the
importance of the foll...
Cognitive Approach
 Jean Piaget studied cognitive
development in children, laying
part of the foundation for
preschool an...
Sociocultural Approach
 Started in the second half of the
20th century.
 Studies social and environmental
factors that i...
Eclectic Approach
 No single theoretical approach
explains all aspects of behavior,
although all provide a framework for
...
PROFESSIONS &
CAREERS
 Scientific psychology developed in
universities with research laboratories
where basic research wa...
PROFESSIONS &
CAREERS
 Examples:
 clinical psychologists: evaluate
and treat mental, emotional, and
behavioral disorders...
PROFESSIONS &
CAREERS
 Developmental psychologists:
study psychological development
throughout the lifespan.
 Educationa...
PROFESSIONS &
CAREERS
 Engineering psychologists: and
human factors psychologists
promote the development and
application...
PROFESSIONS &
CAREERS
 Forensic psychologists: apply
psychological principles to legal
issues.
 Health psychologists: co...
PROFESSIONS &
CAREERS
 Industrial/Organizational
psychologists: aim to improve
productivity and the quality of work
life ...
PROFESSIONS &
CAREERS
 Neuropsychologists: explore the
relationships between brain/nervous
systems and behavior.
Neuropsy...
DO NOW:
 In your own words, describe one of the
following fields of psychology and list on major
theorist for each, if gi...
PROFESSIONS &
CAREERS
 Personality psychologists: focus
on aspects of the individual such as
traits, attitudes, and goals...
PROFESSIONS &
CAREERS
 Rehabilitation psychologists: help
clients with mental retardation,
developmental disabilities, an...
PROFESSIONS &
CAREERS
 Social psychologists: focus on
how a person’s mental life and
behavior are shaped by interactions
...
PROFESSIONS &
CAREERS
 Psychiatrist: a practioner that
specializes in the diagnosis and
treatment of mental illness.
 Ha...
EXAMPLES:
 Dr. Darling was hired by the TLC
Company to help them retain their
employees without lowering the firm’s
profi...
EXAMPLES:
 Answer: Industrial/Organizational
EXAMPLES:
 Professor Nash studies the
degree to which genes and
heredity influence our
personality. She is working from
t...
EXAMPLES:
 Dr. Catchings, who explores
how Asian and North American
definitions of attractiveness
differ, is working from...
EXAMPLES:
 Professor Hughes believes that
people are essentially good and
that we are all striving for
personal growth. S...
EXAMPLES:
 Answer: Humanistic
EXAMPLES:
 Dr. Richardson studies the way
the mind encodes, processes,
stores, and retrieves
information. He also special...
EXAMPLES:
 Professor Grays believes that
all behavior is learned from
one’s environment. She studies
how conditioning can...
EXAMPLES:
 Dr. House’s research centers
on the relationship between
changes in our thinking over
the life span and change...
EXAMPLES:
 Professor Moran, who believes
that human emotions are best
understood as being jointly
determined by heredity,...
EXAMPLES:
 Dr. Foster believes that all
behavior is a direct result of our
physiology. She is most likely
which kind of p...
EXAMPLES:
 Professor Dia believes that one’s
subconscious is the root of all
behavior. He studies how
unconscious interna...
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Unit 1_History - Unit 1: History

  1. 1. DO NOW:  Get your reading notes out to be checked. On your “Do Now” sheet, write down one thing you learned from your reading assignment.
  2. 2. Unit 1: History & Approaches AP Psychology Ms. Desgrosellier 9.13.2010
  3. 3. ROOTS OF PSYCHOLOGY Dualism: the philosophy that the mind and the body are two different things that interact. e.g. Physiologist Hippocrates thought the mind or soul resided in the brain, but was not composed of physical substance.
  4. 4. ROOTS OF PSYCHOLOGY  e.g. Philosopher Plato (~ 350 BC) also believed in dualism, and used self-examination of inner ideas and experiences to conclude that who we are and what we know are innate (inborn).  e.g. In ~ 1650, René Descartes studied monism and came up with the saying “I think, therefore I am.”
  5. 5. ROOTS OF PSYCHOLOGY  Monism: the mind and body are different aspects of the same thing.  e.g. The philosopher Aristotle believed that the mind/soul results from our anatomy and physiological processes, that reality is best studied by observation, and that who we are and what we know are acquired from experience.
  6. 6. ROOTS OF PSYCHOLOGY e.g. Empirical philosopher John Locke believed that mind and body interact symmetrically, knowledge comes from observation, and what we know comes from experience since we are born without knowledge (tabula rasa “a blank slate”).
  7. 7. ROOTS OF PSYCHOLOGY The debate about whether our behavior is inborn or learned through experience is called the nature-nurture controversy.
  8. 8. ROOTS OF PSYCHOLOGY Nature = inborn = genetic Nuture =experience = environmental
  9. 9. SCHOOLS OF PSYCHOLOGY  By the 1800s, psychology was beginning to emerge as a separate scientific discipline.  Charles Darwin applied the law of natural selection to human beings, forwarding the idea that human behavior and thinking are subject to scientific inquiry.
  10. 10. SCHOOLS OF PSYCHOLOGY Physiologists Ernst Weber and Gustav Fechner showed how physical events are related to sensation and perception. Hermann von Helmholtz measured the speed at which nerve impulses travel.
  11. 11. Structuralism  Wilhelm Wundt set up the first psychological laboratory in Germany in 1879.  He was measuring the difference between when people heard a sound occur versus when they consciously aware they had perceived the sound (one-tenth of a second difference).
  12. 12. Structuralism  G. Stanley Hall set up a psychology lab at Johns Hopkins University employing introspection, helped found the American Psychological Association, and became its first president.
  13. 13. Structuralism  Edward Titchener founded the field of Structuralism.  Used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind.
  14. 14. Structuralism  Margaret Floy Washburn was Titchener’s first graduate student and the first woman to complete her Ph. D. in psychology.
  15. 15. DO NOW:  What are the two roots of psychology?  In your own words, briefly summarize the nature-nurture controversy.
  16. 16. Functionalism  William James, the “father” of functionalism, was interested in the function or purpose of behavioral acts.  Other big names: James Cattell and John Dewey.
  17. 17. Functionalism  The so-called School of Functionalism studied mental testing, child development, and educational practices.  They wanted to apply psychological findings to practical situations and the function of mental operations in adapting to the environment.
  18. 18. Functionalism  Mary Whiton Calkins, who studied psychology under James at Harvard, was denied her Ph. D.  Became the first woman president of the American Psychological Association.
  19. 19. Other Famous Firsts  In 1920, Francis C. Sumner became the first African- American to receive a Ph. D. in Psychology.
  20. 20. Other Famous Firsts  In 1933, Inez Beverly Prosser became the first African-American woman to receive a Ph. D. in Psychology.  Prosser argued in her dissertation that "racial injustices and feelings of isolation have damaging effects on the psyche of Black children."
  21. 21. Other Famous Firsts  1953 – Carlos Albizu Miranda became one of the first Latinos to earn a Ph. D. in Psychology in the United States.
  22. 22. Other Famous Firsts  1962 - Martha Bernal: First Latina to earn a PhD in psychology, in clinical psychology from Indiana University Bloomington.
  23. 23. PRINCIPAL APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY
  24. 24. Behavioral Approach  behavioral approach: focuses on measuring and recording observable behavior in relation to the environment.  Behaviorists think behavior results from learning.  Dominated psychology from the 1920s to the 1960s.
  25. 25. Behavioral Approach  They analyze the ABCs of behavior:  A: Antecedent environmental conditions that precede a behavior  B: Behavior (the action to understand, predict, and/or control)  C: Consequences that follow the behavior (its effects on the environment)
  26. 26. Behavioral Approach  Behaviorists reject the study of consciousness/mental processes because they cannot be observed and verified or disproved.
  27. 27. Behavioral Approach  Ivan Pavlov: Russian physiologist who trained dogs to salivate in response to the sound of a tone, demonstrating stimulus-response learning.  John B. Watson: worked with classical conditioning, and is famous for the “Little Albert” experiment.
  28. 28. Behavioral Approach  B. F. Skinner: worked mainly with laboratory rats and pigeons, demonstrating that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive consequences and not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative consequences.  E. L. Thorndike: a behaviorist whose research led to the scientific foundation of modern educational psychology.
  29. 29. Psychodynamic/Psychoa nalytic Approach  Sigmund Freud: “father” of the psychoanalytic theory.  He focused on unconscious internal conflicts to explain mental disorders, personality, and motivation.  He thought the unconscious is the source of desires, thoughts, and memories below the surface of conscious awareness, and that early life experiences are important to personality development.
  30. 30. Psychodynamic/Psychoa nalytic Approach  Followers of Freud broke off and formed a new branch of psychology, called the psychodynamic approach.  Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and Karen Horney  They each took psychoanalysis and then changed a same part.
  31. 31. Humanistic Approach  Started in the middle of the 20th century by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers.  They thought that the unique qualities of free will and potential for personal growth guide behavior and mental processes.
  32. 32. Humanistic Approach  Humanists emphasize the importance of people’s feelings and view human nature as naturally positive and growth seeking.  They use interview techniques and believe that people have the ability to solve their own problems.
  33. 33. DO NOW:  In your own words, describe ONE of the following fields of psychology and list on major theorist for each.  structuralism  functionalism  behaviorism  psychoanalysis/psychodynamic
  34. 34. Biological Approach  Also known as Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, and Biopsychology.  Around the same time as Humanism began taking off, research on the physiological bases of behavior grew.
  35. 35. Biological Approach  Technological advances allowed biologists to examine how complex chemical and biological processes within the nervous and endocrine systems are related to behavior.  Many biological psychologists think that the mind is what the brain does.
  36. 36. Evolutionary Approach  An offshoot of the biological approach.  Based on Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection.  Behavior patterns as adaptations naturally selected because they increase reproductive stress.
  37. 37. Cognitive Approach  the study of consciousness, or thinking and memory.  Cognition emphasizes the importance of the following to understand human behavior:  receiving, storing, and processing information.  thinking and reasoning  language
  38. 38. Cognitive Approach  Jean Piaget studied cognitive development in children, laying part of the foundation for preschool and primary educational approaches.
  39. 39. Sociocultural Approach  Started in the second half of the 20th century.  Studies social and environmental factors that influence cultural differences in behavior  It studies cultural differences in an attempt to understand, predict, and control behavior.
  40. 40. Eclectic Approach  No single theoretical approach explains all aspects of behavior, although all provide a framework for studying and understanding behavior.  Most modern psychologists adopt ideas from multiple perspectives.  eclectic: psychologists who use techniques and adopt ideas from a variety of approaches.
  41. 41. PROFESSIONS & CAREERS  Scientific psychology developed in universities with research laboratories where basic research was conducted, and where experimental psychologists continue to ad knowledge to the field.  After WWII, many opportunities for applied psychologists developed outside of these institutions.  Job opportunities grew, and the field became more fragmented and specialized.
  42. 42. PROFESSIONS & CAREERS  Examples:  clinical psychologists: evaluate and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders.  Counseling psychologists: help people adapt to change to make changes in their lifestyle.
  43. 43. PROFESSIONS & CAREERS  Developmental psychologists: study psychological development throughout the lifespan.  Educational psychologists: focus on how effective teaching and learning take place.
  44. 44. PROFESSIONS & CAREERS  Engineering psychologists: and human factors psychologists promote the development and application of psychology to improve technology, consumer products, energy systems, communication and information, transportation, decision making, work settings, and living environments.
  45. 45. PROFESSIONS & CAREERS  Forensic psychologists: apply psychological principles to legal issues.  Health psychologists: concentrate on biological, psychological, and social factors involved in health and illness.
  46. 46. PROFESSIONS & CAREERS  Industrial/Organizational psychologists: aim to improve productivity and the quality of work life by applying psychological principles and methods to the workplace.
  47. 47. PROFESSIONS & CAREERS  Neuropsychologists: explore the relationships between brain/nervous systems and behavior. Neuropsychologists are also called biological psychologists of biopsychologists, behavioral geneticists, physiological psychologists, and behavioral neuroscientists.
  48. 48. DO NOW:  In your own words, describe one of the following fields of psychology and list on major theorist for each, if given in class or text.  Humanistic  Biological  Evolutionary  Cognitive  Sociocultural  Eclectic
  49. 49. PROFESSIONS & CAREERS  Personality psychologists: focus on aspects of the individual such as traits, attitudes, and goals.  Psychometricians: sometimes called psychometric psychologists or measurement psychologists, focus on methods for acquiring and analyzing psychological data.
  50. 50. PROFESSIONS & CAREERS  Rehabilitation psychologists: help clients with mental retardation, developmental disabilities, and disabilities resulting from stroke or accidents adapt to their situations.  School psychologists: assess and counsel students, consult with educators and parents, and perform behavioral intervention when necessary.
  51. 51. PROFESSIONS & CAREERS  Social psychologists: focus on how a person’s mental life and behavior are shaped by interactions with other people.  Sports psychologists: help athletes refine their focus on competition goals, increase motivation, and deal with anxiety and fear of failure.
  52. 52. PROFESSIONS & CAREERS  Psychiatrist: a practioner that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness.  Has earned a medical degree.  Can prescribe drugs.
  53. 53. EXAMPLES:  Dr. Darling was hired by the TLC Company to help them retain their employees without lowering the firm’s profits. After TLC removed cubicles and permitted employees to decorate their workroom as recommended by Dr. Darling, the absentee rate declined and no employees left for jobs elsewhere. Dr. Darling is most likely to be what kind of psychologist?
  54. 54. EXAMPLES:  Answer: Industrial/Organizational
  55. 55. EXAMPLES:  Professor Nash studies the degree to which genes and heredity influence our personality. She is working from the _________ perspective.  Answer: Evolutionary
  56. 56. EXAMPLES:  Dr. Catchings, who explores how Asian and North American definitions of attractiveness differ, is working from the _________ perspective.  Answer: sociocultural
  57. 57. EXAMPLES:  Professor Hughes believes that people are essentially good and that we are all striving for personal growth. She studies how free will guides behavior and mental processes. She is most likely what kind of psychologist?
  58. 58. EXAMPLES:  Answer: Humanistic
  59. 59. EXAMPLES:  Dr. Richardson studies the way the mind encodes, processes, stores, and retrieves information. He also specializes in language acquisition and memory. Which approach does Dr. Richardson most likely follow?  Answer: Cognitive
  60. 60. EXAMPLES:  Professor Grays believes that all behavior is learned from one’s environment. She studies how conditioning can be used to reinforce behavior in animals. She is most likely what kind of psychologist?  Answer: Behavioral
  61. 61. EXAMPLES:  Dr. House’s research centers on the relationship between changes in our thinking over the life span and changes in moral reasoning. Dr. House most likely uses which kind of approach?  Answer: Developmental
  62. 62. EXAMPLES:  Professor Moran, who believes that human emotions are best understood as being jointly determined by heredity, learning, and the individual’s social and cultural contexts, is evidently a proponent of which perspective?  Answer: Eclectic
  63. 63. EXAMPLES:  Dr. Foster believes that all behavior is a direct result of our physiology. She is most likely which kind of psychologist?  Answer: Biological
  64. 64. EXAMPLES:  Professor Dia believes that one’s subconscious is the root of all behavior. He studies how unconscious internal conflicts to explain mental disorders, personality, and motivation. Professor Dia is which kind of psychologist?  Answer: Psychoanalytic
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