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Title of Presentation Title of Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • an introduction to
    psychology
    &
    sociology
    oswayo valley high school
  • what man has done
    HISTORY
    how man governs
    how man makes a living
    POLITICAL SCIENCE
    ECONOMICS
    SOCIAL SCIENCES
    PSYCHOLOGY
    SOCIOLOGY
    how man thinks and acts
    as an individual
    ANTHROPOLOGY
    how man thinks as acts
    in a group
    what makes groups of men
    similar and dissimilar
  • additional hypothesis
    reject/revise hypothesis
    others replicate and test theories
  • WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?
    Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes (Rathus, 5)
    • Behavior: any action that other people can observe and measure (both social and biological
    • Cognitive Processes: mental activities, such as dreams, perceptions, thoughts, and memories
    • Psychological Construct: theories or concepts that enable one to discuss something that cannot be seen, touched, or measured directly (e.g. emotions)
  • Psychology differs from Psychiatry (a branch of medical that deals with mental, emotional, or behavioral problems).
    Psychology has a number of different fields
    • Clinical psychologists help people with personal problems
    • Counselors work in schools or industrial firms advising and assisting people the problems of everyday life
    • Developmental psychologists study physical, emotional, cognitive and social changes that occur throughout life
    • Educational psychologists focus on course planning and methodology
    • social psychologists are concerned with people’s behavior in social situations
  • WHAT ARE THE GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY?
    Describe the behaviors to be studied and present what is known
    Explain why people behave the way they do
    Predict, as a result of accumulated knowledge, what people will do, think, or feel in various situations
    Influence behavior in helpful ways
  • WHAT IS THE HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY?
    Ancient Greece.
    Socrates suggested that man “know thyself” – a process of introspection by “looking within” to examine our own thoughts and feelings to act in a way consistent with what each believes is right
    Aristotle outlined the laws of associationism (a learned connection between two ideas or events)
  • During the Middle Ages emotions and behaviors were thought to be inspired by spiritual forces.
    The Age of Enlightenment re-introduced science to philosophical and scientific thought: rationalism emphasized reason over faith in direct contradiction with Middle Ages thought
  • Structuralism(Wilhelm Wundt) – the basic elements of consciousness are divided between objective sensations (sight and taste) and subjective feelings (emotional responses and mental images)
    Functionalism (William James) – study of mental processes (functions or purposes of consciousness)
    Inheritable Traits (Francis Galton) – heredity determines a person’s personality and behavior
    Gestalt : perception (consciousness) is more than the sum of its parts, it involves the “whole pattern”
  • WHAT ARE THE APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY?
    Evolutionary: investigates how primal survival instincts can influence behavior
    Biological: focuses primarily on the activities of the nervous system, the brain, hormones, and genetics
  • Psychodynamic: emphasizes internal unconscious conflicts; the emphasis is on sexual and aggressive instincts that collide with cultural norms (socially acceptable behavior)
    Humanistic: emphasizes an individuals potential for growth and the role of perception in guiding mental processes and behaviors
  • Cognitive: focuses on the mechanisms through which people receive, store, and process information
    Behavioral: examines the learning process, focusing in particular on the influence of rewards and punishments
    Sociocultural: explores how behavior is shaped by history, society and culture
  • A Closer Look At
    APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY
    Psychologists approach their various subjects with a number of presuppositions
     The Nature of Man: an issue of philosophy
     The Nature of the Question: an matter of purpose
     The Nature of the Resources: a question of procedure
  • The Evolutionary Approach
    Assumption: Adaptive organisms survive and transmit their genes to future generations
    Applications:
    • Applies Darwin’s ideas of Natural Selection (an evolutionary process in which individuals of a species that are best adapted to their environments are the ones most likely to survive; they then pass on their traits to their offspring) to Psychology
    • William James: “the father of psychology”; adaptive behavior patterns are learned and maintained because they are successful
    • David Buss: a core principle of Psychological adaptation involves an organism’s need to reproduce
  • The Biological Approach
    Assumption: biological/physiological processes influence behavior and
    mental processes
    Applications:
    • Stanley Schachter: studied eating
    behaviors by manipulating external cues
    to determine effects on eating
    • Howard Gardner: studied brain damage
    and neurological disorders; different
    parts of the brain have different
    functions; created theory of multiple
    intelligences
    • Hans Eysenck: the importance
    of genetics; intelligence is
    inherited
    • William James: humans share common instincts
    (e.g. curiosity, parental love, sympathy, etc.) which
    are passed genetically from generation to
    generation
    • Masters and Johnson:
    studied human sexuality
  • The Psychodynamic / Psychoanalytic Approach
    Assumption: unconscious motives and conflicts influence behavior
    Applications:
    • Sigmund Freud: free association (patient is instructed to say
    anything that comes into his mind) relieves the operation o
    the mental process by bringing the unconscious to the conscious
    • Carl Jung: unconscious consisted of two components—a personal
    (or individual) one and a collective one: cultures had similar archetypes (cultural symbols that appear to be nearly universal and that are stored in collective unconscious
    • Erik Erikson: people go through certain psychological crises at
    different phases of development, each crisis needs to be resolved before a person can progress to the next stage of development
  • The Humanist Approach
    Assumption: people make free and conscious choices based on their unique experiences; human behavior is primarily determined by one’s environment
    Applications:
    • Carl Rogers: human behavior is governed by ‘self-concept’—the
    image a person has of himself
    • Abraham Maslow: people have a
    “hierarchy of needs”, beginning with the basics (food, shelter), progressing to the “higher” (love, self-esteem, understanding), and culminating in self-actualization
  • The Cognitive Approach
    Assumption: perceptions and thoughts influence behavior; how people
    process information and images is part of our “mental programming”
    Applications:
    • Jean Piaget: people develop through different
    stages, at different rates
    • Albert Bandura: social cognition theory (a form of
    learning in which the person observes and imitates the behaviors of others); people approach a situation based on “expectancies” learned from previous experiences
    • Lawrence Kohlberg: explains moral development through a period of
    stages
    The central idea of the cognitive approach is one of a logical progression—whether applied to personality, morality, or behavior
  • The Behavioral Approach
    Assumption: personal experience and reinforcement guide individual development; it is not what a person thinks, but what he does
    Applications:
    • John Watson: psychology must be
    limited to overt, observable behavior; controlling a person’s environment would influence him in a certain direction
    • Ivan Pavlov: developed the idea of “psychic reflexes” whereby an action can bring about an unrelated action; classical conditioning
    • B.F. Skinner: behavior is strongly influenced by rewards and punishment
  • The Socio-cultural Approach
    Assumption: socio-cultural, biological, and psychological factors create
    individual differences
    Applications:
    • Solomon Asch: people tend to conform
    to other people’s ides of truth even when they disagree with those truths
    • Stanley Milgram: people will change
    their behavior at the request of— or even in the presence of— someone they perceive to be an authority figure
  • Which of these approaches serves Psychology best?
  • A Closer Look At
    RESEARCH
    Psychologists must choose research methodology that is not only scientifically sound but also suitable for the topic. Each type has advantages and disadvantages.
  • Problems and Solutions in Research
    Avoiding a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy. A self-fulfilling prophecy is a situation in which a researcher’s expectations influence that person’s own behavior, and thereby influence the participant’s behavior. This can be minimized by:
    • Single-blind experiment: an experiment in which the
    participants are unaware of which participants received the
    treatment
    • Double-blind experiment: an experiment in which neither the
    experimenter nor the participants know which participants
    received the treatment
  • The Placebo Effect. A change in a participant’s illness or behavior that results from a belief that the treatment will have an effect rather than the actual treatment.
    The Milgram Experience. Researchers must follow ethical guidelines in experimentation
    experimenter
    subject
    “answerer”
    actor
  • Socrates
    http://www.kidspast.com/images/socrates.jpg
    Aristotle
    http://westernparadigm.files.wordpress.com/2008/10/aristotle.jpg?w=263&h=315
    Wilhelm Wundt
    http://psych.wisc.edu/henriques/resources/Wilhelm_Wundt.gif
    William James
    http://psych.wisc.edu/henriques/resources/William_James.GIF
    Francis Galton
    http://www.reproductive-revolution.com/francis-galton.png
    Terapias Gestalt
    http://www.terapiasnaturales.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/gestalt.jpg
    Evolution
    http://daily.swarthmore.edu/static/uploads/by_date/2009/02/19/evolution.jpg
    Nervous System
    http://www.capitalcitychiro.net/images/stock/nervous%20system.gif
    Middle Ages Exorcism
    http://www.australianparanormalsociety.com/news/wp-content/uploads/am4.jpg
    Age of Enlightenment
    http://www.memo.fr/Media/MOD_LUM_000.jpg
    Brain (cartoon)
    http://www.st-augustines.worcs.sch.uk/images/Departments/psychology/psych_2.jpg
    Good v. Evil
    http://www.blacksunjournal.com/wp-content/images/1506l.jpg
    Group Hug
    http://graphics.tomrue.net/images/group-hug.jpg
    Lab rat
    http://www.101usesforajohnhoward.com/wp-content/uploads/2006/07/25labrat.gif
    Herd
    http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_1V7wnZxPqok/RoOCiW5wfoI/AAAAAAAAFPc/1MdGesWwUJM/s400/herd-of-sheep.jpg
    PHOTO CREDITS
    Introduction to Psychology
  • Darwin
    http://oreh.pef.uni-lj.si/~markor/Darwin/Charles_Darwin.jpg
    William James
    http://psych.wisc.edu/henriques/resources/William_James.GIF
    David Buss
    http://www.enterstageright.com/archive/articles/0204/020904bussdavid.jpg
    Stanley Schachter
    http://www.socialpsychology.org/images/socialfigures/schachter.gif
    Howard Gardner
    http://www.howardgardner.com/images/Howard%20Gardner%20Compressed.jpg
    Hans Eysenck
    http://wpcontent.answers.com/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1f/Hans.Eysenck.jpg/200px-Hans.Eysenck.jpg
    William James
    http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/questionofgod/images/voices/james_sidebar.jpg
    Masters and Johnson
    http://images.stltoday.com/stltoday/resources/sex625may3.jpg
    Sigmund Freud
    http://blog.syracuse.com/shelflife/2008/05/freud.jpg
    Carl Jung
    http://www.crystalinks.com/jung.jpg
    Erik Erikson
    http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic20826.files/Erikson2.jpg
    Carl rogers
    http://www.myers-online.de/myers/zeitleiste/images/vRogers.jpg
    Abraham Maslow
    http://quangkhoi.net/learningcenter/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/maslow1.jpg
    PHOTO CREDITS
    Introduction to Psychology
  • Jean Piaget
    http://lakeplacidcsd.net/lpcsweb/highschool/dev.web/piaget.jpg
    Albert Bandura
    http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2007/december5/gifs/graw_bandura.jpg
    Lawrence Kohlberg
    http://www.gse.harvard.edu/news/features/images/kohlberg_lecture.gif
    John Watson
    http://www.nndb.com/people/078/000030985/john-b-watson-1-sized.jpg
    Ivan Pavlov
    http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1904/pavlov.jpg
    B.F. Skinner
    http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.psychology.uiowa.edu/Faculty/wasserman/Glossary/skinner.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.psychology.uiowa.edu/Faculty/wasserman/Glossary/homepage.html&usg=__kkqrz4g-NzKQbOC4D3GR1mJe5ZE=&h=316&w=319&sz=24&hl=en&start=1&tbnid=T29QO16IxvOGLM:&tbnh=117&tbnw=118&prev=/images%3Fq%3Db%2Bf%2Bskinner%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D18%26hl%3Den
    Solomon Asch
    http://aschcenter.blogs.brynmawr.edu/files/2008/10/aschpipeforweb.jpg
    Stanley Milgram
    http://www3.niu.edu/acad/psych/Millis/History/2003/Milgram_head.gif
    PHOTO CREDITS
    Introduction to Psychology
  • Belch, Hal. What is Psychology?: Psychology Approaches. Culver City, CA: Social Studies School Service. 2004
    Kasschau, Richard A. Understanding Psychology. New York, NY: Glencoe McGraw-Hill. 2003
    Rathus, Spencer A. Psychology: Principles in Practice. Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 2003
    SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
    Introduction to Psychology