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Technological Singularity
Preventing Post Humanity
By Alex Jarstad
Introduction to Technological
Singularity
• Technological singularity is the point at which
computers achieve artificial i...
Technological Singularity
“Let an ultraintelligent machine be defined as a machine that can
far surpass all the intellectu...
Historical Background
• 3000 B.C. The Chinese invent a counting device known as the “abacus”.
• 1623 A.D. Wilhelm Schickar...
Moore’s Law
• The number of transistors that can be placed on an
integrated circuit will increase exponentially
approximat...
Moore’s Law
http://singularity.com/images/charts/MooresLaw.jpg
Moravec’s Projection
http://www.frc.ri.cmu.edu/~hpm/talks/revo.slides/power.aug.curve/power.aug.gif
What is intelligence?
• Human intelligence
• Animal intelligence
• Artificial intelligence
http://lesbianpiratequeen.files...
The Human Brain
• According to Steven Pinker, author of How the Mind
Works, “The mind is a system of organs of
computation...
Physical Components
• Neurons – Specialized Brain cells required for functioning (Bear et al.,
2007).
• Glia (Glial cells)...
Functional Areas of the Brain
http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/32/99532-004-2B7BE4E6.jpg
Complexity of human thought
• Years of mental development prove to be
adaptive (Wundt, 1897).
• Cortical Brain functioning...
Computer Intelligence
• Can computers think?
The Turing Test
http://www.alanturing.net/turing_archive/graphics/turingtest.gif
Implications of Turing Test
• An error in identifying the human exhibits the
computer’s ability to think and trick the par...
Computer thinking vs. Human thinking
Computer Thinking
• Serial Processing
• Can analyze
preprogrammed
problems
Human Thin...
Completely Autonomous AI
• Understand Full Spectrum of Human Emotion
• Experience Emotion
• Be able to recognize images an...
Recent Developments
• Quantum Computers – Building The Matrix (Castelvecchi, 2008).
• Parallel Processing Computers – Cray...
The Singularity is Near
• Kurzweil (2005) on reverse engineering the brain – Because
human intelligence exists means it is...
Vernor Vinge’s (2008) Scenarios for AI
• The AI Scenario: superhuman AI in computers.
• The IA Scenario: humans can be ess...
Predicting Outcomes
• Virtual reality worlds (Kurzweil, 2005)
• Cures for everything and every possible
discovery made wit...
http://www.cyberpunkreview.com/images/Terminator3-
09.jpg
http://img2.timeinc.net/ew/dynamic/imgs/070821/jetsons_l
.jpg
ht...
Regulation for AI must start now
• The Singularity Institute for Artificial
Intelligence Mission Statement – “In the
comin...
YouTube – The Singularity
http://www.cyberpunkreview.com/images/i-robot07.jpg
References
• Bear, M.F., Connors, B.W., & Paradiso, M.A. (2007). Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain. Baltimore: Lippincott ...
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  1. 1. Technological Singularity Preventing Post Humanity By Alex Jarstad
  2. 2. Introduction to Technological Singularity • Technological singularity is the point at which computers achieve artificial intelligence that surpasses the intelligence of humans. • Scientists generally agree that this will occur before the year 2030. • The term Singularity was first proposed in 1993 by Theorist Vernor Vinge.
  3. 3. Technological Singularity “Let an ultraintelligent machine be defined as a machine that can far surpass all the intellectual activities of any man however clever. Since the design of machines is one of these intellectual activities, an ultraintelligent machine could design even better machines; there would then unquestionably be an ‘intelligence explosion,’ and the intelligence of man would be left far behind. Thus the first ultraintelligent machine is the last invention that man need ever make.” – I.J. Good, 1965
  4. 4. Historical Background • 3000 B.C. The Chinese invent a counting device known as the “abacus”. • 1623 A.D. Wilhelm Schickard develops the first automatic calculator. • 1679 A.D. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz develops the modern binary system. • 1938 A.D. As a result of World War II starting, the United States Army begins research towards the development of the ENIAC. • 1947 A.D. The transistor is invented at AT&T Bell labs. • 1965 A.D. Gordon Moore makes the discovery that the number of transistors that can be placed on a circuit board and still be cost efficient will double every 24 months. • 1988 A.D. Hans Moravec creates an early projection for when the intelligence explosion will occur.
  5. 5. Moore’s Law • The number of transistors that can be placed on an integrated circuit will increase exponentially approximately every two years in relationship to cost. • Has held true to the test of time (Twist, 2005). http://www-ece.rice.edu/~jdw/figs/2n3904b.jpg http://visual.merriam- webster.com/images/science/physics-electricity- magnetism/electronics/packaged-integrated-circuit.jpg http://pop.pcpop.com/upimg2/2004/4/2/282073576.jpg
  6. 6. Moore’s Law http://singularity.com/images/charts/MooresLaw.jpg
  7. 7. Moravec’s Projection http://www.frc.ri.cmu.edu/~hpm/talks/revo.slides/power.aug.curve/power.aug.gif
  8. 8. What is intelligence? • Human intelligence • Animal intelligence • Artificial intelligence http://lesbianpiratequeen.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/intelligence.jpg
  9. 9. The Human Brain • According to Steven Pinker, author of How the Mind Works, “The mind is a system of organs of computation, designed by natural selection to solve the kinds of problems our ancestors faced in their foraging way of life, in particular, understanding and outmaneuvering objects, animals, plants, and other people (1997).”
  10. 10. Physical Components • Neurons – Specialized Brain cells required for functioning (Bear et al., 2007). • Glia (Glial cells) http://www.utexas.edu/courses/bio365r/Images/neuron.JPG
  11. 11. Functional Areas of the Brain http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/32/99532-004-2B7BE4E6.jpg
  12. 12. Complexity of human thought • Years of mental development prove to be adaptive (Wundt, 1897). • Cortical Brain functioning allows for hypothesis testing (Bennett & Hacker, 2005).
  13. 13. Computer Intelligence • Can computers think?
  14. 14. The Turing Test http://www.alanturing.net/turing_archive/graphics/turingtest.gif
  15. 15. Implications of Turing Test • An error in identifying the human exhibits the computer’s ability to think and trick the participant. • “The only way to know that a man thinks is to be that particular man (Turing, 1950).” • In the years that followed the work of Turing the primary question of AI turned from “Can computers think?” to “How well can computers think?” (Hayles, 1999).
  16. 16. Computer thinking vs. Human thinking Computer Thinking • Serial Processing • Can analyze preprogrammed problems Human Thinking • Parallel Processing • Can analyze novel problems http://singularity.com/images/charts/thumb_SuperComputers.jpg
  17. 17. Completely Autonomous AI • Understand Full Spectrum of Human Emotion • Experience Emotion • Be able to recognize images and language • Sense of self preservation
  18. 18. Recent Developments • Quantum Computers – Building The Matrix (Castelvecchi, 2008). • Parallel Processing Computers – Cray and Intel multiyear deal (Thomas, 2008). • Self Aware Artificial intelligence – NaturalMotion Euphoria software (NaturalMotion, 2008) • Socializing Robots – Robots develop unique personalities based on interactions with humans (Ceurstemont, 2009). • Facial recognition software – Facial expression recognition
  19. 19. The Singularity is Near • Kurzweil (2005) on reverse engineering the brain – Because human intelligence exists means it is possible to replicate it. • Forms of artificial intelligence already exists within search engines, video games, and cell phones. • One of the biggest setbacks towards developing AI is that computers right now cannot process language the way humans can. However, within the next five years computer programs should be able to model semantics, not just simply mimic syntax. • By the year 2029 computers will be completely indistinguishable from human intelligence (Ramaswami, 2009).
  20. 20. Vernor Vinge’s (2008) Scenarios for AI • The AI Scenario: superhuman AI in computers. • The IA Scenario: humans can be essentially upgraded by computers (Intelligence Amplification). • The Biomedical Scenario: We alter the biological structures of our brains thus improving human intelligence • The Internet Scenario: All information becomes directly connected creating a super intelligent entity. • The Digital Gaia Scenario: Networks of microprocessors become so efficient that they are said to hold superhuman intelligence.
  21. 21. Predicting Outcomes • Virtual reality worlds (Kurzweil, 2005) • Cures for everything and every possible discovery made within years of intelligence explosion (Good, 1965). • If something can go wrong, it will (Vinge, 1993). • Post biological beings (Dick, 2008).
  22. 22. http://www.cyberpunkreview.com/images/Terminator3- 09.jpg http://img2.timeinc.net/ew/dynamic/imgs/070821/jetsons_l .jpg http://www.yugatech.com/ringtones/wp- content/uploads/2007/06/transformers-movie.jpg Which Future Will It Be?
  23. 23. Regulation for AI must start now • The Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence Mission Statement – “In the coming decades, humanity will likely create a powerful artificial intelligence. SIAI exists to handle this urgent challenge, both the opportunity and the risk (singinst.org).” • “Will the movie we live in be The Jetsons or Terminator 2? (Stix, 2000)”.
  24. 24. YouTube – The Singularity http://www.cyberpunkreview.com/images/i-robot07.jpg
  25. 25. References • Bear, M.F., Connors, B.W., & Paradiso, M.A. (2007). Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. • Bennett, M.R. and Hacker, P.M.S. (2005). Emotion and cortical-subcortical function: conceptual developments. Progress in Neurobiology, 75, 29-52. • Castelvecchi, D. (August 30, 2008). Building ‘The Matrix’. Retrieved February 2, 2009 from http://sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/34497/title/Building_The_Matrix. • Ceurstemont, S. (2009). Sociable robots learn to get along with humans. Retrieved February 23, 2009 from http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn16644-video-sociable-robots-learn-to-get-along-with-humans.html?DCMP=OTC-rss&nsref=online-news • Dick, S. (August 19, 2008). Could Robot Aliens Exist? Retrieved February 2, 2009 from http://www.popsci.com/popsci-staff/article/2008-08/could-robot- aliens-exist • Good, I. J. (1965). Speculations Concerning the First Ultraintelligent Machine. Advances in Computers (Academic Press), 6, 31-88. • Hayles, N.K. (1999). How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. • Kurzweil, R. (2005) The Singularity is Near. Available February 3, 2008 from http://books.google.com/ books?hl=en&id=88U6hdUi6D0C&dq=technological+singularity&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=v_fYmFuxKI&sig=9XhPpim2dKgwip13jZPGtl4VQN0 &sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=3&ct=result#PPA39,M1 • Moravec, H. (1988). Mind Children. Boston: Harvard University Press. • NaturalMotion Ltd. (2008). FAQ. Retrieved February 23, 2009 from http://www.naturalmotion.com/faq.htm • Pinker, S. (1997). How the Mind Works. Retrieved February 3, 2009 from http://human-nature.com/books/mind.html. • Ramaswami, R. (2009). Artificial Intelligence: Is the Future Now For A.I.? Retrieved February 23, 2009 from http://www.thejournal.com/articles/23927_5 • Stix, G. (2000). Artificial Intelligentsia. Retrieved February 3, 2009 from http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=artificial-intelligentsia. • Thomas, A. (2008). Cray goes with Intel for HPC. Retrieved February 16, 2009 from http://www.theinquirer.net/inquirer/news/530/1026530/cray-goes-intel-hpc. • Turing, A.M. (1950). Computer Machinery and Intelligence. Mind, 59, 433-460. • Twist, J. (2005). Law that has driven digital life. Retrieved February 16, 2009 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4449711.stm • Vinge, V. (2008). Signs of the Singularity . Retrieved March 1, 2009 from http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/jun08/6306 • Vinge, V. (1993). The Coming Technological Singularity: How to Survive in the Post-Human Era. Retrieved February 2, 2009 from http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/faculty/vinge/ misc/singularity.html.
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