pptx - Research Methods for the Learning Sciences

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pptx - Research Methods for the Learning Sciences

  1. 1. Cognitive Psychology B term, 2010 October 29, 2010 Images from all over the web used under “Fair Use” clause, for educational purposes
  2. 2. Course website • http://users.wpi.edu/~rsbaker/CogPsy2010/ • Would a FAQ be useful? – I noticed I got a lot of the same questions by email
  3. 3. Quiz • Today we will have a quiz – It will be ungraded, and does not count as one of the four graded quizzes – It will give you an idea of the format used for the rest of the term • You will have 10 minutes to complete the quiz • You will not be allowed to use any outside resources during the quiz (e.g. book, notes, neighbor, wikipedia)
  4. 4. Quiz
  5. 5. Quiz • Grade yourself
  6. 6. Quiz Answers
  7. 7. Quiz Answers • Synapse: • Parietal Lobe: • Occipital Lobe:
  8. 8. Quiz Answers • Synapse: The gap between the end of the neuron’s axon and the dendrites or cell body of another neuron • Parietal Lobe: The primary part of the brain that receives skin senses • Occipital Lobe: The primary part of the brain that receives vision
  9. 9. Quiz Answers • Temporal Lobe: • Crouton:
  10. 10. Quiz Answers • Temporal Lobe: The primary part of the brain that receives sound • Crouton: A tasty snack
  11. 11. Quiz Answers • What technology would you use to study exactly where in the brain neural firing is occurring when a stimulus occurs?
  12. 12. Quiz Answers • What technology would you use to study exactly where in the brain neural firing is occurring when a stimulus occurs? – fMRI • What are ERP, GSR, EEG, and REM used for?
  13. 13. Quiz Answers • Write an example of speech that might be produced by an individual with Wernicke’s Aphasia who is trying to explain how facial recognition works in the brain.
  14. 14. Quiz Answers “So them I said to face and the face was in that port, you know, of the brain that’s, well, it’s East of the thing when it is stumbered when, uh, when it flabors. Because she’s waiting for this! She’s waiting for time for the signal to come through for the face to seventy six and not where, not where you know, you know you shouldn’t gort if you’re a face. I think so.”
  15. 15. Key Points • What are some key aspects of Wernicke’s Aphasia speech?
  16. 16. Key Points • Nonsense words • Words that aren’t quite right but sound similar to correct words • Repetitiveness • Seemingly meaningful phrases that make no sense when put together • Generally meaningful grammar
  17. 17. Today’s Class • CogLab • Cognitive Neuroscience • Survey
  18. 18. CogLab • Please hand in your CogLab writeup now – A few of you got extensions, due to problems with book shipping and/or the CogLab codes you got online – your CogLabs must be in by next class • I would like your comments on the assignment, since this is the first time I’ve used CogLabs; a survey will be available on line (I’ll hand out the URL at the end of class)
  19. 19. Asymmetric Brain • Who here has an asymmetric brain? • Who doesn’t?
  20. 20. Asymmetric Brain • Who here has an asymmetric brain? • Who doesn’t? • Quick sign test… – http://www.graphpad.com/quickcalcs/binomial1.c fm
  21. 21. Asymmetric Brain • Who here found the chimeric faces creepy? • Why were they so creepy? – We’ll discuss this in more detail in the Perception class next Tuesday
  22. 22. What else… • What else did you learn from doing the CogLab?
  23. 23. Today’s Class • CogLab • Cognitive Neuroscience • Survey
  24. 24. Donders • Last class I said something inaccurate about the Donders study – Sorry – as the first study in Cog Psych, over 150 years ago, it’s not a study I think about very often • Participants pushed buttons with only one hand, so it did not deal with brain asymmetry, unlike the CogLab
  25. 25. The Brain
  26. 26. Phrenology
  27. 27. Phrenology (Gall, 1819) • The theory that each brain area has a specific function, with different general mental faculties located in different parts of this brain • Mental faculties = moral and intellectual propensities
  28. 28. 27 brain regions • Including specialized regions for remembering people, remembering words, linguistic ability, recognizing colors, musical talent, factual memory
  29. 29. 27 brain regions • Including specialized regions for remembering people, remembering words, linguistic ability, recognizing colors, musical talent, factual memory • And also specialized regions for pride, vanity, affection, courage, murderousness, sneakiness, metaphysical sensitivity, religiousness
  30. 30. By the late 19th century • Phrenology had been comfortable refuted
  31. 31. And it didn’t return…
  32. 32. And it didn’t return… • Until fairly recently
  33. 33. And it didn’t return… • Until fairly recently • Under the new title of Cognitive Neuroscience
  34. 34. Granted • There are a few differences between Phrenology and Cognitive Neuroscience
  35. 35. Better Measuring Apparatus
  36. 36. Focus on cognitive constructs • Whereas the phrenologists tried to discover personality and moral characteristics in specific brain locations • Cognitive neuroscientists focus on cognitive phenomena like those discussed in your chapter
  37. 37. For the most part…
  38. 38. So why am I telling you this? • Two reasons
  39. 39. Reason One
  40. 40. Brain location is an oversimplification • Brain location and functioning is a oversimplification • For example, patients with damage to Broca’s area experience Broca’s aphasia • But many of them can re-learn to speak coherently with therapy – Other parts of the brain can “help out”, so to speak
  41. 41. Brain location is an oversimplification • But it’s a *useful* oversimplification • *Most* of the processing that is now thought to occur in certain areas really does occur there, in normal cases • Just not all of it, and not in all cases
  42. 42. Reason Two
  43. 43. Science works this way • Ultimately, the phrenologists did not have the scientific methodologies to validate and refine their theories – Calipers just don’t weren’t good enough measurement tools
  44. 44. Science works this way • But the underlying reality of cognition looks a lot more like phrenology than their 19th and 20th century critics would have admitted – They were wrong (mostly) about moral and personal qualities being locational – But they were right (mostly) about cognitive abilities being locational
  45. 45. Any questions?
  46. 46. Modern brain maps
  47. 47. ACT-R modules and brain regions
  48. 48. What is ACT-R? • The predominant unified theory of human cognition • Will be discussed in detail in the last lecture of the term
  49. 49. Neuronal firing and memory • No one neuron corresponds to one memory • But different patterns of neuronal activation correspond to different memories – For instance, memory of a large set of faces can be represented by a small number of neurons
  50. 50. Methods used to study neural regions
  51. 51. Brain damage • Case studies of patients with brain damage
  52. 52. Brain damage • If an injury to a specific brain region replicably causes a specific dysfunction, we can conclude that this region is necessary for correct functioning • That’s how Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area were discovered
  53. 53. fMRI scanning
  54. 54. fMRI scanning • Indication of where blood flows in brain for specific cognitive processing, based on magnetism • Used to develop brain region maps • Previous method was PET scanning – involved taking dose of radiation
  55. 55. fMRI image inactive active
  56. 56. EEG scanning
  57. 57. EEG scanning • Measures electrical pulses in brain • Measures brain-wide types of waves rather than specific brain regions
  58. 58. EEG scanning
  59. 59. Types of waves • Alpha waves – wakeful relaxation versus sleep or activity • Beta waves – concentration, activity, anxiety • Gamma waves – conscious attention, meditative state • Delta waves – slow-wave sleep
  60. 60. Bio-feedback • Is anyone here familiar with bio-feedback?
  61. 61. Bio-feedback • Is anyone here familiar with bio-feedback? • By showing people their brain waves, they can be trained to alter their brain waves
  62. 62. Neat thing • NovelQuest has a game, MindBall, where you compete to increase your Alpha and Theta waves • Two players sit across a table with a ball between them • The ball rolls towards whoever has more brain activity • Whoever the ball reaches loses
  63. 63. MindBall • http://www.msichicago.org/whats- here/exhibits/you/the-exhibit/your- vitality/mindball/mindball-video/
  64. 64. MindBall • I played this at a museum in Chicago and won (I used Bhakti Yoga meditation, so maybe I cheated)
  65. 65. Any questions?
  66. 66. Se tem tempo • 83
  67. 67. Practical uses
  68. 68. Medicine • How could cognitive neuroscience be used to support medicine?
  69. 69. Medicine • How could cognitive neuroscience be used to support medicine? • Knowledge of region-function mappings and correct functioning can support diagnosis of neurological disorders and treatment of brain injuries caused by strokes or physical trauma
  70. 70. Education • How could cognitive neuroscience be used to support education?
  71. 71. Education • How could cognitive neuroscience be used to support education? • EEGs have been used to classify learners’ emotions, which may eventually provide more sensitive support when learners become upset
  72. 72. Support for air-traffic controllers • How could cognitive neuroscience be used to support air traffic controllers?
  73. 73. Support for air-traffic controllers • How could cognitive neuroscience be used to support air traffic controllers? • EEGs are used to recognize an air-traffic controllers’ working-memory load (more on this later) and visual load, in order to recognize when errors are possible
  74. 74. Other domains? • Where else could cognitive neuroscience be beneficial? • Non-majors: Can you think of examples that would impact practitioners in your major?
  75. 75. Any questions?
  76. 76. For next class • Do the CogLab on either Mueller-Lyer or Visual Search – Basic and advanced questions • Your choice
  77. 77. Today’s Class • CogLab • Cognitive Neuroscience • Survey
  78. 78. Survey • I’d like to ask you to take a survey online before the next class • This will help me determine how things are going, and how to make class better • I won’t have time to adjust things for the next class, but will do so for the following class
  79. 79. Survey link • http://www.surveymonkey.com/s/63PG2KT
  80. 80. The End
  81. 81. Brain Damage
  82. 82. Broca’s Aphasia • Damage to Broca’s Area • Can anyone give an example of behavior coming from this?
  83. 83. Broca’s Aphasia • Damage to Broca’s Area • Can anyone give an example of behavior coming from this? • “Yes... ah... Monday... er... Dad and Peter H… and Dad.... er... hospital... and ah... Wednesday... Wednesday, nine o'clock... and oh... Thursday... ten o'clock, ah doctors... two... an' doctors... and er... teeth... Yah”
  84. 84. Ways to adjust • Singing • For some reason, singing is controlled by different brain architecture, so sufferers of Broca’s Aphasia can often sing fluently, and can learn to sing instead of speaking
  85. 85. Wernicke’s Aphasia • Damage to Wernicke’s Area • We discussed examples of this earlier in class • Also amenable to singing
  86. 86. Achromatopsia • Inability to see colors • Occurs due to brain lesions in different areas • Different from standard “color-blindness”, which involves inability to distinguish specific colors, such as red-green
  87. 87. Achromatopsia
  88. 88. Achromatopsia
  89. 89. Achromatopsia
  90. 90. Achromatopsia • What are some life impacts of achromatopsia?
  91. 91. Ways to adjust • Eyeborg – Translates colors into sound waves
  92. 92. Associative Visual Agnosia • Inability to recognize objects • You can draw object, but you can’t identify what it is
  93. 93. Associative Visual Agnosia • Inability to recognize objects • You can draw object, but you can’t identify what it is a hat?
  94. 94. Apraxia • Typically caused by damage to cerebellum • Inability to make specific movements (with no motor problems)
  95. 95. Allochiria • Typically caused by damage to right parietal lobe • Perception that event occurred to opposite side of body
  96. 96. Prosopagnosia • Inability to recognize faces • We’ll discuss this in the next lecture
  97. 97. Witzelsucht • Caused by damage to prefrontal cortex • Sudden change of sense of humor to highly inappropriate behavior
  98. 98. And many more • http://dubinweb.com/brain/a2.html

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