Practice Parameter: Treatment of Postherpetic Neuralgia

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Practice Parameter: Treatment of Postherpetic Neuralgia

  1. 1. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Practice Parameter: Corticosteroid Treatment Of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy An Evidence-Based Report of the American Academy of Neurology and the Child Neurology Society Richard T. Moxley III, MD, Stephen Ashwal MD, Shree Pandya, MS, PT, Anne Connolly, MD, Julaine Florence, MHS, PT, Katherine Mathews, MD, Lisa Baumbach, MD, Craig McDonald, MD, Michael Sussman, MD, Christine Wade, PhD, PT Published in Neurology 2005;64:13-20
  2. 2. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Objective of the guideline To determine the current best practice for corticosteroid treatment of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) in children.
  3. 3. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Methods of evidence review • The authors searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane databases for peer reviewed articles published between 1966 and 2004. • Search terms include: Duchenne muscular dystrophy, corticosteroids, steroids, prednisone, deflazacort, and treatment. • There were 25 peer-reviewed articles chosen for detailed review.
  4. 4. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 AAN Strength of evidence Class I Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial with masked outcome assessment, in a representative population. The following are required: •primary outcome(s) is/are clearly defined •exclusion/inclusion criteria are clearly defined •adequate accounting for drop-outs and cross-overs with numbers sufficiently low to have minimal potential for bias •relevant baseline characteristics are presented and substantially equivalent among treatment groups or there is appropriate statistical adjustment for differences
  5. 5. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 AAN Strength of evidence Class II Prospective matched group cohort study in a representative population with masked outcome assessment that meets a-d above OR a RCT in a representative population that lacks one criteria a-d. Class III All other controlled trials (including well-defined natural history controls or patients serving as own controls) in a representative population, where outcome assessment is independent of patient treatment. Class IV Evidence from uncontrolled studies, case series, case reports, or expert opinion
  6. 6. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 AAN Translation of evidence to level of recommendation Level A Level A rating requires at least one convincing class I study or at least two consistent, convincing class II studies. Established as effective, ineffective, or harmful for the given condition in the specified population. Level B Level B rating requires at least one convincing class II study or at least three consistent class III studies. Probably effective, ineffective, or harmful (or probably useful/predictive or not useful/predictive) for the given condition in the specified population.
  7. 7. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 AAN Translation of evidence to level of recommendation Level C Level C rating requires at least two convincing and consistent class III studies. Possibly effective, ineffective or harmful (or possibly useful/predictive or not useful/predictive) for the given condition in the specified population. Level U Data inadequate or conflicting. Given current knowledge, treatment is unproven.
  8. 8. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Introduction • Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) – Is an X-linked, recessive disorder with onset before age five years. – Is the most common and severe form of childhood muscular dystrophy. – A absence or marked deficiency of dystrophin, the protein membrane that is part of the dystrophin- glycoprotein complex.
  9. 9. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Introduction •Patients develop neck flexor, anterior abdominal, hip and shoulder girdle muscle weakness in early childhood. •Loss of ambulation between ages 7 and 12 years. •Benefits and side effects of corticosteroid therapy need to be monitored. An offer of treatment with corticosteroids should include a balanced discussion of potential risks.
  10. 10. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Prednisone/Prednisolone
  11. 11. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Clinical Question What are the benefits and side effects of prednisone/prednisolone in boys with DMD?
  12. 12. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Treatment Regimens Long-Term Daily Prednisone • Daily prednisone showed significant sustained improvements in: – Arm and leg function – Timed function tests – Forced vital capacity after three years of treatment
  13. 13. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Treatment Regimens Combinations of Dosage Regimens for Prednisone • Alternate day prednisone prolongs ambulation. • Intermittent cyclical daily prednisone had no long-term benefit. • High dose, intermittent, weekly oral prednisone. significantly improved strength over a six month period but did not improve timed function tests.
  14. 14. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Treatment Regimens Studies of Prednisone in Patients Under 5 Years of Age Encouraging results before five years of age for: – Treatment regimens of either pulsed therapy giving corticosteroid four to six times per year – Intermittent corticosteroid treatment given in cycles of 10 days on and 10 days off – Alternate day prednisone describe
  15. 15. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Class I Evidence Class Response Side effects observed Reference I 7/7 on placebo stopped walking; 6/7 treated continued walking. Not reported Siegel, et al., 1974 (30) I Improvement noted in all outcome measures. Strength peaked at 3 months. Weight gain, cushingoid appearance Mendell, et al., 1989 (25)
  16. 16. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Class I Evidence Class Response Side effects observed Reference I At 3 months, boys treated daily did significantly better than those on alternate days. Strength at 6 months better in boys with daily therapy compared to boys with alternate day therapy. Weight gain, cushingoid appearance, behavioral changes. No clear difference in side effects was noted in patients receiving daily or alternate day treatment. Fenichel, et al., 1991 (26)
  17. 17. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Class I Evidence Class Response Side effects observed Reference I Prednisone improves strength by 10 days. Maximum gain at 3 months. Weight gain, cushingoid appearance, increased appetite Griggs, et al., 1991 (27) I Azathioprine not effective. Strength gains maintained up to 18 months in both prednisone treated groups. Weight gain, cushingoid appearance, increased appetite Griggs, et al., 1993 (24)
  18. 18. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Class I Evidence Class Response Side effects observed Reference I Walkers and non- walkers improved in strength on prednisone. Weight gain Backman & Henriksson, 1995 (29) I Strength and myometry scores improved. Time to arise, and time to walk 30 feet improved. No side effect data reported Rahman, et al., 2001(28)
  19. 19. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Conclusion • Seven class I studies have demonstrated that prednisone is beneficial in DMD. • 0.75 mg/kg/d is optimal as an initial dosage for boys between 5 to 15 years of age. • Outcomes measured include muscle strength, 24-hour urinary excretion of creatinine, muscle function, and pulmonary function.
  20. 20. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Conclusion • The class I studies that evaluated daily prednisone treatment found that the most common side effects were weight gain and development of a cushingoid facial appearance 6 to 18 months after treatment. • There was no significant increase in the number of patients with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, gastrointestinal bleeding, psychosis, compression fractures, or cataracts.
  21. 21. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Recommendations • Prednisone has been demonstrated to have a beneficial effect on muscle strength and function in boys with DMD and should be offered (at a dose of 0.75 mg/kg/d) as treatment. (Level A) Maintaining a dosage of 0.75 mg/kg/d is optimal; but, if side effects require a decrease in prednisone, tapering to dosages as low as 0.3 mg/kg/d gives less robust but significant improvement. • Benefits and side effects of corticosteroid therapy need to be monitored. Timed function tests, pulmonary function tests, and age at loss of independent ambulation are useful to assess benefits. An offer of treatment with corticosteroids should include a balanced discussion of potential risks. (Level A)
  22. 22. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Recommendations • Potential side effects of corticosteroid therapy need to be assessed: (Level A) – Weight gain – Cushingoid appearance – Cataracts – Short stature – Acne – Excessive hair growth – Gastrointestinal symptoms – Behavioral changes • If excessive weight gain occurs (>20% over estimated normal weight for height over a 12 month period), based on available data, it is recommended that the dosage of prednisone be decreased (to 0.5 mg/kg/d with a further decrease after 3-4 months to 0.3 mg/kg/d if excessive weight gain continues). (Level A)
  23. 23. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Deflazacort
  24. 24. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Clinical Question What are the benefits and side effects of treatment with deflazacort in boys with DMD?
  25. 25. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Class I - III evidence Class Response Side effects observed Reference I Improvement in strength and function. Cushingoid appearance Mesa, et al., 1991. (43) I Significant improvement in all measures. Prolonged walking by 13 months. Weight gain, behavioral changes, increased appetite, cushingoid appearance Angelini, et al., 1994 (44)
  26. 26. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Class I - III evidence Class Response Side effects observed Reference III Boys receiving deflazacort walked at older ages than untreated boys and had higher FVC (88% of predicted vs. 39% for untreated). Asymptomatic cataracts, weight gain, acne, behavioral changes. Biggar, et al. 2001(32) III Treated boys performed better on all measures. All still able to walk at an average age of 13. Obesity, cataracts, short stature Schara, et al., 2001 (48)
  27. 27. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Class II - III evidence deflazacort vs. prednisone Class Response Side effects observed Reference II-III Prednisone and deflazacort are equally efficient in slowing progression. Weight gain, loss of ambulation Reitter. 1995 (45) II-III Average strength and muscle function improved similarly with both treatments. Weight gain, cataracts, slowing of linear growth after 2 yrs Reitter, 2000 (46) II-III No significant difference in response with Prednisone vs. deflazacort in strength or function scores. Weight gain, behavioral changes, bone age, cataracts, GI symptoms. Bonifati, et al. 2000 (47)
  28. 28. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Recommendations Deflazacort (0.9 mg/kg/d) can also be used for the treatment of DMD in countries in which it is available (Level A). Patients should be monitored for asymptomatic cataracts as well as weight gain during treatment with deflazacort.
  29. 29. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Future Research
  30. 30. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 • Double blind, randomized, controlled studies are needed to compare daily treatment with prednisone to other treatment regimens, such as: a) higher dose alternate day treatment (5 mg/kg every other day) b) intermittent treatment (0.75 mg/kg/d for 10 days – stop for 10 days – repeat cycle) c) high dose pulses on weekends (5mg/kg on Friday and Saturday) and d) deflazacort (0.9 mg/kg/d). • The goal of these studies is to establish more clearly the optimal dose, optimal age to initiate treatment, and optimal dose schedule to improve function with the least possible side effects. Future Research
  31. 31. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 • Studies are needed to determine if daily prednisone has a beneficial effect on cardiac, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and cognitive function in patients with DMD. • Natural history studies of Duchenne dystrophy from birth to age 6 years and dose-response studies of corticosteroid treatment with prednisone and deflazacort beginning at an early age (2-4 years) are needed to determine if corticosteroid therapy is beneficial if it is started in very young patients. Future Research
  32. 32. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 • In vitro and animal model studies are needed to identify the mechanism(s) responsible for the beneficial effects of corticosteroids in DMD. • Better methods need to be developed and studies performed to assess the quality of life in patients with DMD from infancy to adulthood. Those methods need to be used to examine the influence of long-term corticosteroid therapy on the quality of life in DMD. • Long-term studies evaluating corticosteroid treatment given over many years are needed to assess its effect on the natural history of all manifestations of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, including the effect upon ambulation, respiratory and cardiac function as well as on quality of life. Future Research
  33. 33. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 • Studies to define the natural history of changes in bone mass and density as well as scoliosis and the incidence of fractures are needed in children with DMD and in other muscle wasting diseases in childhood. Trials of treatment with calcium supplements and bisphosphates in these patients deserve consideration. • Evaluation is needed of short- and long-term effects of corticosteroid treatment on the spine and the role of calcium supplements and bisphosphonates as adjuvant therapies in Duchenne dystrophy. Future Research
  34. 34. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 • Studies to document the natural history of the late stages of Duchenne dystrophy and investigations to determine the efficacy of corticosteroid therapy when initiated late in the course of Duchenne dystrophy (for example, after 15 years of age) are needed. • Studies of dietary modification and exercise are needed to evaluate their efficacy in ameliorating the weight gain associated with corticosteroid therapy in DMD. Future Research
  35. 35. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 Participants • AAN Quality Standards Subcommittee Members Gary Franklin, MD, MPH (Co- Chair); Gary Gronseth, MD (Co- Chair); Charles E. Argoff, MD; Steven A. Ashwal, MD (ex- officio); Christopher Bever, Jr., MD; Jody Corey-Bloom, MD, PhD; John D. England, MD; Jacqueline French, MD (ex- officio); Gary H. Friday, MD; Michael J. Glantz, MD; Deborah Hirtz, MD; Donald J. Iverson, MD; David J. Thurman, MD; Samuel Wiebe, MD; William J. Weiner, MD, and Catherine Zahn, MD (ex-officio). • CNS Practice Committee Members Carmela Tardo, MD (Chair); Bruce Cohen, MD (Vice-Chair); Elias Chalhub, MD; Roy Elterman, MD; Murray Engel, MD; Bhuwan P. Garg, MD; Brian Grabert, MD; Annette Grefe, MD; Michael Goldstein, MD; David Griesemer, MD; Betty Koo, MD; Edward Kovnar, MD; Leslie Anne Morrison, MD; Colette Parker MD; Ben Renfroe, MD; Anthony Riela, MD; Michael Shevell, MD; Shlomo Shinnar, MD; Herald Silverboard, MD; Russell Snyder, MD; Dean Timmons, MD; Greg Yim, MD; and Mary Anne Whelan, MD.
  36. 36. © 2004 American Academy of Neurology February 25, 2004 To view the entire guideline and additional AAN guidelines visit: www.aan.com/professionals/practice/index/cfm Published in Neurology 2005;64:13-20

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