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    ppt - PowerPoint Presentation ppt - PowerPoint Presentation Presentation Transcript

    • Practice Parameter: Risk of Recurrent Stroke and Secondary Stroke Prevention in Patients With Interatrial Septal Abnormalities (An Evidence-Based Review) Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology Neurology 2004
    • Authors
      • Steven R. Messé, MD
      • Isaac Silverman, MD
      • Jorge Kizer, MD
      • Shunichi Homma, MD
      • Catherine Zahn, MD
      • Gary Gronseth, MD
      • Scott E. Kasner, MD
    • Objective of the guideline
      • To determine the most accurate assessment of the risk of subsequent stroke or death in patients with a cryptogenic stroke and a patent foramen ovale, atrial septal aneurysm, or both.
      • To determine the optimal method of stroke prevention in this population of patients.
    • Methods of evidence review
      • Search of the National Library of Medicine’s Pubmed search engine (citations from 1966 through June, 2002); the Cochrane database of systematic reviews; abstracts from the American Heart Association Stroke meeting 1997-2002; and abstracts from American Academy of Neurology meeting 1997-2002.
    • Methods of evidence review
      • Selected randomized-controlled trials (RCT) or prospective cohort studies that made one of two comparisons:
        • Event rates in patients with cryptogenic stroke and atrial septal abnormalities versus those patients with a cryptogenic stroke and no atrial septal abnormality
        • Event rates in patients with cryptogenic stroke and atrial septal abnormalities who have received different treatments
      • Each paper was graded according to the classification-of-evidence scheme described.
    • Methods of evidence review
      • The primary outcome was stroke or death. In order to determine the risk associated with the presence of an atrial septal abnormality the authors compared the proportion of patients who had a stroke or death in the group of patients with atrial septal abnormalities to the group of patients without such abnormalities.
      • The authors compared the relative risks of stroke or death for each of the available therapies using aspirin as the reference. When appropriate, the data were selectively pooled from comparable studies using general variance-based meta-analytic techniques. 95% confidence intervals were determined for all calculations.
    • AAN’s Class of evidence for determining the yield of established diagnostic and screening tests A statistical, population-based sample of patients studied at a uniform point in time (usually early) during the course of the condition. All patients undergo the intervention of interest. The outcome, if not objective, is determined in an evaluation that is masked to the patients’ clinical presentations. Class I: A statistical, non-referral-clinic-based sample of patients studied at a uniform point in time (usually early) during the course of the condition. Most (>80%) patients undergo the intervention of interest. The outcome, if not objective, is determined in an evaluation that is masked to the patients’ clinical presentations. Class II:
    • AAN’s Class of evidence for determining the yield of established diagnostic and screening tests E xpert opinion, case reports or any study not meeting criteria for class I to III. Class IV: A selected, referral-clinic-based sample of patients studied during the course of the condition. Some patients undergo the intervention of interest. The outcome, if not objective, is determined in an evaluation by someone other than the treating physician. Class III:
    • AAN’s Recommendation levels Data inadequate or conflicting. Given current knowledge, test, predictor is unproven. Level U = Possibly useful/predictive or not useful/predictive for the given condition in the specified population. Level C = Probably useful/predictive or not useful/predictive for the given condition in the specified population. Level B = Established as useful/predictive or not useful/predictive for the given condition in the specified population. Level A =
    • Introduction
      • Description :
      • A PFO develops when fibrous adhesions fail to seal the atrial septum after birth creating a potential shunt between the right and left atria of the heart.
      • An ASA is present when redundant tissue in the region of the fossa ovalis results in excessive septal wall motion (usually defined as >10-15mm) during respiration.
    • Introduction
      • Prevalence :
      • This is a common finding in the general population: autopsy series report an overall prevalence ranging from 17% to 27% while echocardiographic studies demonstrate a prevalence ranging from 3.2% to 18%.
      • An ASA is found in combination with a PFO in up to 70% of cases and its incidence has been estimated to be between 1% and 8% in an unselected population.
      • Among patients under 55 years of age, as many as 40% of strokes are found to be cryptogenic, with no identified etiology.
    • Introduction
      • In addition, the therapeutic options, which range from anti-platelet therapy and anti-coagulation to surgical/endovascular closure of the congenital anomaly, have poorly defined efficacies and risks.
      • Despite a multitude of reports on this topic, optimal management of these patients remains a difficult challenge.
    • Clinical question
      • Prognosis: In patients who have had a cryptogenic stroke (or TIA), does a PFO or atrial septal aneurysm increase the risk of recurrent stroke?
    • Summary of findings
      • Among patients who have had a cryptogenic stroke and are treated medically, the data from two class I studies and one class II study indicate that PFO alone does not portend a meaningfully increased risk of subsequent stroke or death.
      • There were inadequate data to make conclusions about isolated atrial septal aneurysm.
    • Summary of findings
      • The results regarding patients with PFO and atrial septal aneurysm are somewhat inconsistent:
        • The French PFO/ASA study indicated that cryptogenic stroke patients with both PFO and atrial septal aneurysm carry an increased risk of stroke recurrence when treated medically, though the association with combined stroke and death only demonstrated a trend in that direction and was not significant.
        • Patients in Patent Foramen Ovale in Cryptogenic Stroke Study (PICSS) found no association between the presence of PFO and atrial septal aneurysm with stroke or death. The study did not provide the data to address the effect of PFO and atrial septal aneurysm specifically in the population with cryptogenic strokes.
        • Further, both studies had limited power to fully characterize the impact of combined PFO and atrial septal aneurysm.
    • Summary of findings
      • Differences in the patient populations included in the two class I studies were:
        • PICSS were much older than those in the French PFO/ASA study (59.0 years versus 42.5 years).
        • Risk factors were much more prevalent in the PICSS patient population: 60.1% of patients in PICSS had hypertension, compared to 15.5% of patients in the French PFO/ASA study; diabetes was present in 28.4% in PICSS and 4.1% in the French PFO/ASA study; and history of prior stroke was found in 14.7% of the PICSS subjects and only 2.8% of patients in the French PFO/ASA trial.
      • Overall, it is clear that patients followed in the PICSS trial had drastically higher recurrence rates than any of the other studies.
    • Clinical question
      • Therapy: Is warfarin superior to aspirin in preventing recurrent stroke or death for patients with a stroke or TIA and an atrial septal abnormality?
    • Summary of findings
      • The available quantitative data regarding therapy are limited to a single class II study, which failed to demonstrate a difference between the effects of warfarin and aspirin on the risk of subsequent stroke or death among patients with cryptogenic strokes and atrial septal abnormalities.
      • One class II and one class III study demonstrated an increased risk of minor bleeding with warfarin compared to aspirin.
    • Summary of findings
      • It is important to note that there is a subset of patients that should always be treated with anticoagulation. If there is a concomitant deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE), current recommendations call for at least 3 months of anticoagulation therapy.  
    • Recommendations
      • For patients who have had a cryptogenic stroke and have a PFO, the evidence indicates that the risk of subsequent stroke or death is no different from other cryptogenic stroke patients without PFO when treated medically with antiplatelet agents or anticoagulants. Therefore, in persons with a cryptogenic stroke receiving such therapy, neurologists should communicate to patients and their families that presence of PFO does not confer an increased risk for subsequent stroke compared to other cryptogenic stroke patients without atrial abnormalities ( Level A ).
    • Recommendations
      • However, it is possible that the combination of PFO and atrial septal aneurysm confers an increased risk of subsequent stroke in medically treated patients who are less than 55 years of age. Therefore, in younger stroke patients, studies which can identify PFO or atrial septal aneurysm may be considered for prognostic purposes ( Level C ).
    • Recommendations
      • Among patients with a cryptogenic stroke and atrial septal abnormalities, there is insufficient evidence to determine the superiority of aspirin or warfarin for prevention of recurrent stroke or death ( Level U ), but the risks of minor bleeding are possibly greater with warfarin ( Level C ).
      • There is insufficient evidence regarding the effectiveness of either surgical or percutaneous closure of PFO ( Level U).
    • Recommendation for future research
      • Further research is needed to better characterize the natural history of patients with abnormalities, especially those with both PFO and atrial septal aneurysm. Future investigations should address the clinical and anatomical features that may impact the risk of subsequent stroke in patients with atrial septal abnormalities and evaluate the risks of alternative interventions.
    • Recommendation for future research
      • Future studies of prognosis and therapy should be done with well-defined cohorts and large numbers of relatively young patients (e.g., under 55 years) with a recent cryptogenic stroke who appear to be at particularly increased risk, including those with a large PFO or those with both a PFO and an atrial septal aneurysm. Additionally, these studies should employ a stratified randomization to equally distribute subgroups based on age, PFO size, and other factors that may influence the risk of subsequent events.
      • Clinicians who encounter patients with cryptogenic stroke and PFO (and/or atrial septal aneurysm) should encourage them to consider participating in research protocols.
    • To view the entire guideline and additional AAN guidelines visit:
      • www.aan.com/professionals/practice/index/cfm.
      • Neurology 2004