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Research Paper Technical Writing and Editing - PowerPoint Presentation

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    Research Paper Technical Writing and Editing - PowerPoint Presentation Research Paper Technical Writing and Editing - PowerPoint Presentation Presentation Transcript

    • Research Paper Technical Writing and Editing “ Increasing the chances of a research manuscript to be accepted for publication” June 6, 2008 Dante P. Bornales, MD, MHPEd, FPNA Editor-in-chief, Philippine Journal of Neurology
      • Why think of publishing a research work?
        • intellectual curiosity  contribute in the local and global health care delivery systems
        • disseminating information to the greatest number of readers  to assure utilization in the health sciences
        • “ publish or perish!!”  value of documenting one’s work
        • personal and professional growth
    • The Status of Neurology Research in the Philippines Collantes EV, PhilJNeurol vol 9 no 2 (Nov 2005) 740 submitted researches to the PNA (1989-2004) Only 10% were published (8.5% in various local journals; 1.5% international journals)
      • The Status of Neurology Research in the Philippines
      • Collantes EV, PhilJNeurol vol 9 no 2 (November 2005)
      • 740 total # of submitted researches to the PNA (1989-2004):
      • Only 10% were published
      • (8.5% in various local journals; 1.5% international journals)
          • lack enthusiasm/support to publish the research outputs?
          • quality of research materials?
          • lack of knowledge and rigorous “technical” training on research paper writing?
      • Outline of this presentation:
      • Increase the awareness of the PNA Fellows on the present status of the PhilJNeurol
      •  where is our journal now?
      • 2. Using the PhilJNeurol evaluation standards and the guidelines of the ICMJE, discuss the technical details of research paper writing and editing
      •  what to look for in a manuscript for it to be worthy of publication
      • 3. Enumerate some operating procedures on matters about “duplication of publication”
      • Choosing the right biomedical journal for the publication of researches:
        • wide circulation, preferably beyond the local/regional geographical area
        •  “ always think big!”
        •  “ always go global”
        • established peer review system
        • published regularly
        • accepted and generally referenced
      • PhilJNeurol
        • wide circulation, preferably beyond the local/regional geographical area
        •  “ always think big!”
        •  “ always go global”
        • established peer review system
        • published regularly
        • accepted and generally referenced
    • Philippine Journal of Neurology (PhilJNeurol)  regularly published  circulated locally and in the ASEAN region  peer-reviewed journal with an established “blind” peer review process  published papers are uploaded in the WPRIM Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (International Committee of Medical Editors, ICMJE)
      • Western Pacific Region Index Medicus (WPRIM)
        • a project of the WHO Western Pacific Regional Office in collaboration with several institutions in its member states
        • this is the region’s contribution to the Global Health Library (GHL) initiative which aims to extend to all - the benefits of the knowledge that is essential to the fullest attainment of health
      • Western Pacific Region Index Medicus (WPRIM)
        • WPRIM will be deployed and hosted with the index medici of other WHO Regions, at the Global Index Medicus portal under the Global Health Library platform , where searches can be conducted individually or simultaneously through federated search engine
    • Western Pacific Region Index Medicus (WPRIM) Goal: The creation of an online index of medical and health journals published in member states of the WHO Western Pacific Region which can be accessed on the internet thus ensuring global accessibility of medical and health research done in the region .
    • WHO-WPRIM Philippine Focal Team PCHRD (February 2006) >140 local medical and health journals 18 journals selected on the basis of regularity of issues and peer review process 13 journals were finally chosen to be included in the database uploading for WPRIM PhilJNeurol was included
    • Philippine Journal of Neurology (PhilJNeurol) MOA  partnership with the PCHRD 79 research articles and abstracts in the PhilJNeurol from 1991 to 2006 November are already uploaded in the WPRIM website database http://wprim.wpro.who.int
    • How to increase the chances of a research paper to be accepted for publication in a biomedical journal Preparing a manuscript for submission to a biomedical journal Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (International Committee of Medical Journals Editors, ICMJE; updated Feb 2006) Title and authorship Abstract Introduction Methods Results Discussion and Conclusion References
    • What constitute a good title? “ fewest possible words that adequately describe the contents of the paper” Common errors: too short too long poor syntax Title and Authorship
    • Analyze the evolution of this title: “ The effects of a neuroprotectant in Stroke” “ Preliminary findings on the effects of a neuroprotectant in Stroke” “ Preliminary findings on the effects of Citicholin on the size of ischemic penumbra in cases of Stroke” “ Preliminary findings on the effects of Citicholin on the size of ischemic penumbra in cases of large-vessel ischemic stroke”
    • Title and Authorship
      • Syntax
        • most grammatical errors in titles are
        • due to faulty word order
      “ Alteration of mice’ non-transmissible encephalitis course induced by Newcastle disease virus”
      • Avoid:
        • use of abbreviations
        • chemical formulae
        • hanging titles
        • questions
        • proprietary name of drugs
      “ Use of interferon in chronic relapsing Multiple Sclerosis: Is it necessary?” Title and Authorship
    • Title Page (ICMJE) 1. Title of the article 2. Author/s name (with the academic degree/s) and affiliation 3. Disclaimers 4. Corresponding author/s with the address for reprints 5. Source of support or grants 6. Word count Conflict of Interest Notification Page  a separate page
      • Authorship
      • Participation in the research process
      • each author should have participated sufficiently in the work represented by the article and able to take responsibility for the intellectual content
      • participation solely in the collection of data (or evidence) does not justify authorship
      (Rosales, R: Principles of Authorship; Research Center for the Health Sciences, UST)
      • Authorship
      • Content
      • each part of the content of the paper and each step that led to its publication must be attributable to at least one author
      • a. conception or design or analysis and interpretation of the data, or both;
      • b. drafting the article or revising it for critically important content;
      • c. final approval of the version to be published
      (Rosales, R: Principles of Authorship; Research Center for the Health Sciences, UST)
      • Authorship
      • Contributors who “do not justify” authorship
      • contributors may be named and their contribution must be described in separate paragraph
      • “ advise”
      • “ critical review proposal”
      • “ data collection”
      • “ participation in clinical trial”
      • “ comments on the research content from a senior staff of a
      • department”
    • Abstract Abstracts are the only substantive portion of the article indexed in many electronic databases, and the only portion many readers read!!! Authors need to be careful that the abstracts reflect the content of the article accurately. Unfortunately, many abstracts disagree with the text of the article (Pitkin RM et al, JAMA 1999).
        • length and structure vary by journal, should follow
        • the title page
        • should not be more than 200 words
      • (some journals: not more than 250 words)
        • “ structured” form
        • should be factual  presenting the reason for the study, main findings, and conclusions
        • 3 to 10 “key words”  ideally should follow the
        • Medical Subjects Headings (MeSH) list of the
        • Index Medicus
      Abstract
    • Sample structured Abstract Endovascular Coiling for Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm Objective: To present the clinical outcome of 23 patients who underwent endovascular coiling for ruptured aneurysm in a local tertiary center. Methods: Chart review of all consecutive patients more than 18 years old with ruptured intracranial aneurysm admitted or co-managed by the Section of Neurology of a local tertiary hospital from August 2003 to July 2006 who underwent endovascular coiling. Results: Of the 154 patients with non-traumatic aneurysm SAH, only 25 patients underwent endovascular coiling, but 2 were excluded because of incomplete chart data. Demographic and clinical characteristics were … Of the 4 patients who died, 3 had pulmonary embolism. Conclusions: This study showed that: 1)Most (65%) of the patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysm who underwent endovascular coiling in this institution were discharged functionally trials…Therefore endovascular coiling promises to be a viable alternative to aneurysm management especially for cases when surgical management may not be ideal. Leonardo Z, Picar R; PhilJNeurol vol 11 no 1 (2007)
      • Define the problem being studied
      • - Background info on what is currently known
      • - Indicate: Significance
      • Relevance
      • Rationale
      • Include statement of the purpose/objectives of the study and the delimitations
      Introduction
      • What should a good introduction contain?
      • Look for:
      • a background on the nature and scope of the research problem and its significance
      • orientation on part of the reader  by reviewing pertinent literature
      • Statement/s of the objectives of the study
      • May include: method of investigation
      • “ principal” results of the investigation
      Introduction
    • Avoid: 1. “book description” of the subject  impertinent information  lack of relevant info on the subject 2. excessively lengthy and verbose  “the nobela type”  “ squid technique” 3. the objectives: too broad excessive to become realistic! overly ambitious Introduction
    • “… should include information that was/were available at the time the plan or protocol for the study was written.” “… all info obtained during the conduct of the study belongs in the Results section.” Methods
    • Guiding principle: how and why the study was done Look for: a. research design b. selection and description of participants inclusion/exclusion criteria description of the source population c. study site/s and time period covered/duration d. operational definitions eg. “… late Parkinson disease was operationally defined as those patients falling under stage 3 or 4 of the Hoehn and Yahr staging” Methods
    • Look for : e. study procedure copies of IRB or ERB approval Randomization done, blinding subject selection data gathered, etc, etc. f. Data analysis statistical tests level of significance actual computer program used (registered software!) outcome measures g. for experimental studies involving non-humans - include scientific nomenclature (Genus and species) - indicate the guide for the care of lab animals based on national or institutional committees Methods
    • Look for: h. for drugs, use generic names followed by the trade name and the manufacturer i. for equipment: state the equipment used manufacturer’s name and address j. for experiments using certain techniques, state full details (in order to permit replication for others to utilize) k. for studies involving human subjects or patients: observe strict confidentiality copies of the written informed consents for publication pedigrees should have written consent photographs – masking and with written consents should indicate if authors followed the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, revised 2000 Methods
    • Look for: 1. demographics and outcome measures 2. results!!! (continuous variables, percentages)  reserve the correlation and interpretation for the discussions 3. statistical analysis - use of numerical data and not generalizations - use of actual p value (followed by the actual test that was used) eg. p=0.005, chi square 4. others: spell out “per cent” be consistent on decimal places Results
      • use tables if there are many categories
      • - no need to state in the textual part of the results all the contents of the tables
      • - simple format with complete title
      • - put p values (if applicable)
      • - observe: 1 double-spaced table per page
      • use figures and graphs sparingly!
      • - efficient when illustrating “trends”
      • - less useful than tables
      • - no need to repeat in figure or graphs what has already been shown in tables!
      • - don’t forget the complete title of the figure
      • - no 2-D or 3-D figures please!
      Results
    • Table 2. Radioimmunoassay techniques used in the diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis Sample table: 20 58 Cell IFA 40 84 ELISA CSF 18 68 HI test 50 89 Convalescent 40 84 Acute ELISA Plasma Specificty (%) Sensitivity (%) 40 50 18 40 20 84 89 68 84 58 Plasma ELISA Acute Convalescent HI test CSF ELISA Cell IFA Specificty (%) Sensitivity (%)
    • … it is useful to begin by summarizing briefly the main findings, then explore possible mechanisms or explanations for the findings … compare and contrast the results with other relevant studies, state the limitations of the study, and explore the implications of the findings for future research and for clinical practice Discussion
      • Look for:
      • generalizations derived from the results
      • 2. limitations, exceptions and any lack of correlation
      • 3. elaboration on the unsettled points
      Discussion
      • 4. relationship of the new information with the previous “published” works
      • applicability of the results (theoretical and practical implications of the results; relate present findings that were argued in the introduction)
      • 6. conclusion/s with brief summary of the evidences (should clearly answer the research questions!)
      • Avoid:
      • Repetition of the statements results
      • 2. Too verbose, theoretical texts that are irrelevant to the research problem*
      • 3. Inadequate discussions on the significant results
      • 4. Failure to justify negative results
      • 5. Failure to end with a brief “climax”
      Discussion
    • PhilJNeurol’s “Instructions to Authors”
      • Avoid:
      • personal communications
      • Abstracts
      • unpublished data
      • “ in press” or “forthcoming”
      • ICMJE Standard style: NLM
      References
      • Submitting the paper to the PhilJNeurol
      • Submission Letter
      • (printed or electronic)
        • address the letter to the editor-in-chief
        • intention for its publication
        • some description of the manuscript
        • include names of all authors
        • willingness to undergo review and editing
        • attach:
      •  “ good” copies of the manuscript
      •  “ Manuscript Submission Agreement”
      • (Conflict of interest; IRB approval; informed consents; Copyright Transfer)
    • Summary: In order to get the better chances of getting your work published in a biomedical journal: organize be simplistic logical From the time of drafting the research proposal until the final editing of the manuscript!!!
    • Manuscripts already published (or undergoing review) in a locally-circulated biomedical journal  will not be accepted for PhilJNeurol publication
    • Manuscripts already published (or undergoing review) in an international peer-reviewed biomedical journal  may be accepted for PhilJNeurol publication provided that there is a written permission from the editorial board of the journal where the paper was first published
    • Manuscripts already published (or undergoing review) in the PhilJNeurol, wherein the author/s intend/s to submit the same in: a. a locally-circulated biomedical journal  may not be allowed by the PhilJNeurol editorial board
    • Manuscripts already published (or undergoing review) in the PhilJNeurol, wherein the author/s intend/s to submit the same in: b. to an international peer-reviewed medical journal  permission may be granted provided that the author/s can justify such intention
      • Outline of this presentation:
      • Increase the awareness of the PNA Fellows on the present status of the PhilJNeurol
      •  where is our journal now?
      • 2. Using the PhilJNeurol evaluation standards and the guidelines of the ICMJE, discuss the technical details of research paper writing and editing
      •  what to look for in a manuscript for it to be worthy of publication
      • 3. Enumerate some operating procedures on matters about “duplication of publication”
    • PhilJNeurol Editorial Board Dante P. Bornales, MD, MHPEd Editor-in-chief Raquel M. Alvarez, MD Associate Editor Ma. Epifania V. Collantes, MD, MSc (cand) Carissa Paz C. Dioquino, MD, MPH Paul Matthew D. Pasco, MD, MSc (cand) Maria Lina D. Renales, MD Gerardo Carmelo B. Salazar, MD Maria Cristina Z. San Jose, MD Madeleine Grace M. Sosa, MD, MSc
    • Thank you