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Psyc 317: Cognitive Psychology

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  • INSERT: But how automatic is it? SHOW: Change blindness - Harborside Video
  • INSERT: But how automatic is it? SHOW: Change blindness - Harborside Video
  • Figure 1.3 (p. 6) A modern version of Donders’ (1868) reaction time experiment. (a) the simple reaction-time task; and (b) the choice reaction-time task. For the simple time reaction text, the participant pushes the J key when the light goes on. For the choice reaction time test the participant pushes the J key if the left light goes on, and the K key if the right light goes on. The purpose of the Donders experiment was to determine the time it took to decide which key to press for the choice reaction time test.
  • DISCUSSION: Why might this not work? ANSWER: Pure insertion
  • What’s wrong with this? The assumption of pure insertion
  • Figure 1.5 (p. 8) The display in (a) looks like (b) a gray rectangle in front of a light triangle; but it could be (c) a gray rectangle and a six-sided figure that are lined up appropriately.
  • Controversy regarding whether Wundt or James established first psychological lab http://www3.niu.edu/acad/psych/Millis/wundtslab/history.htm
  • Stories
  • Scientific method: observation, measurment, hypothesis testing, replication, inductive/ deductive reasoning Criterion important for “methodical” aspect of Introspection. Compare to methods of chemistry physics Required specially trained observers to perform. Concrete example… 1. Contrast with stream of consciousness approach http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/
  • Bonus points for guessing middle name: Broadus Raised in South Carolina Mom wanted him to become preacher Grad school at University of Chicago; studied psychology, neurology and philosophy Academic job at John’s Hopkins for 14 years. Kicked out of academia for relationship with grad student. Finished career in advertising. “ Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become the type of specialist I might select- doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant, chief, and yes even beggarman and thief regardless of the talnets, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.”
  • Burrhus Fredric Skinner Raised in Pennsylvania Graduate school at Harvard in psychology Eventually taught at Harvard
  • Figure 1.7 (p. 13) (a) flow diagram for an early computer; (b) flow diagram for an early computer program.
  • Figure 1.8 (p. 13) Broadbent’s diagram depicting mental processes that occur as a person pays attention to one stimulus in the environment. This diagram shows that many messages enter a “filter” that selects the message to which the person is attending for further processing by a detector and then storage in memory.

Transcript

  • 1. Psyc 317 001: Cognitive Psychology James Thompson, PhD Assistant Professor Dept of Psychology
  • 2. Today’s agenda
    • Introductions
    • Syllabus
    • What is cognitive psychology?
  • 3. About Me
    • BA (Hons) in Psychology
    • PhD in Cognitive Neuroscience
      • Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia
    • Postdoctoral Fellowship in MRI
      • Dept of Radiology, WVU
  • 4. About Me Melbourne
  • 5. How to Contact Me
    • Call me JIM
    • Office: DK 2056
    • Email: jthompsz@gmu.edu
    • Telephone: 703-993-9356
  • 6. How to Annoy Me
  • 7. About Me: My Research
    • Cognitive Neuroscience
      • The neural basis of cognition
    • Visual Recognition of Human Movement
      • How you do recognize and interpret the actions of other people
  • 8. About Me: My Research
  • 9. About Me: My Research
    • Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
    • Event-Related Potentials (ERPs)
  • 10. Functional MRI (fMRI)
  • 11. Functional MRI (fMRI)
  • 12. Teaching: A two-way street
    • My responsibilities
      • Encourage discussion, hold in-class activities and demonstrations
      • Research questions I don't know
      • Teach and speak at a comfortable pace
    • Your responsibilities
      • Participate in class, ask questions
      • Give me constructive criticism and let me know if I speak too fast, mumble, etc.
      • Connect in-class concepts with the outside world
  • 13. About You
    • Name
    • Major/year in college
    • What is the best/worst place you have been for a holiday?
    • What you hope to gain from this course
      • OK to say that you’re taking it because it’s required
  • 14. Syllabus
    • Office Hours: Tues 10:30-11:30 or by appointment
    • Website: http://hfac.gmu.edu/people/jthompsz/
  • 15. Syllabus: Check your GMU e-mail!
    • I will often be communicating with you via your GMU e-mail - check it!
    • Also be sure to empty your mailbox
    • If you miss an announcement because you missed an e-mail, it’s not my problem
  • 16. Syllabus: Textbook
    • Goldstein, E. B. (2008). Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind, Research and Everyday Experience (2nd Edition) . Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  • 17. Syllabus: Grading
    • Standard scale:
      • A (100-90)
      • B (89-80)
      • C (79-70)
      • D (69-60)
      • F (below 59)
    • There will be a curve on the final grade
  • 18. Syllabus: Grading
    • BEST 3 out of 4 non-cumulative exams
      • Each exam is worth 20%
      • Multiple choice & short essay
    • 1 article review & lit search
      • Worth 30%
    • Class discussion/participation
      • Worth 10%
      • Ask questions, make comments!
  • 19. Syllabus: Make-Up Exams
    • Make-ups exams will be given after the date of the scheduled exam
      • Need excuse written by doctor, lawyer, judge, etc.
  • 20. Article Summary
    • Summarize a cognitive psychology research article
      • Must clear article with me first!
    • 3 pages
      • Research question
      • Independent & dependent variables
      • Results
      • Conclusions
  • 21. Article Summary
    • 2 pages
      • Relate the research question & findings to a “real world” example
        • You
        • Friend
        • Someone from a book, TV, or movie
  • 22. Article Summary
    • Literature Search
      • Keywords
        • PsychINFO
        • PubMed
      • 5 relevant articles
        • Print list from PsychINFO or PubMed
        • Attach to summary
  • 23. Article Summary
  • 24. Article Summary
  • 25. Article Summary
  • 26. Syllabus: Extra Credit
    • Use Sona Systems to sign up for experiments
      • http://gmu.sona-systems.com/
    • Can earn up to 3% on your final grade
    • Each Sona credit is worth 0.5%
      • Want 3% extra credit? Get 6 credits.
      • You only got 3 credits? You get 1.5%.
  • 27. Syllabus: Honor code
    • Refer to University Catalog for complete explanation
    • Just don’t cheat
  • 28. Tricks of the trade
    • The first exam is the hardest
      • Hardest material
      • Don’t know what to expect
    • I like being in communication
      • I am constantly checking my e-mail
    • ASK QUESTIONS
  • 29. One last piece of advice
    • From student feedback:
      • “I read the book and came to class. I did fine.”
    • That’s my goal: read the book, come to class, and you’ll do well!
  • 30. Lecture 1: Introduction & History Psyc 317: Cognitive Psychology
  • 31. Outline
    • Introductions
    • Syllabus
    • What is cognitive psychology?
  • 32. What is cognition? (book definition)
    • Cognition comprises the mental processes that are involved in:
      • Perception
      • Attention
      • Memory
      • Problem solving
      • Reasoning
      • Decision making
  • 33. Why should you care?
    • Many of you may be interested in clinical, school, or social psychology
    • Many of these fields study personality
    • What is personality at the lowest level?
      • How we perceive things
      • How/what we remember
      • How we make decisions
      • etc.
    • These are all based in our cognition
  • 34. Why else should you care?
    • Billions of neurons to create the smartest animals on the planet
    • But we don’t know how it works!
    • “The three-pound enigma.”
  • 35. The complexity of cognition
    • Walking to class today
      • Memory - Remembering what building class is in
      • Perception & attention - Looking at a campus map to find the building
      • Language - Asking someone for directions
      • Reasoning - Finding the best route to get to the room
    • It all seems so automatic!
  • 36. Automaticity can get in the way
    • Example: Stroop effect
    • Instructions: Read the words on the next slide out loud
    • Example:
    • WATER
    • APPLE
  • 37. Stroop
  • 38. Stroop effect
    • Instructions: Read the ink color on the next slide out loud and ignore the word
    • Example:
    • GLASS
    • BOOK
  • 39. Stroop
  • 40. Deconstructing the Stroop effect
    • Reading is highly automatic
      • We generally learn color naming first
    • Cannot stop reading even after lots of practice!
    • So cognition is pretty automatic
      • Right?
  • 41. Sometimes your eyes can lie…
  • 42. The Flash-Lag effect
    • An object is flashed at the same instant that a moving object arrives at same position
    • Perceived to spatially lag the moving object
      • Moving objects processed more slowly than static objects?
      • Or, do we make predictions of where a moving object will be?
  • 43. What is cognition? (simple definition)
    • The behind the scenes functioning of the mind
      • How the mind creates behaviors that are similar to all people
      • How the mind creates behaviors that are not similar to all people (individual differences)
  • 44. Cognitive Science: The big picture
    • Cognitive science: The study of the mind, approached from many disciplines
    COGNITIVE SCIENCE Cognitive Psych Just one piece of the picture
  • 45. Disciplines of cognitive science
    • Psychology : Scientific study of behavior produced by the mind
    • Neuroscience : Studies the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of the brain
    • Philosophy : How our mind constructs reality, questions of consciousness
    • Linguistics : Scientific study of origins and development of language
  • 46. Applications: Human factors
    • Human factors: Designing systems within the limits of human cognition
      • Don’t overload memory
      • Don’t make words hard to see
    • Real-world examples
      • Medical technology
      • Three Mile island
      • Early fighter planes
  • 47. Applications: Artificial Intelligence
    • Artificial intelligence : The development of technology that performs functions similar to human thought
    • Relates to philosophy
      • What is consciousness?
      • How does our brain create consciousness?
  • 48. Outline
    • Introductions
    • Syllabus
    • What cognitive psychology is
  • 49. History: Back in the day…
    • Aristotle
      • 384-322 BC
      • Tabula rasa (“blank slate”)
      • Structure of the mind already in place?
  • 50. Fast forward to the 1860s
    • Franciscus Donders - measured the speed of thought
      • 1868
    • Reaction time experiments
  • 51. What is reaction time?
    • The time elapsed between some stimulus and the person’s response
    • Typically measured in milliseconds
    • Considered a measure of difficulty
    Time (ms) Space Bar Person’s Reaction Time
  • 52. Donders’ Subtraction Simple reaction time See light, press button Choice reaction time See light, which button?
  • 53. Measuring the speed of thought Stimulus: The light Mind: Sees light Response: Press button Stimulus: The light Mind: Sees light Response: Press button Mind: Which button? Simple Reaction Time experiment : Choice Reaction Time experiment : *
  • 54. Measuring the speed of thought Simple Reaction Time experiment: 350 ms Choice Reaction Time experiment: 500 ms - 150 ms 150 ms for the extra stage in choice RT: 150 ms to choose which button to press Example:
  • 55. What does this tell us?
    • Specifically:
      • How long it takes for the mind to choose a response
  • 56. What does this tell us?
    • Generally:
      • Mental responses cannot be measured directly
      • Must infer mental processing through behavior
      • Behavioral measures
        • Reaction times
        • Accuracy/error rates
  • 57. Discussion time!
    • Has anyone thought of a potential flaw in this logic?
    • Clue: Imagine cooking something and inserting a new step. What happens to the final recipe?
    • The assumption of pure insertion
  • 58. Hemholtz’s Unconscious Inference (1860s)
  • 59. What does this tell us?
    • Specifically:
      • How does our mind recognize objects that are occluded by other objects?
      • Some kind of automatic filling-in process
        • Object recognition: we’ll talk about this in a few weeks
  • 60. What does this tell us?
    • Generally:
      • Some of our perceptions are the result of automatic processes beyond our control
        • Like reading the Stroop task
      • Cognitive psychology can help to unmask the automatic processes
  • 61. Foundations of cognition
    • These early researchers developed some basic principles:
    • Donders: Mental processes must be inferred from behavior
    • Hemholtz: Mental processes are automatic and often unseen
  • 62. Willhelm Wundt
    • 1832-1920
    • First experimental psychology laboratory (Europe)
      • Leipzig, Germany ~1879
  • 63. Edward Titchener
    • 1867-1927
    • Born in England
    • Studied in Germany under Wundt
  • 64. Structuralism (Wundt and Titchener)
    • The study of the structure of the conscious mind
    • Focus on the sensations, images, and feelings that are elements of consciousness
  • 65. Conscious “structure” of an apple
    • Red
    • Cold
    • Crisp
    • Sweet
  • 66. Wundt’s Introspection
    • How to study the mind?
      • Introspection: “Self-observation”
    • Subjects looks carefully inward and report on inner situations and experiences
    • Example: Describe the experience of hearing a 5-note chord on the piano
      • Hear one sound or individual notes?
  • 67. Wundt’s introspection criteria
    • The subject must know when the experience begins and ends
      • Subject is master of situation
    • The subject must maintain "strained attention”
      • Mind does not wander
  • 68. Problems with structuralism
    • Observers were highly trained, but self-reports were not consistent across people
    • How can psychologists draw clear conclusions when introspection produces such varied data?
  • 69. Outline
    • Introductions
    • Syllabus
    • What cognitive psychology is
    • History
      • The first cognitive psychologists
      • The rise (and fall) of behaviorism
      • The rise of the new cognitive psychology
  • 70. Behaviorism
    • A response to Wundt’s introspection
    • The scientific study of observable behavior only
    • Behaviorism is “antimentalistic”
      • Since mental processes can’t be seen, they have no place in psychology
    • Explanations like classical conditioning
  • 71. John B. Watson
    • 1878-1958
    • Professor of psychology
    • Founder of behaviorism
  • 72. B.F. Skinner
    • 1904-1990
    • Professor of psychology
    • Behaviorism
      • Operant conditioning
      • Positive and negative reinforcements
  • 73. Classical conditioning If Unconditioned Stimulus  Unconditioned Response (meat powder) (salivation) then pair Conditioned stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus (tone) (meat powder) then eventually Conditioned stimulus  conditioned response (tone) (salivation)
  • 74. Operant conditioning It is possible for the animal to generate a response and for that response to have consequences: Act cute --> Get pet Poop on rug --> Get scolded
  • 75. Cracks in the behaviorist framework
    • 1960s: Criticisms of behaviorism
    • Behaviorism could not explain some phenomenon
      • Critical periods/early learning
      • Language
      • Inability to override instinctual behavior
  • 76. Problems with behaviorism: Critical periods
    • Critical period : A time when an animal is able to learn particular information rapidly and with little exposure
      • If the time window is missed, the animal learns with greater effort or not at all
  • 77. Critical periods example
    • Some birds follow the first large thing that they see when they are hatched - usually first large thing is mom
    • The tendency to follow the first large thing has a critical period
    • What happens if the first large thing is not mom?
  • 78. Critical periods: Lorenz as mom Behaviorism cannot explain critical periods!
  • 79. Problems with behaviorism: Language
    • The behaviorist account of language (Skinner, 1957):
    • Children learn language through imitation and reinforcement. Appropriate speech is rewarded.
  • 80. Criticism of behaviorist account of language
    • The response (Chomsky, 1959):
    • Behaviorist accounts ignore that language is generative. This means that virtually everything you say and hear is novel. It can’t be the case that you understand it because of reinforcement in the past, because you’ve never heard it before.
  • 81. Evidence that for non-behaviorist view of language
    • Generativity of language (production of novel sentences)
    • Overextension of grammar
      • “ I hitted the ball.”
      • This is never spoken by adults
  • 82. Problems with behaviorism: Instinct/Fixed Actions
    • The Misbehavior of Organisms (Breland & Breland, 1961):
      • Try to train raccoon to put two coins in a piggy bank
      • Raccoon would instinctively rub coins together, like they would with shellfish
      • No amount of reward would cause extinction of the rubbing response
  • 83. Outline
    • Introductions
    • Syllabus
    • What cognitive psychology is
    • History
      • The first cognitive psychologists
      • The rise (and fall) of behaviorism
      • The rise of the new cognitive psychology
  • 84. The rise of something new…
    • Information processing approach
      • The mind processes information as it comes into the brain
    • Rebirth of cognitive psychology parallels development of computers
  • 85. Cognition and Computation
    • COGNITION
    • Perception
    • Attention
    • Memory
    • Problem solving
    • Reasoning
    • Decision making
    • COMPUTATION
    • Input from many sources
    • Processing (memory, software)
    • Output to many sources
  • 86. Allen Newell and Herbert Simon
    • 1927-1992
    • Computer science & artificial Intelligence
    • 1916-2001
    • Economics & mathematics
    • Nobel Prize in economics for decision making
  • 87. The mind as computer? Computer hardware diagram: Can we apply boxes and arrows to the mind?
  • 88. Early IP experiment: attention
    • Example: Cherry’s (1953) attention experiments
      • String of words presented to each ear
      • Subjects attend to one ear only
      • Unattended stream is not remembered
  • 89. The mind as computer? (Flow diagram of how attention works) Block diagram of mental processes:
  • 90. The End.
    • Next class: Methods of cognitive psychology!
    • How do we measure behavior?
    • How do we measure the brain?
    • Is artificial intelligence going to take over the world?